51 Works

Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivory data

Melinda Smith & David Gibson
Data are from a factorial experiment designed to test the effects of small mammals and above- and below-ground invertebrates on plant species richness and composition in native tallgrass prairie (Gibson et al. 1990, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00318268).

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity has a weak effect on diversity during community assembly in tallgrass prairie

Sara G. Baer, John M. Blair & Scott L. Collins
Understanding what constrains the persistence of species in communities is at the heart of community assembly theory and its application to conserving and enhancing biodiversity. The “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” predicts greater species coexistence in habitats with greater resource variability. In the context of community assembly, environmental heterogeneity may influence the variety and strength of abiotic conditions and competitive interactions (environmental filters) to affect the relative abundance of species and biodiversity. We manipulated key resources that...

Data from: Relative preference and localized food affect predator space use and consumption of incidental prey

Tyler E. Schartel & Eric M. Schauber
Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds...

Data from: Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race

Corneile Minnaar, Justin G. Boyles, Ingrid A. Minnaar, Catherine L. Sole & Andrew E. McKechnie
1. Artificial night-lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, coevolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale. 2....

Data from: Filter-dispersal assembly of lowland Neotropical rainforests across the Andes

Jordan B. Bemmels, S. Joseph Wright, Nancy C. Garwood, Simon A. Queenborough, Renato Valencia & Christopher W. Dick
Numerous Neotropical rainforest species are distributed in both Amazonia and Central America, reflecting a rich history of biotic interchange between regions. However, some plant lineages are endemic to one region, due in part to the dispersal barrier posed by the northern Andean cordilleras and adjacent savannas. To investigate the role of biogeographic filtering across the northern Andes in regional community assembly, we examined environmental tolerances, functional traits, and biogeographic distributions of >1000 woody plant species...

Data from: Restoration and management for plant diversity enhances the rate of belowground ecosystem recovery

Ryan P. Klopf, Sara G. Baer, Elizabeth M. Bach & Johan Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20)...

Data from: Finer-scale habitat predicts nest survival in grassland birds more than management and landscape: a multi-scale perspective

Justin J. Shew, Clay K. Nielsen, Donald W. Sparling & Clayton K. Nielsen
1. Birds may respond to habitat at multiple scales, ranging from microhabitat structure to landscape composition. North American grassland bird distributions predominantly reside on private lands, and populations have been consistently declining. Many of these lands are enrolled in U.S. federal conservation programmes, and properly guided management policies could alleviate declines. However, more evaluative research is needed on the effects of management policies juxtaposed with other multi-scale habitat features. Furthermore, research focused on nest survival...

Data from: Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog

Matthew J. Abbott & Loretta L. Battaglia
Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection...

Are metapopulation species drivers of metacommunity structure in sandstone outcrop communities?

David Barfknecht
Questions The extent to which metacommunities exhibit species with metapopulation dynamics is poorly understood. We investigate this issue within sandstone glade plant communities scattered across an upland hardwood forest. We investigate the life forms of metapopulation species and relationships between taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity, composition, and environmental factors. Locations Twenty-three sandstone outcrop communities in southern Illinois, USA. Methods Following vegetation surveys, species exhibiting metapopulations dynamics were identified and compared to all species based on...

Morphological, molecular, and biogeographic evidence for specific recognition of Euthamia hirtipes and Euthamia scabra (Asteraceae, Astereae)

Marisa Szubryt, Lowell Urbatsch, Yalma Vargas-Rodriguez, David Barfknecht & Kurt Neubig
The number and identity of species in the North American genus Euthamia (Asteraceae, Astereae) have varied considerably among taxonomic treatments. Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. is often treated to broadly include plants from the northern and eastern United States and Canada, including the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Broad-leaved, largely glabrous plants from New Jersey to the Florida Panhandle have been inconsistently treated as E. graminifolia, E. graminifolia var. hirtipes (Fernald) C.E.S. Taylor & R.J. Taylor E....

Data from: Tillage and fertilizer effects on crop yield and soil properties over 45 years in southern Illinois

Rachel L. Cook & Andrew Trlica
Reducing soil disturbance may limit erosion, but many still consider tillage essential for seedbed preparation, particularly on poorly drained soils. Our objective was to quantify tillage and fertilizer management effects after 45 yr {21 in continuous corn [Zea mays L.] [CC] and 24 in corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] [CS] rotation} on a somewhat poorly drained silt loam near Belleville, IL. Four tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage [AT], and no-till [NT])...

Data from: A before-and-after assessment of patch-burn grazing and riparian fencing along headwater streams

Danelle M. Larson, Walter K. Dodds, Matt R. Whiles, Jessica N. Fulgoni & Thomas R. Thompson
Fire and grazing are common in grasslands world-wide to maintain grass cover and cattle production. The effects of fire, cattle grazing and riparian fencing efficacy on prairie stream ecology are not well characterized at catchment scales. We examined alterations to stream water quality and biology from patch-burn grazing (PBG) in tallgrass prairie during a five-year, replicated, catchment scale experiment that used a Before-After/Control-Impact (BACI) design and was analysed by mixed-effects models. Treatments included two patch-burned...

Data from: Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night

Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll & Justin G. Boyles
1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection. 2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution...

Data from: Lights out: the evolution of bacterial bioluminescence in Loliginidae

Frank E. Anderson, Alexis Bergman, Samantha H. Cheng, M. Sabrina Pankey & Tooraj Valinassab
Representatives of several metazoan clades engage in symbiotic interactions with bioluminescent bacteria, but the evolution and maintenance of these interactions remain poorly understood. Uroteuthis is a genus of loliginid squid (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) characterized by paired ventral photophores (light organs) housing bioluminescent bacteria. While previous phylogenetic studies have suggested that Uroteuthis is closely related to Loliolus, a genus of non-bioluminescent species, this relationship remains unresolved. To illuminate Uroteuthis and Loliolus phylogeny and its implications for the...

Forecasting NDVI in the Galapagos

Noah Charney, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Charles Yackulic, Stephen Blake & James Gibbs
Forecasting ecosystem response to climate change is critical for guiding policy-making but challenging due to: complicated relationships between microclimates and regional climates; species’ responses that are driven by extremes rather than averages; the multifaceted nature of species’ interactions; and the lack of historical analogs to future climates. Given these challenges, even model systems such as the Galapagos Islands, a world-famous biodiversity hotspot and World Heritage Site, lack clear forecasts for future environmental change. Here, we...

Stable isotope data from: Use of marine vs. freshwater proteins for egg-laying and incubation by sea ducks breeding in Arctic tundra

Micah Miller, James Lovvorn, Nathan Graff & Neesha Stellrecht
This data archive contains data used in analyses of protein sources for egg membranes and whole blood of long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and Steller's (Polysticta stelleri), spectacled (Somateria fischeri), and king (Somateria spectabilis) eiders. These data have been published in Miller et al. (2022): Use of marine vs. freshwater proteins for egg-laying and incubation by sea ducks breeding in Arctic tundra (Ecosphere).

Data from: Simple metrics to characterize inter-individual and temporal variation in habitat selection behaviour

Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau & George Wittemyer
1. Individual variation in habitat selection and movement behavior is receiving growing attention, but primarily with respect to characterizing behaviors in different contexts as opposed to decomposing structure in behavior within populations. This focus may be limiting advances in understanding the diversity of individual behavior and its influence on population organization. We propose a framework for characterizing variation in space-use behavior with the aim of advancing interpretation of its form and function. 2. Using outputs...

Influences of patch-burn grazing on headwater prairie streams and subsequent recovery

Jessica Fulgoni, Matt Whiles, Walter Dodds, Danelle Larson, Karen Jackson & Bartosz Grudzinski
1. Patch-burn grazing (PBG) can promote terrestrial heterogeneity and biodiversity, but can temporarily increase stream nutrients, ecosystem metabolism, and alter macroinvertebrate assemblages. The impacts of grazing on stream channel morphology and post-PBG recovery patterns are unclear. 2. We assessed the influence of grazing in PBG managed grassland streams in Missouri, USA, and subsequent recovery when grazing ceased for two years. We hypothesized that grazing would degrade water quality, stream biotic integrity, and channel morphology, but...

Links between prey assemblages and poison frog toxins: a landscape ecology approach to assess how biotic interactions affect species phenotypes

Ivan Prates, Andrea Paz, Jason Brown & Ana Carnaval
Ecological studies of species pairs showed that biotic interactions promote phenotypic change and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. However, it is unclear how phenotypes respond to synergistic interactions with multiple taxa. We investigate whether interactions with multiple prey species explain spatially structured variation in the skin toxins of the Neotropical poison frog Oophaga pumilio. Specifically, we assess how dissimilarity (i.e., beta diversity) of alkaloid-bearing arthropod prey assemblages (68 ant species) and evolutionary divergence between frog populations (from a...

Examining the needle in the haystack: Evolutionary relationships in the mistletoe genus Loranthus Jacq. (Loranthaceae)

Daniel Nickrent, Huei-Jiun Su, Ruo-Zhu Lin, Mohan Prasad Devkota, Jer-Ming Hu & Gerhard Glatzel
The genus Loranthus Jacq. (Loranthaceae) consists of ca. nine Old World species distributed from eastern Asia to Europe. Loranthus, the type of the family, has had a complex taxonomic history that continues today, partly because most mistletoes in the family have resided in this genus. For this reason, there are over 1800 Loranthus species names, the vast majority of which are synonyms for mistletoes in other genera. The present work sampled representatives of nine species...

Data from: Effects of taxon sampling and tree reconstruction methods on phylodiversity metrics

Johanna Jantzen, W. Mark Whitten, Kurt Neubig, Lucas Majure, Douglas Soltis & Pam Soltis
1. The amount and patterns of phylodiversity in a community are often used to draw inferences about the local and historical factors affecting community assembly and can be used to prioritize communities and locations for conservation. Because measures of phylodiversity are based on the topology and branch lengths of phylogenetic trees, which are affected by the number and diversity of taxa in the tree, these analyses may be sensitive to changes in taxon sampling and...

Data from: Genetic and epigenetic variation in Spartina alterniflora following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Marta Robertson, Aaron Schrey, Ashley Shayter, Christina J. Moss & Christina Richards
Catastrophic events offer unique opportunities to study rapid population response to stress in natural settings. In concert with genetic variation, epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation may offer a mechanism of rapid response to organisms facing severe environmental challenges, and contribute to the high resilience of species like Spartina alterniflora, a foundation salt marsh grass which shows resilience to strong environmental disturbance. In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill devastated large portions of the coastline along...

Data from: Seed polyphenols in a diverse tropical plant community

Sofia Gripenberg, Jadranka Rota, Jorma Kim, S. Joseph Wright, Nancy C. Garwood, Evan C. Fricke, Paul-Camilo Zalamea & Juha-Pekka Salminen
1. Polyphenols are one of the most common groups of secondary metabolites in plants and thought to play a key role in enhancing plant fitness by protecting plants against enemies. Although enemy-inflicted mortality at the seed stage can be an important regulator of plant populations and a key determinant of community structure, few studies have assessed community-level patterns of polyphenol content in seeds. 2. We describe the distribution of the main seed polyphenol groups across...

Data from: Target gene enrichment in the cyclophyllidean cestodes, the most diverse group of tapeworms

Hao Yuan, Jiamei Jiang, F. Agustín Jiménez, Eric P. Hoberg, Joseph A. Cook, Kurt E. Galbreath & Chenhong Li
The Cyclophyllidea is the most diverse order of tapeworms, encompassing species that infect all classes of terrestrial tetrapods including humans and domesticated animals. Available phylogenetic reconstructions based either on morphology or molecular data lack the resolution to allow scientists to either propose a solid taxonomy or infer evolutionary associations. Molecular markers available for the Cyclophyllidea mostly include ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial loci. In this study, we identified 3,641 single-copy nuclear coding loci by comparing the...

Data from: Illuminating the physiological implications of artificial light on an insectivorous bat community

Zachary M. Cravens & Justin G. Boyles
Global light pollution threatens to disturb numerous wildlife species, but impacts of artificial light will likely vary among species within a community. Thus, artificial lights may change the environment in such a way as to create winners and losers as some species benefit while others do not. Insectivorous bats are nocturnal and a good model to test for differential effects of light pollution on a single community. We used a physiological technique to address this...

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