78 Works

Perceptions of Race and Fit in the Recruitment Process of Traditionally, Predominantly White Fraternities

S. Brian Joyce

Rare species biodiversity, socio-demographics and local and landscape characteristics in Northern California community urban gardens

Theresa Ong, Brenda Lin, Azucena Lucatero, Hamutahl Cohen, Peter Bichier, Monika Egerer, Alana Danieu, Shalene Jha & Stacy Philpott
Cities are sometimes characterized as homogenous with species assemblages composed of abundant, generalist species having similar ecological functions. Under this assumption, rare species, or species observed infrequently, would have especially high conservation value in cities for their potential to increase functional diversity. Management to increase the number of rare species in cities could be an important conservation strategy in a rapidly urbanizing world. However, most studies of species rarity define rarity in relatively pristine environments...

Data from: Single cell RNA-seq analysis reveals that prenatal arsenic exposure results in long-term, adverse effects on immune gene expression in response to Influenza A infection

Britton Goodale, Kevin Hsu, Kenneth Ely, Thomas Hampton, Bruce Stanton & Richard Enelow
Arsenic exposure via drinking water is a serious environmental health concern. Epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between prenatal arsenic exposure and subsequent childhood respiratory infections, as well as morbidity from respiratory diseases in adulthood, long after systemic clearance of arsenic. We investigated the impact of exclusive prenatal arsenic exposure on the inflammatory immune response and respiratory health after an adult influenza A (IAV) lung infection. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 100 ppb sodium arsenite...

Microcystin production by Nostoc in Greenlandic lakes

Jessica Trout-Haney
Benthic primary producers are recognized for their important role in contributing to ecosystem productivity and nutrient cycling in lake and stream ecosystems, particularly in polar environments. In Arctic lakes, benthic producers often comprise mats or colonies of cyanobacteria capable of producing cyanotoxins. However, the extent to which benthic communities contribute cyanotoxins in polar regions remains poorly described. We evaluated the potential for benthic colonies of the cyanobacterium Nostoc pruniforme from lakes in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, to...

Raw data for: Fannin, L. D., Plavcan, J. M., Daegling, D. J., & McGraw, W. S. (2021); Oral processing, sexual selection, and size variation in the circumorbital region of Colobus and Piliocolobus

Luke Fannin
Objectives: The function of the browridge in primates is a subject of enduring debate. Early studies argued for a role in resisting masticatory stresses, but recent studies have suggested sexual signaling as a biological role. We tested associations between circumorbital form, diet, oral processing, and social behavior in two species of colobus monkey–the King colobus (Colobus polykomos) and Western red or Bay colobus (Piliocolobus badius). Materials and Methods: We quantified circumorbital size and dimorphism in...

Data from: Alcohol discrimination and preferences in two species of nectar-feeding primate

Samuel R. Gochman, Michael B. Brown & Nathaniel J. Dominy
Recent reports suggest that dietary ethanol, or alcohol, is a supplemental source of calories for some primates. For example, slow lorises (Nycticebus coucang) consume fermented nectars with a mean alcohol concentration of 0.6% (range: 0.0–3.8%). A similar behaviour is hypothesized for aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) based on a single point mutation (A294V) in the gene that encodes alcohol dehydrogenase class IV (ADH4), the first enzyme to catabolize alcohol during digestion. The mutation increases catalytic efficiency 40-fold...

Data from: Finding a home in the noise: cross-modal impact of anthropogenic vibration on animal search behaviour

Louise Roberts & Mark E. Laidre
Chemical cues and signals enable animals to sense their surroundings over vast distances and find key resources, like food and shelter. However, the use of chemosensory information may be impaired in aquatic habitats by anthropogenic activities, which produce both water-borne sounds and substrate-borne vibrations, potentially affecting not only vibroacoustic sensing but other modalities as well. We attracted marine hermit crabs (Pagurus acadianus) in field experiments using a chemical cue indicative of a newly available shell...

Data from: Asymptotic allometry and transition to the canopy in Abies balsamea

Zachary T. Wood, David R. Peart, Peter A. Palmiotto, Lixi Kong & Noah V. Peart
There is a lack of consensus in theoretical and empirical literature on whether height-diameter (H:D) relationships of canopy trees are asymptotic. To investigate H:D allometry, particularly in the transition to the canopy, we focus on shade-tolerant Abies balsamea, across steep physical gradients associated with elevation, and correlated biotically-generated gradients of stem density, canopy height and canopy species composition. We addressed these questions: A. What is the relation between H:D allometric form and emergence into the...

Data from: In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster

Lauren E. Culler, Matthew P. Ayres & Ross A. Virginia
Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator–prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model...

Data from: Abiotic constraints on the activity of tropical lizards

Michael L. Logan, Sarah G. Fernandez & Ryan Calsbeek
Many tropical ectotherms are considered vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change because they have evolved to become thermal specialists. Indeed, several recent studies have suggested that even small increases in mean operative temperature may lead to a reduction in activity and the subsequent extinction of populations. Within the tropics, lizards are considered particularly vulnerable due to the potential for climate change to directly impact physiology and alter community interactions. However, models usually focus on the effects...

Data from: Species recognition and patterns of population variation in the reproductive structures of a damselfly genus

Mark A. McPeek, Laurel B. Symes, Denise M. Zong & Curtis L. McPeek
The selection pressures imposed by mate choice for species identity should impose strong stabilizing selection on traits that confer species identity to mates. Thus, we expect that such traits should show non-overlapping distributions among closely related species, but show little to no variance among populations within a species. We tested these predictions by comparing levels of population differentiation in the sizes and shapes of male cerci (i.e., the clasper structures used for species identity during...

Data from: From understory to canopy: in situ behavior of Neotropical forest katydids in response to bat echolocation calls

Laurel B. Symes, Sharon J. Martinson, Lars-Olaf Höger, Rachel A. Page, Hannah M. Ter Hofstede & Lars-Olaf Hoeger
Predator-prey interactions take place in complex environments, and research on the sensory ecology of predator-detection relies on understanding when, where, and how prey experience and respond to predator cues. Bats are significant nocturnal predators, and insects have evolved diverse strategies for avoiding predation by bats. While it is well-known that insects exhibit anti-bat strategies, from avoidance flight to reduced acoustic signaling, the specific conditions that elicit some of these behaviors are less well-known. To illuminate...

Data from: Genetics of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a Ghanaian population

Marquitta J. White, Nuri M. Kodaman, Reed H. Harder, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Douglas E. Vaughan, Nancy J. Brown, Jason H. Moore & Scott M. Williams
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a major modulator of the fibrinolytic system, is an important factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility and severity. PAI-1 is highly heritable, but the few genes associated with it explain only a small portion of its variation. Studies of PAI-1 typically employ linear regression to estimate the effects of genetic variants on PAI-1 levels, but PAI-1 is not normally distributed, even after transformation. Therefore, alternative statistical methods may provide greater...

Data from: Consequences of climate change for biotic disturbances in North American forests

Aaron S. Weed, Matthew P. Ayres, Jeffrey Hicke & Jeffrey A. Hicke
About one third of North America is forested. These forests are of incalculable value to human society in terms of harvested resources and ecosystem services and are sensitive to disturbance regimes. Epidemics of forest insects and diseases are the dominant sources of disturbance to North American forests. Here we review current understanding of climatic effects on the abundance of forest insects and diseases in North America, and of the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of biotic...

Data from: Regional divergence and mosaic spatial distribution of two closely related damselfly species (Enallagma hageni and Enallagma ebrium)

Audrey Bourret, Mark A. McPeek & Julie Turgeon
North American Enallagma damselflies radiated during the Pleistocene, and species differ mainly by reproductive structures. Although morphologically very different, Enallagma hageni and Enallagma ebrium are genetically very similar. Partitioning of genetic variation (AFLP), isolation by distance and clustering analyses indicate that these morphospecies are locally differentiated genetically. Spatial analyses show that they are rarely sympatric at local sites, and their distributions form a mosaic of patches where one is clearly dominant over hundreds of square...

Data from: A methylation-to-expression feature model for generating accurate prognostic risk scores and identifying disease targets in clear cell kidney cancer

Jeffrey A. Thompson & Carmen J. Marsit
Many researchers now have available multiple high-dimensional molecular and clinical datasets when studying a disease. As we enter this multi-omic era of data analysis, new approaches that combine different levels of data (e.g. at the genomic and epigenomic levels) are required to fully capitalize on this opportunity. In this work, we outline a new approach to multi-omic data integration, which combines molecular and clinical predictors as part of a single analysis to create a prognostic...

Data from: Fitter frogs from polluted ponds: the complex impacts of human-altered environments

Steven P. Brady, Francisco J. Zamora-Camacho, Fredrik A.A. Eriksson, Debora Goedert, Mar Comas & Ryan Calsbeek
Human-modified habitats rarely yield outcomes that are aligned with conservation ideals. Landscapes that are subdivided by roads are no exception, precipitating negative impacts on populations due to fragmentation, pollution, and road kill. Although many populations in human modified habitats show evidence for local adaptation, rarely does environmental change yield outright benefits for populations of conservation interest. Contrary to expectations, we report surprising benefits experienced by amphibian populations breeding and dwelling in proximity to roads. We...

Data from: How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs

Nathaniel J. Dominy, Justin D. Yeakel, Uttam Bhat, Lawrence Ramsden, Richard W. Wrangham & Peter W. Lucas
Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they...

Data from: Community composition affects the shape of mate response functions

Laurel B. Symes
The evolution of mate preferences can be critical for the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation. Heterospecific interference may carry substantial fitness costs and result in preferences where females are most responsive to the mean conspecific trait with low response to traits that differ from this value. However, when male traits are unbounded by heterospecifics, there may not be selection against females that respond to extreme trait values in the unbounded direction. To test how...

Data from: Alcoholism gender differences in brain responsivity to emotional stimuli

Kayle S Sawyer, Nasim Maleki, Trinity Urban, Marinkovic Ksenija, Karson Steven, Susan Mosher Ruiz, Gordon J Harris & Marlene Oscar-Berman
Men and women may use alcohol to regulate emotions differently, with corresponding differences in neural responses. We explored how the viewing of different types of emotionally salient stimuli impacted brain activity observed through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 42 long-term abstinent alcoholic (25 women) and 46 nonalcoholic (24 women) participants. Analyses revealed blunted brain responsivity in alcoholic compared to nonalcoholic groups, as well as gender differences in those activation patterns. Brain activation in alcoholic...

Data from: Seed size and the evolution of leaf defences

Thomas S. Kraft, S. Joseph Wright, Ian Turner, Peter W. Lucas, Christopher E. Oufiero, , I-Fang Sun & Nathaniel J. Dominy
1. Leaf defences vary widely among tree species, affecting rates of herbivory, survival and reproduction. 2. Two contrasting hypotheses account for variation in leaf defences among species. The first predicts that a slow life history, which is characteristic of larger seeded species adapted to resource-limited environments, is associated with well-defended leaves. The second, apparency theory, predicts that elevated leaf defences are necessitated for species that are more detectable to herbivores. 3. Here we use comparative...

Data from: Geographic variation in chin shape challenges the universal facial attractiveness hypothesis

Zaneta M. Thayer & Seth D. Dobson
The universal facial attractiveness (UFA) hypothesis proposes that some facial features are universally preferred because they are reliable signals of mate quality. The primary evidence for this hypothesis comes from cross-cultural studies of perceived attractiveness. However, these studies do not directly address patterns of morphological variation at the population level. An unanswered question is therefore: Are universally preferred facial phenotypes geographically invariant, as the UFA hypothesis implies? The purpose of our study is to evaluate...

A Case Study on the Medical Library Association’s 2019 Communities Transition Qualitative Data Set

Kathryn Houk, Kelsa Bartley, Jane Morgan-Daniel & Elaina Vitale
In 2019, the Medical Library Association (MLA) adopted a new model of community governance and participation, referred to as the MLA Communities Transition. The Communities Transition was the culmination of long-ranging plans by MLA to support two of its strategic goals: Diversity and Inclusion, and Communities. The reorganization aimed to strengthen MLA member communities, better support programming, reduce administrative overhead, and attract new members. The 2019 - 2020 MLA Rising Stars cohort was tasked to...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: Breeding timed to maximize reproductive success for a migratory songbird: the importance of phenological asynchrony

Nina K. Lany, Matthew P. Ayres, Erik E. Stange, T. Scott Sillett, Nicholas L. Rodenhouse & Richard T. Holmes
Phenological advances and trophic mismatches are frequently reported ecological consequences of climate warming. Trophic mismatches occur when phenological responses to environmental conditions differ among trophic levels such that the timing of resource demand by consumers becomes decoupled from supply. We used 25 years of demographic measurements of a migratory songbird (the black-throated blue warbler Setophaga caerulescens) to compare its breeding phenology to the phenology of both its caterpillar prey and the foliage on which caterpillars...

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