158 Works

Data from: A genome scan for selection signatures comparing farmed Atlantic salmon with two wild populations: testing co-localization among outlier markers, candidate genes, and QTLs for production traits

Lei Liu, Keng Pee Ang, J. A. K. Elliott, Matthew Peter Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Danielle MacDonald & Elizabeth Grace Boulding
Comparative genome scans can be used to identify chromosome regions, but not traits, that are putatively under selection. Identification of targeted traits may be more likely in recently domesticated populations under strong artificial selection for increased production. We used a North American Atlantic salmon 6K SNP dataset to locate genome regions of an aquaculture strain (Saint John River) that were highly diverged from that of its putative wild founder population (Tobique River). First, admixed individuals...

Data from: Stabilizing selection and adaptive evolution in a combination of two traits in an arctic ungulate

Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Knut Røed, Øystein Holand, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Jouko Kumpula
Stabilizing selection is thought to be common in wild populations and act as one of the main evolutionary mechanisms which constrain phenotypic variation. When multiple traits interact to create a combined phenotype, correlational selection may be an important process driving adaptive evolution. Here we report on phenotypic selection and evolutionary changes in two natal traits in a semi-domestic population of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in northern Finland. The population has been closely monitored since 1969, and...

Macroclimate drives growth of hair lichens in boreal forest canopies

Nathan Phinney, Yngvar Gauslaa, Kristin Palmqvist & Per-Anders Esseen
1. Epiphytic lichens are important biodiversity components of forest canopies worldwide, significantly contributing to ecosystem function. The relative growth rate (RGR), a measure of fitness, drives population dynamics and shapes lichens’ large-scale distributions. In a climate change scenario, we need to know how external (macro- and microclimate, and nitrogen deposition), and internal factors (cortical pigments, chlorophyll and specimen size) affect RGR in these ecologically important canopy organisms. 2. We used dominant pendulous (hair) lichens widely...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

Morphological trait database of saproxylic beetles

Jonas Hagge, Jörg Müller, Tone Birkemoe, Jörn Buse, Rune Haubo Bojesen Christensen, Martin M. Gossner, Axel Gruppe, Christoph Heibl, Andrea Jarzabek-Müller, Sebastian Seibold, Juha Siitonen, João Gonçalo Soutinho, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Simon Thorn & Lukas Drag
The extinction of species is a non-random process, and understanding why some species are more likely to go extinct than others is critical for conservation efforts. Functional trait-based approaches offer a promising tool to achieve this goal. In forests, deadwood-dependent (saproxylic) beetles comprise a major part of threatened species, but analyses of their extinction risk have been hindered by the availability of suitable morphological traits. To better understand the mechanisms underlying extinction in insects, we...

Microsatellite variation in Nordic semi-domestic reindeer

Knut Røed, Kjersti Kvie, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Sauli Laaksonen, Hannes Lohi, Juoko Kumpula, Kjell-Åke Aronsson, Birgitta Åhman, Jørn Våge & Øystein Holand
We have analyzed DNA microsatellites and the mitochondrial control region in reindeer from 31 different husbandry areas in Norway, Sweden and Finland in order to better understand the processes that underlie the genetic variability of the Nordic domestic herds. The distinct differentiation found in the nuclear markers but less so in the mitochondrial marker, gives evidence of an origin from a common ancestral population which later evolved into the two main gene pools characterizing the...

A framework for the quantification of soundscape diversity using Hill numbers

Thomas Luypaert
This is the data underlying the case study and supplementary material described in Luypaert et al. (2021): A framework for the quantification of soundscape diversity using Hill numbers.

Data from: Sampling beetle communities: trap design interacts with weather and species traits to bias capture rates

Ryan Burner, Tone Birkemoe, Siri Lie Olsen & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Globally, many insect populations are declining, prompting calls for action. Yet these findings have also prompted discussion about sampling methods and interpretation of long-term datasets. As insect monitoring and research efforts increase, it is critical to quantify the effectiveness of sampling methods. This is especially true if sampling biases of different methods covary with climate, which is also changing over time. We assess the effectiveness of two types of flight intercept traps commonly used for...

Data from: Habitat segregation between brown bears and gray wolves in a human-dominated landscape

Cyril Milleret, Andrés Ordiz, Guillaume Chapron, Harry Peter Andreassen, Jonas Kindberg, Johan Månsson, Aimee Tallian, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Identifying how sympatric species belonging to the same guild coexist is a major question of community ecology and conservation. Habitat segregation between two species might help reduce the effects of interspecific competition and apex predators are of special interest in this context, because their interactions can have consequences for lower trophic levels. However, habitat segregation between sympatric large carnivores has seldom been studied. Based on monitoring of 53 brown bears (Ursus arctos) and 7 sympatric...

Data from: The potential of biochar in improving drainage, aeration and maize yields in heavy clay soils

Alfred Obia, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Neneng Laela Nurida, Gerard Cornelissen & Sarah Elizabeth Hale
Grain and biomass yieldsHeavy clay Ksat dataHeavy clay water retension data

Data from: Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

Odd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum & Kjetil Hindar
The river-resident Salmo salar (“småblank”) has been isolated from other Atlantic salmon populations for 9,500 years in upper River Namsen, Norway. This is the only European Atlantic salmon population accomplishing its entire life cycle in a river. Hydropower development during the last six decades has introduced movement barriers and changed more than 50% of the river habitat to lentic conditions. Based on microsatellites and SNPs, genetic variation within småblank was only about 50% of that...

Data from: Using partial aggregation in Spatial Capture Recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Henrik Brøseth, Jonas Kindberg, J. Andrew Royle & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models are commonly used for analyzing data collected using non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS). Opportunistic NGS often leads to detections that do not occur at discrete detector locations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of individual detections into fixed detectors (e.g. center of grid cells) is an option to increase computing speed of SCR analyses. However, it may reduce precision and accuracy of parameter estimations. 2. Using simulations, we explored the impact that spatial aggregation...

Data from: Experimental warming increases herbivory by leaf-chewing insects in an alpine plant community

Tone Birkemoe, Saskia Bergmann, Toril E. Hasle & Kari Klanderud
Climate warming is predicted to affect species and trophic interactions worldwide, and alpine ecosystems are expected to be especially sensitive to changes. In this study, we used two ongoing climate warming (open-top chambers) experiments at Finse, southern Norway, to examine whether warming had an effect on herbivory by leaf-chewing insects in an alpine Dryas heath community. We recorded feeding marks on the most common vascular plant species in warmed and control plots at two experimental...

Data from: Amplicon-pyrosequencing based detection of compositional shifts in bryophyte-associated fungal communities along an elevation gradient.

Marie L. Davey, Einar Heegaard, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud & Mikael Ohlson
Although bryophytes are a dominant vegetation component of boreal and alpine ecosystems, little is known about their associated fungal communities. HPLC assays of ergosterol (fungal biomass) and amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of rDNA were used to investigate how the fungal communities associated with four bryophyte species changed across an elevational gradient transitioning from conifer forest to the low alpine. Fungal biomass and OTU richness associated with the four moss hosts did not vary...

Data from: Biochar from \"Kon Tiki\" flame curtain and other kilns: effects of nutrient enrichment and kiln type on crop yield and soil chemistry

Naba Raj Pandit, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Hans Peter Schmidt & Gerard Cornelissen
Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small...

Data from: Sex-specific genetic analysis indicates low correlation between demographic and genetic connectivity in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson & Snorre B. Hagen
Species viability is strongly connected to the degree of gene flow within and among populations. Such genetic population connectivity may closely track demographic population connectivity or, alternatively, the rate of gene flow may change relative to the rate of dispersal. In this study, we have explored the relationship between genetic and demographic population connectivity using the Scandinavian brown bear as model species, due to its pronounced male dispersal and female philopatry. Our expectation, based on...

Data from: Direct and indirect effects of early-life environment on lifetime fitness of bighorn ewes

Gabriel Pigeon & Fanie Pelletier
Cohort effects, when a common environment affects long-term performance, can have a major impact on population dynamics. Very few studies of wild animals have obtained the necessary data to study the mechanisms leading to cohort effects. We exploited 42 years of individual-based data on bighorn sheep to test for causal links between birth density, body mass, age at first reproduction, longevity, and lifetime reproductive success using path analysis. Specifically, we investigated whether the effect of...

Data from: Effects of mammalian herbivores and termites on performance of native and exotic plantation tree seedlings

Stein R. Moe, Leif Egil Loe, Malin Jessen & Paul Okullo
Invasion of exotic species is a global challenge and the potential for adverse effects on local biodiversity is particularly high in protected areas. Protected African savanna areas support globally important biodiversity. At the same time, forest plantations are widespread throughout Africa and exotic tree species frequently invade natural areas. To evaluate the potential invasiveness of plant species, it is pertinent to know to what extent, if at all, consumption by native herbivore assemblages differentially affects...

Data from: Effective population size of malaria mosquitoes: large impact of vector control

Giridhar Athrey, Theresa K. Hodges, Michael R. Reddy, Hans J. Overgaard, Abrahan Matias, Frances C. Ridl, Immo Kleinschmidt, Adalgisa Caccone & Michel A. Slotman
Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed results – with successful reductions in transmission in some areas, and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is...

Data from: Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon

Nicola J. Barson, Tuku Aykanat, Kjetil Hindar, Matthew Baranski, Geir H. Bolstad, Peder Fiske, Céleste Jacq, Arne J. Jensen, Susan E. Johnston, Sten Karlsson, Matthew Kent, Thomas Moen, Eero Niemelä, Torfinn Nome, Tor F. Næsje, Panu Orell, Atso Romakkaniemi, Harald Sægrov, Kurt Urdal, Jaakko Erkinaro, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic...

Data from: Serendipitous meta-transcriptomics: the fungal community of Norway spruce (Picea abies)

Nicolas Delhomme, Görel Sundström, Neda Zamani, Henrik Lantz, Yao-Cheng Lin, Torgeir R. Hvidsten, Marc P. Höppner, Patric Jern, Yves Van De Peer, Joakim Lundeberg, Manfred G. Grabherr & Nathaniel R. Street
After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as...

Data from: Wood-inhabiting insects can function as targeted vectors for decomposer fungi

Rannveig Margrete Jacobsen, Håvard Kauserud, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Marit Markussen Bjorbækmo & Tone Birkemoe
Most wood-inhabiting fungi are assumed to be dispersed primarily by wind, with the exception of a few species involved in mutualistic relationships with insects. In this study we tested whether several species of wood-inhabiting insects can function as dispersal vectors for non-mutualistic fungi, which would indicate that wood-inhabiting fungi can benefit from targeted animal-mediated dispersal. We sampled wood-inhabiting beetles (Coleoptera) from freshly felled wood experimentally added to forests and used DNA metabarcoding to investigate the...

Data from: What's the meaning of local? Using molecular markers to define seed transfer zones for ecological restoration in Norway

Marte Holten Jørgensen, Abdelhameed Elameen, Nadine Hofman, Sonja Klemsdal, Sandra Malaval & Siri Fjellheim
According to the Norwegian Diversity Act, practitioners of restoration in Norway are instructed to use seed mixtures of local provenance. However, there are no guidelines for how local seed should be selected. In this study, we use genetic variation in a set of alpine species (Agrostis mertensii, Avenella flexuosa, Carex bigelowii, Festuca ovina, Poa alpina and Scorzoneroides autumnalis) to define seed transfer zones to reduce confusion about the definition of ‘local seeds’. The species selected...

Data from: Conservation genomics of anadromous Atlantic salmon across its North American range: outlier loci identify the same patterns of population structure as neutral loci

Jean-Sébastien Moore, Vincent Bourret, Mélanie Dionne, Ian Bradbury, Patrick O’Reilly, Matthew Kent, Gérald Chaput, Louis Bernatchez & Patrick O'Reilly
Anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species of major conservation and management concern in North America, where population abundance has been declining over the past 30 years. Effective conservation actions require the delineation of conservation units to appropriately reflect the spatial scale of intraspecific variation and local adaptation. Towards this goal, we used the most comprehensive genetic and genomic database for Atlantic salmon to date, covering the entire North American range of the species....

Data from: Genome-wide analyses suggest parallel selection for universal traits may eclipse local environmental selection in a highly mobile carnivore

Astrid Vik Stronen, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Cino Pertoldi, Ditte Demontis, Ettore Randi, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Josip Kusak, Ilpo Kojola, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, Janis Ozolins, Vitalii Dumenko & Sylwia D. Czarnomska
Ecological and environmental heterogeneity can produce genetic differentiation in highly mobile species. Accordingly, local adaptation may be expected across comparatively short distances in the presence of marked environmental gradients. Within the European continent, wolves (Canis lupus) exhibit distinct north–south population differentiation. We investigated more than 67-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for signatures of local adaptation in 59 unrelated wolves from four previously identified population clusters (northcentral Europe n = 32, Carpathian Mountains n =...

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