15 Works

Data from: Stabilizing selection and adaptive evolution in a combination of two traits in an arctic ungulate

Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Knut Røed, Øystein Holand, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Jouko Kumpula
Stabilizing selection is thought to be common in wild populations and act as one of the main evolutionary mechanisms which constrain phenotypic variation. When multiple traits interact to create a combined phenotype, correlational selection may be an important process driving adaptive evolution. Here we report on phenotypic selection and evolutionary changes in two natal traits in a semi-domestic population of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in northern Finland. The population has been closely monitored since 1969, and...

Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests

Wannes Hubau, Simon Lewis, Oliver Phillips, Kofi Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Hans Hans Beeckman, Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Corneille Ewango, Sophie Fauset, Douglas Sheil, Bonaventure Sonké, Martin Sullivan, Terry Sunderland, Sean Thomas, Katharine Abernethy, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Christian Amani, Timothy Baker, Lindsay Banin, Fidèle Baya, Serge Begne, Amy Bennett, Fabrice Benedet, Robert Bitariho & Yannick Bocko
Data and R-code from Hubau W et al. 2020. 'Asynchronous Saturation of the Carbon Sink in African and Amazonian tropical forests'. Nature 579, 80-87. 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2035-0. ABSTRACT: Structurally intact tropical forests sequestered ~50% of global terrestrial carbon uptake over the 1990s and early 2000s, offsetting ~15% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions1-3. Climate-driven vegetation models typically predict that this tropical forest ‘carbon sink’ will continue for decades4,5. However, recent inventories of intact Amazonian forests show declining...

Data from: Anthrax outbreaks in the humans-livestock and wildlife interface areas of northern Tanzania: a retrospective review 2006 - 2016

Elibariki Reuben Mwakapeje, Sol Hoegset, Robert Fyumagwa, Hezron E Nonga, Robinson Mdegela & Eystein Skjerve
BACKGROUND: Anthrax outbreaks in Tanzania have been reported from the human, livestock and wildlife sectors over several years, and is among the notifiable diseases. Despite frequent anthrax outbreaks, there is no comprehensive dataset indicating the magnitude and distribution of the disease in susceptible species. This study is a retrospective review of anthrax outbreaks from the human, livestock, and wildlife surveillance systems from 2006 to 2016. The objectives were to identify hotspot districts, describe anthrax epidemiology...

Data from: Effects of fleas on nest success of Arctic barnacle geese: experimentally testing the mechanism

Margje E. De Jong & Maarten J.J.E. Loonen
Parasites have detrimental effects on their hosts’ fitness. Therefore, behavioural adaptations have evolved to avoid parasites or, when an individual is already in contact with a parasite, prevent or minimize infections. Such anti-parasite behaviours can be very effective, but can also be costly for the host. Specifically, ectoparasites can elicit strong host anti-parasite behaviours and interactions between fleas (Siphonaptera) and their hosts are one of the best studied. In altricial bird species, nest fleas can...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Data from: Population closure and the bias-precision trade-off in Spatial Capture-Recapture

Pierre Dupont, Cyril Milleret, Olivier Gimenez & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) is an increasingly popular method for estimating ecological parameters. This method often relies on data collected over relatively long sampling periods. While longer sampling periods can yield larger sample sizes and thus increase precision of estimates, they also increase the risk of violating the closure assumption, thereby potentially introducing bias. The sampling period characteristics are therefore likely to play an important role in this bias-precision tradeoff. Yet few studies have studied...

Diet of the brown bear in Himalaya: combining classical and molecular genetic techniques

Muhammad Ali Nawaz, Alice Valentini, Noor Kamal Khan, Christian Miquel, Pierre Taberlet & Jon E. Swenson
The ecological requirements of brown bears are poorly known in the Himalaya region, which complicates conservation efforts. We documented the diet of the Himalayan brown bear ( Ursus arctos isabellinus ) by combining classical scat analysis and a newly developed molecular genetic technique (the trn L approach), in Deosai National Park, Pakistan. Brown bears consumed over 50 plant species, invertebrates, ungulates, and several rodents. Eight plant families; Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Lamiaceae, and...

Data from: Proactive avoidance behaviour and pace-of-life syndrome in Atlantic salmon

Børge Damsgård, Tor H. Evensen, Øyvind Øverli, Marnix Gorissen, Lars Ebbesson, Sonia Ray & Erik Höglund
Individuals in a fish population differ in key life history traits such as growth rate and body size. This raises the question of whether such traits cluster along a fast-slow growth continuum according to a pace-of-life syndrome (POLS). Fish species like salmonids may develop a bimodal size distribution, providing an opportunity to study the relationships between individual growth and behavioural responsiveness. Here we test whether proactive characteristics (bold behaviour coupled with low post-stress cortisol production)...

Data from: Functional traits, not productivity, predict openness to seedling recruitment in alpine plant communities under climatic warming

Eric Meineri, Kari Klanderud, John Guittar, Deborah Goldberg & Vigdis Vandvik
Understanding the degree to which plant communities are open to seedling recruitment is key to predicting how they will be impacted by climate change. We experimentally assessed whether communities assembled under colder climates were inherently more open to recruitment than warmer-climate communities, after controlling for differences in the current climate under which the communities were growing. We then tested whether variation in openness to recruitment could be explained by community biomass or by the plant...

Modular chromosome rearrangements reveal parallel and nonparallel adaptation in a marine fish

Tony Kess, Paul Bentzen, Sarah Lehnert, Emma Sylvester, Sigbjørn Lien, Matthew Kent, Marion Sinclair-Waters, Corey Morris, Brendan Wringe, Robert Fairweather & Ian Bradbury
Genomic architecture and standing variation can play a key role in ecological adaptation, and contribute to the predictability of evolution. In Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), four large chromosomal rearrangements have been associated with ecological gradients and migratory behaviour in regional analyses. However, the degree of parallelism , the extent of independent inheritance, and functional distinctiveness of these rearrangements remains poorly understood. Here, we use a 12K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to demonstrate extensive individual...

Decomposing demographic contributions to the effective population size with moose as a case study

Stine Svalheim Markussen, Aline Lee, Ane Myhre, Steinar Engen, Erling Solberg, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H Røed, Ivar Herfindal, Morten Heim & Bernt-Erik Sæther
Levels of random genetic drift are influenced by demographic factors, such as mating system, sex ratio and age structure. The effective population size (Ne) is a useful measure for quantifying genetic drift. Evaluating relative contributions of different demographic factors to Ne is therefore important to identify what makes a population vulnerable to loss of genetic variation. Until recently, models for estimating Ne have required many simplifying assumptions, making them unsuitable for this task. Here, using...

Data from: Chromosome polymorphisms track trans‐Atlantic divergence and secondary contact in Atlantic salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Paul Bentzen, Tony Kess, Sigbjorn Lien, John B. Horne, Marie Clément & Ian R. Bradbury
Pleistocene glaciations drove repeated range contractions and expansions shaping contemporary intraspecific diversity. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the western and eastern Atlantic diverged >600,000 YBP, with the two lineages isolated in different southern refugia during glacial maxima, driving trans-Atlantic genomic and karyotypic divergence. Here, we investigate genomic consequences of glacial isolation and trans-Atlantic secondary contact using 108,870 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 80 North American and European populations. Throughout North America, we identified extensive...

Data from: Future suitability of habitat in a migratory ungulate under climate change

Inger Maren Rivrud, Erling L. Meisingset, Leif Egil Loe & Atle Mysterud
With climate change, the effect of global warming on snow cover is expected to cause range expansion and enhance habitat suitability for species at their northern distribution limits. However, how this depend on landscape topography and sex in size-dimorphic species remains uncertain, and is further complicated for migratory animals following climate-driven seasonal resource fluctuations across vast landscapes. Using 11 years of data from a partially migratory ungulate at their northern distribution ranges, the red deer...

Data from: Fallow management increases habitat suitability for endangered steppe bird species through changes in vegetation structure

Ana Sanz-Pérez, David Giralt, Irene Robleño, Gerard Bota, Cyril Milleret, Santi Manosa & Francesc Sardà-Palomera
In the face of the dramatic worldwide decline of farmland bird populations, the preservation of fallow fields is a conservation measure encouraged through subsidies (e.g. agri‐environmental schemes, AES). Beyond the general benefits of increasing fallow availability for endangered steppe bird populations, there is a lack of knowledge on how fallow management can contribute to meeting species‐specific habitat requirements. We used occurrence data from three steppe bird species protected at the EU level (Stone Curlew Burhinus...

Data from: Wood modification by furfuryl alcohol caused delayed decomposition response in Rhodonia (Postia) placenta

Inger Skrede, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Jaqueline Hess, Carl Gunnar Fossdal, Olav Hegnar & Gry Alfredsen
The aim of this study was to investigate differential expression profiles of the brown rot fungus Rhodonia placenta (previously Postia placenta) harvested at several time points when grown on radiata pine (Pinus radiata) and radiata pine with three different levels of modification by furfuryl alcohol, an environmentally benign commercial wood protection system. The entire gene expression pattern of a decay fungus is followed in untreated and modified wood from initial to advanced stages of decay....

Registration Year

  • 2019
    15

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    15

Affiliations

  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    15
  • Dalhousie University
    2
  • University of Oslo
    2
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    2
  • Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
    2
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    2
  • Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí
    1
  • Royal Museum for Central Africa
    1
  • American Himalayan Foundation
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1