15 Works

Data from: Digital fragment analysis of short tandem repeats by high-throughput amplicon sequencing

Brian J. Darby, Shay F. Erickson, Samuel D. Hervey & Susan N. Ellis-Felege
High-throughput sequencing has been proposed as a method to genotype microsatellites and overcome the four main technical drawbacks of capillary electrophoresis: amplification artifacts, imprecise sizing, length homoplasy, and limited multiplex capability. The objective of this project was to test a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach to fragment analysis of short tandem repeats and characterize its advantages and disadvantages against traditional capillary electrophoresis. We amplified and sequenced 12 muskrat microsatellite loci from 180 muskrat specimens and analyzed...

Data from: The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards

Laura A. Russo, Mia Park, Jason Gibbs, Bryan Danforth & Laura Russo
Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years....

Data from: Species patch size at seeding affects diversity and productivity responses in establishing grasslands

Shannon E. Seahra, Kathryn A. Yurkonis & Jonathan A. Newman
1. Species interactions in diverse plant communities affect community-scale functions such as above-ground biomass production, diversity and invasion resistance. While the strength of these formative interactions can be affected by the balance of inter- and intraspecific interactions among the resident species, it is unclear over what distances individuals typically interact in grasslands and whether or not species interactions at seeding can be effectively manipulated to improve these responses. 2. In a three-year study, we tested...

Red oak seedlings as indicators of deer browse pressure: gauging the outcome of different white-tailed deer management approaches

Bernd Blossey, Paul Curtis, Jason Boulanger & Andrea Dávalos
After decades of high deer populations, North America forests have lost much of their previous biodiversity. Any landscape-level recovery requires substantial reductions in deer herds, but modern societies and wildlife management agencies appear unable to devise appropriate solutions to this chronic ecological and human health crisis. We evaluated the effectiveness of fertility control hunting in reducing deer impacts at Cornell University. We estimated spring deer populations and planted Quercus rubra seedlings to assess deer browse...

Data from: Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations

Takeshi Kawakami, Brian J. Darby & Mark C. Ungerer
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850,275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length....

The cost of travel: how dispersal ability limits local adaptation in host-parasite interactions

Pieter Johnson, Dana Calhoun, Wynne Moss, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Tawni Riepe, Joshua Hallas, Thomas Parchman, Chris Feldman, Josh Cropanzano, Jay Bowerman, Tyler Achatz, Vasyl Tkach & Janet Koprivnikar
Classical theory suggests that parasites will exhibit higher fitness in sympatric relative to allopatric host populations (local adaptation). However, evidence for local adaptation in natural host-parasite systems is often equivocal, emphasizing the need for cross-infection experiments conducted over realistic geographic scales and comparisons among species with varied life history traits. Here, we conducted cross-infection experiments to test how two trematode (flatworm) species (Paralechriorchis syntomentera and Ribeiroia ondatrae) with differing dispersal abilities varied in the strength...

Data from: A phylogenetic and morphologic context for the radiation of an endemic fauna in a long-lived lake: Corbulidae (Bivalvia; Myoida) in the Miocene Pebas Formation of western Amazonia

Laurie C. Anderson, Frank P. Wesselingh & Joseph H. Hartman
The Corbulidae are one of a handful of a primarily marine bivalve clades that exhibit a remarkable radiation, marked by increased species richness and divergent morphologies, within a long-lived lake. For corbulids, this diversification occurred within the lower to middle Miocene Pebas Formation of western Amazonia. Only one taxon associated with this radiation (Anticorbula) remains extant. We conducted a series of phylogenetic analyses to characterize diversification of Corbulidae within the Pebas Formation and relate that...

Data from: Across species-pool aggregation alters grassland productivity and diversity

Thomas P. McKenna & Kathryn A. Yurkonis
Plant performance is determined by the balance of intra- and interspecific neighbors within an individual's zone of influence. If individuals interact over smaller scales than the scales at which communities are measured, then altering neighborhood interactions may fundamentally affect community responses. These interactions can be altered by changing the number (species richness), abundances (species evenness), and positions (species pattern) of the resident plant species, and we aimed to test whether aggregating species at planting would...

Data from: Helianthus maximiliani and species fine-scale spatial pattern affect diversity interactions in reconstructed tallgrass prairies

Thomas McKenna, Jack McDonnell, Kathryn Yurkonis & Caroline Brophy
1. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function analyses aim to explain how individual species and their interactions affect ecosystem function. With this study we asked in what ways do species interact, are these interactions affected by species planting pattern, and are initial (planted) proportions or previous year (realized) proportions a better reference point for characterizing grassland diversity effects? 2. We addressed these questions with experimental communities compiled from a pool of 16 tallgrass prairie species. We planted...

Data from: Of poisons and parasites: the defensive role of tetrodotoxin against infections in newts

Pieter T. J. Johnson, Dana M. Calhoun, Amber N. Stokes, Calvin B. Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J. Briggs, Jason T. Hoverman, Vasyl V. Tkach, Jaap C. De Roode & Jacobus C. De Roode
1. Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. 2. Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly colored and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which...

Data from: Kin grouping is insufficient to explain the inclusive fitness gains of conspecific brood parasitism in the common eider

Samuel Hervey, Andrew Barnas, Tanner Stechmann, Robert Rockwell, Susan Ellis-Felege & Brian Darby
Conspecific brood parasitism allows females to exploit other females’ nests and enhance their reproductive output. Here, we test a recent theoretical model of how host females gain inclusive fitness from brood parasitism. High levels of relatedness between host and parasitizer can be maintained either by; 1) kin recognizing and parasitizing each other as a form of cooperative breeding or 2) natal philopatry and nest site fidelity facilitating the formation of kin groups increasing the probability...

Molecular sequencing and morphological identification reveal similar patterns in native bee communities across public and private grasslands of eastern North Dakota

Brian Darby, Russ Bryant, Abby Keller, Madison Jochim, Josephine Moe, Zoe Schreiner, Carrie Pratt, Ned H. Euliss, Mia Park, Rebecca Simmons & Clint Otto
Bees play a key role in the functioning of human-modified and natural ecosystems by pollinating agricultural crops and wild plant communities. Global pollinator conservation efforts need large-scale and long-term monitoring to detect changes in species’ demographic patterns and shifts in bee community structure. The objective of this project was to test a molecular sequencing pipeline that would utilize a commonly used locus, produce accurate and precise identifications consistent with morphological identifications, and generate data that...

Data from: Evaluating behavioral responses of nesting lesser snow geese to unmanned aircraft surveys

Andrew Barnas, Robert Newman, Christopher J. Felege, Michael P. Corcoran, Samuel D. Hervey, Tanner J. Stechmann, Robert F. Rockwell & Susan N. Ellis-Felege
Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are relatively new technologies gaining popularity among wildlife biologists. As with any new tool in wildlife science, operating protocols must be developed through rigorous protocol testing. Few studies have been conducted that quantify the impacts UAS may have on unhabituated individuals in the wild using standard aerial survey protocols. We evaluated impacts of unmanned surveys by measuring UAS-induced behavioral responses during the nesting phase of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens)...

Data from: Diversification by host switching and dispersal shaped the diversity and distribution of avian malaria parasites in Amazonia

Alan Fecchio, Jeffrey Andrew Bell, Michael David Collins, Izeni Pires Farias, Christopher Harry Trisos, Joseph Andrew Tobias, Vasyl Volodymyr Tkach, Jason David Weckstein, Robert Eric Ricklefs & Henrique Batalha-Filho
Understanding how pathogens and parasites diversify through time and space is fundamental to predicting emerging infectious diseases. Here, we use biogeographic, coevolutionary and phylogenetic analyses to describe the origin, diversity, and distribution of avian malaria parasites in the most diverse avifauna on Earth. We first performed phylogenetic analyses using the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene to determine relationships among parasite lineages. Then, we estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral areas to uncover how landscape...

Data from: A phylogenetic and morphologic context for the radiation of an endemic fauna in a long-lived lake: Corbulidae (Bivalvia; Myoida) in the Miocene Pebas Formation of western Amazonia

Laurie C. Anderson, Frank P. Wesselingh & Joseph H. Hartman
The Corbulidae are one of a handful of a primarily marine bivalve clades that exhibit a remarkable radiation, marked by increased species richness and divergent morphologies, within a long-lived lake. For corbulids, this diversification occurred within the lower to middle Miocene Pebas Formation of western Amazonia. Only one taxon associated with this radiation (Anticorbula) remains extant. We conducted a series of phylogenetic analyses to characterize diversification of Corbulidae within the Pebas Formation and relate that...

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