46 Works

Data from: Experimental evaluation of the robustness of the growth-stress tolerance trade-off within the perennial grass Dactylis glomerata

Pauline Bristiel, Lauren Gillespie, Liv Østrem, Jennifer Balachowski, Cyrille Violle & Florence Volaire
1. A core tenet of functional ecology is that the vast phenotypic diversity observed in the plant kingdom could be partly generated by a trade- off between the ability of plants to grow quickly and acquire resources in rich environments vs. the ability to conserve resources and avoid mortality under stress. However, experimental demonstrations remain scarce and potentially blurred by phylogenetic constraints in cross-species analyses. Here we experimentally decoupled growth potential and stress survival by...

Hydroxyacetophenone defenses in white spruce against spruce budworm

Genevieve Parent, Claudia Méndez-Espinoza, Isabelle Giguère, Melissa H. Mageroy, Martin Charest, Éric Bauce, Joerg Bohlmann & John MacKay
We review a recently discovered white spruce (Picea glauca) chemical defense against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) involving hydroxyacetophenones. These defense metabolites detected in the foliage accumulate variably as the aglycons, piceol and pungenol, or the corresponding glucosides, picein and pungenin. We summarize current knowledge of the genomic, molecular and biochemical as well as genetic underpinnings of this defense and its effects on C. fumiferana. We present an update with new results on the ontogenic variation...

Data from: Curation: heat stress responses and population genetics of the kelp Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) across latitudes reveal differentiation among North Atlantic populations

Louise Fouqueau, Daniel Liesner, Myriam Valero, Michael Roleda, Gareth Pearson, Kai Bischof, Klaus Valentin & Inka Bartsch
We aim to understand the thermal plasticity of a coastal foundation species across its latitudinal distribution by assessing physiological responses to high temperature stress in the kelp Laminaria digitata in combination with population genetic characteristics. We hypothesize that Arctic and cold-temperate populations are less heat resilient than warm-temperate populations. Using meristems of natural L. digitata populations from six locations ranging between Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen (79°N), and Quiberon, France (47°N), we performed a common-garden heat stress experiment...

Macronutritional composition of Swedish moose rumen samples collected 2014/15

Annika Felton, Hilde Wam, Adam Felton, Stephen Simpson, Caroline Stolter, Per-Ola Hedwall, Jonas Malmsten, Torsten Eriksson, Mulualem Tigabu & David Raubenheimer
At northern latitudes, large spatial and temporal variation in the nutritional composition of available foods poses challenges to wild herbivores trying to satisfy their nutrient requirements. Studies conducted in mostly captive settings have shown that animals from a variety of taxonomic groups deal with this challenge by adjusting the amounts and proportions of available food combinations to achieve a target nutrient balance. In this study, we used proportions-based nutritional geometry to analyse the nutritional composition...

InnovAfrica project baseline survey data for Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania

Ahmad Athman, Alice Murage, Anne Gichangi, Bosena Tegegne, David Banda, Donald Njarui, Elias Gichangi, Esther Bloem, Felix Nandonde, Feyisa Hundessa, Harald Puhl, Jacqueline Tuyisenge, Jessica Ndubi, Kenneth Mapunda, Laifolo Dakishoni, Leonidas Dusengemungu, Lindumusa Myeni, Lizzie Shumba, Mangani Katundu, Mengistu Ketema, Mokhele Moeletsi, Mufunanji Magalasi, Mulalo Thavhana, Mupenzi Mutimura, Mwangi Gatheru … & Sita Ghimire
A data set was generated thorugh surveys to establish a baseline inforamtion for a project entitled "Innovations in Technology, Institutional and Extension Approaches towards Sustainable Agriculture and enhanced Food and Nutrition Security in Africa (Acronym - InnovAfrica)". The InnovAfrica is a consortium of 16 institutions comprising five institutions from Europe and eleven institutions from Africa and the project was implemented in six countries of eastern and southern Africa namely Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa...

Data from: Y chromosome haplotype distribution of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe provides insight into population history and recovery (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Hans Geir Eiken, Finn Audun Grøndahl, Frank Hailer, Jouni Aspi, Ilpo Kojola, Konstantin Tirronen, Pjotr Danilov, Alexander Rykov, Eugene Poroshin, Axel Janke, Jon E. Swenson, Snorre B. Hagen & Piotr Danilov
High-resolution, male-inherited Y-chromosomal markers are a useful tool for population genetic analyses of wildlife species, but to date have only been applied in this context to relatively few species besides humans. Using nine Y-chromosomal STR and three Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (Y-SNPs), we studied whether male gene flow was important for the recent recovery of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe, where the species declined dramatically in numbers and geographic distribution during...

Pollinator visits to six plant species in an oil palm landscape

Candice C. Power, Anders Nielsen & Douglas Sheil
Pollination sustains biodiversity and food security, but pollinators are threatened by habitat degradation, fragmentation and loss. Here we aimed to assess how remaining forests influence bee visits to flowers in an oil palm dominated landscape in Borneo, Indonesia. To do this, we observed pollinator visits to six plant species: four crops (Capsicum frutescens L. “chili”; Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai “watermelon”; Solanum lycopersicum L. “tomato”; and Solanum melongena L. “eggplant”); one native plant Melastoma...

Interfering with neighbouring communities: allelopathy astray in the tundra delays seedling development

Kari Anne Bråthen, Anna Katharina Pilsbacher, Bente Lindgård, Rigmor Reiersen & Victoria Gonzalez
1. Altered species composition caused by environmental and climatic change can affect the transfer of plant residues among communities. Whereas transferred residues are typically considered a resource in recipient systems, residues of allelopathic species may instead cause interference. 2. Evergreen dwarf shrubs, specifically the allelopathic species Empetrum nigrum are increasing in abundance in response to a warming climate. Empetrum has small, evergreen leaves that can be transferred to other communities when withered and lost from...

Highways associated with expansion of boreal scavengers into the alpine tundra of Fennoscandia

Lars Rød-Eriksen, Johanna Skrutvold, Ivar Herfindal, Henrik Jensen & Nina Elisabeth Eide
1) Habitat fragmentation may affect species distributions through, for example, altered resource availability and shifts in species interactions. Fragmentation by roads has had negative impacts on Fennoscandian alpine ecosystems, with reduction of habitats and connectivity for alpine species. Concurrently, infrastructure development cause influx of subsidies through roadkills and litter, which may facilitate expansion of boreal scavenging species, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), which may intensify negative interactions with alpine species. Hence, understanding the...

Heat stress responses of the kelp Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) across Northeast Atlantic populations: growth, biochemistry, chlorophyll fluorescence, pigments

Daniel Liesner, Louise Fouqueau, Myriam Valero, Michael Y. Roleda, Gareth A. Pearson, Kai Bischof, Klaus Valentin & Inka Bartsch
To understand the thermal plasticity of a coastal foundation species across its latitudinal distribution, we assess physiological responses to high temperature stress in the kelp Laminaria digitata in combination with population genetic characteristics and relate heat resilience to genetic features and phylogeography. We hypothesize that populations from Arctic and cold-temperate locations are less heat resilient than populations from warm distributional edges. Using meristems of natural L. digitata populations from six locations ranging between Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen...

Genotype data from: Restoration of transborder connectivity for Fennoscandian brown bears (Ursus arctos)

Alexander Kopatz, Kleven Oddmund, Kojola Ilpo, Aspi Jouni, Anita J. Norman, Göran Spong, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Love Dalén, Ida Fløystad, Snorre B. Hagen, Jonas Kindberg & Øystein Flagstad
Knowledge about the connectivity among natural populations is essential to identify management units for effective conservation actions. Conservation-minded management has led to the recovery of large carnivore populations in northern Europe, possibly restoring connectivity between the two separated, but expanding brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations on the Scandinavian peninsula to the west and Karelia, a part of the large Eurasian population, to the east. The degree of connectivity between these populations has been poorly understood,...

STR data from: Temporal analysis shows relaxed genetic erosion following improved stocking practices in a subarctic transnational brown trout population

Cornelya Klutsch, Simo Maduna, Natalia Poliparkova, Kristin Forfang, Benedicte Beddari, Karl Øystein Gjelland, Paul Eric Aspholm, Per-Arne Amundsen & Snorre Hagen
Maintaining standing genetic variation is a challenge in human-dominated landscapes. We used genetic (i.e., 16 short tandem repeats) and morphological (i.e., length and weight) measurements of 593 contemporary and historical brown trout (Salmo trutta) samples to study fine-scale and short-term impacts of different management practices. These had changed from traditional breeding practices, using the same broodstock for several years, to modern breeding practices, including annual broodstock replacement, in the transnational subarctic Pasvik River. Using population...

InnovAfrica project endline survey data for Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania

Ahmad Athman, Alice Murage, Anne Gichangi, Celestin Hitimana, David Banda, Donald Njarui, Esther Bloem, Esther Lupafya, Fekadu Beyene, Feyisa Hundessa, Jessica Ndubi, Kenneth Mapunda, Kibebew Kibret, Laifolo Dakishoni, Lindumusa Myeni, Lizzie Shumba, Mangani Katundu, Mokhele Moeletsi, Maximillian Manzi, Mufunanji Magalasi, Mupenzi Mutimura, Mwangi Gatheru, Sabelo Mazibuko, Tewodros Bezu, Victoria Ndolo … & Sita Ghimire
A consortium of 16 institutions comprising five institutions from Europe and eleven institutions from Africa implemented a project entitled "Innovations in Technology, Institutional and Extension Approaches towards Sustainable Agriculture and enhanced Food and Nutritional Security in Africa (InnovAfrica)" in six countries of eastern and southern Africa namely Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania from June 2017 to November 2021. The InnovAfrica project collected endline data from 12 pilot sites (two sites per country)...

Data from: Sex-specific genetic analysis indicates low correlation between demographic and genetic connectivity in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson & Snorre B. Hagen
Species viability is strongly connected to the degree of gene flow within and among populations. Such genetic population connectivity may closely track demographic population connectivity or, alternatively, the rate of gene flow may change relative to the rate of dispersal. In this study, we have explored the relationship between genetic and demographic population connectivity using the Scandinavian brown bear as model species, due to its pronounced male dispersal and female philopatry. Our expectation, based on...

Data from: The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

Yoshiaki Tsuda, Jun Chen, Michael Stocks, Thomas Källman, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Laura Parducci, Vladimir Semerikov, Christoph Sperisen, Dmitry Politov, Tiina Ronkainen, Minna Väliranta, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramini, Mari Mette Tollefsrud, Martin Lascoux & Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin
Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct...

Data from: Genetic evidence of female kin clusters in a continuous population of a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx

Katja Holmala, Annika Herrero, Alexander Kopatz, Julia Schregel, Hans G. Eiken & Snorre B. Hagen
Large terrestrial carnivores can sometimes display strong family bonds affecting the spatial distribution of related individuals. We studied the spatial genetic relatedness and family structure of female Eurasian lynx, continuously distributed in southern Finland. We hypothesized that closely related females form matrilineal assemblages, clustering together with relatives living in the neighboring areas. We evaluated this hypothesis using tissue samples of 133 legally harvested female lynx (from year 2007 to 2015), genotyped with 23 microsatellite markers,...

Data from: What's the meaning of local? Using molecular markers to define seed transfer zones for ecological restoration in Norway

Marte Holten Jørgensen, Abdelhameed Elameen, Nadine Hofman, Sonja Klemsdal, Sandra Malaval & Siri Fjellheim
According to the Norwegian Diversity Act, practitioners of restoration in Norway are instructed to use seed mixtures of local provenance. However, there are no guidelines for how local seed should be selected. In this study, we use genetic variation in a set of alpine species (Agrostis mertensii, Avenella flexuosa, Carex bigelowii, Festuca ovina, Poa alpina and Scorzoneroides autumnalis) to define seed transfer zones to reduce confusion about the definition of ‘local seeds’. The species selected...

Data from: Biogeography of plant root-associated fungal communities in the North-Atlantic region mirrors climatic variability

Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Marie L. Davey, Anders B. Aas, Tor Carlsen, Ella Thoen, Einar Heegaard, Unni Vik, Philipp Dresch, Sunil Mundra, Ursula Peintner, Andy F.S. Taylor & Håvard Kauserud
Aim Polar and alpine ecosystems appear to be particularly sensitive to increasing temperatures and the altered precipitation patterns linked to climate change. However, little is currently known about how these environmental drivers may affect edaphic organisms within these ecosystems. In this study, we examined communities of plant root-associated fungi (RAF) over large biogeographic scales and along climatic gradients in the North Atlantic region in order to gain insights into the potential effects of climate variability...

Data from: Early wasp plucks the flower: disparate extant diversity of sawfly superfamilies (Hymenoptera: 'Symphyta') may reflect asynchronous switching to angiosperm hosts

Tommi Nyman, Renske E. Onstein, Daniele Silvestro, Saskia Wutke, Andreas Taeger, Niklas Wahlberg, Stephan Blank & Tobias Malm
The insect order Hymenoptera originated during the Permian nearly 300 million years ago. Ancestrally herbivorous hymenopteran lineages today make up the paraphyletic suborder 'Symphyta,' which encompasses circa 8200 species with very diverse host-plant associations. We used phylogeny-based statistical analyses to explore drivers of diversity dynamics within the 'Symphyta,' with a particular focus on the hypothesis that diversification of herbivorous insects has been driven by the explosive radiation of angiosperms during and after the Cretaceous. Our...

Data from: Trait-dependent distributional shifts in fruiting of common British fungi

Alan C. Gange, Einar Heegaard, Lynne Boddy, Carrie Andrew, Paul Kirk, Rune Halvorsen, Thomas W. Kuyper, Claus Bässler, Jeffrey Diez, Jacob Heilman-Clausen, Klaus Høiland, Ulf Büntgen & Håvard Kauserud
Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to understand how climate and fungal traits determine whether and how species-specific fungal fruit body abundances have shifted across latitudes over time, using the UK...

Data for: Phytochemical shift from condensed tannins to flavonoids in transgenic Betula pendula decreases consumption and growth but improves growth efficiency of Epirrita autumnata larvae

Paula Thitz, Lauri Mehtätalo, Panu Välimäki, Tendry Randriamanana, Mika Lännenpää, Ann E. Hagerman, Tommi Andersson, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto & Tommi Nyman
Despite active research, antiherbivore activity of specific plant phenolics remains largely unresolved. We constructed silver birch (Betula pendula) lines with modified phenolic metabolism to study the effects of foliar flavonoids and condensed tannins on consumption and growth of larvae of a generalist herbivore, the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata). We conducted a feeding experiment using birch lines in which expression of dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) or anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) had been decreased by RNA...

Data from: Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi, Mohamed Abdelhalim, Anil Kunapareddy, Åshild Ergon, Anne Marte Tronsmo, May Bente Brurberg, Ingerd Skow Hofgaard, Torben Asp & Odd Arne Rognli
Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: Genetic substructure and admixture as important factors in linkage disequilibrium-based estimation of effective number of breeders in recovering wildlife populations

Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken, Julia Schregel, Jouni Aspi, Ilpo Kojola & Snorre B. Hagen
The number of effective breeders (Nb) and effective population size (Ne) are population parameters reflective of evolutionary potential, susceptibility to stochasticity, and viability. We have estimated these parameters using the linkage disequilibrium-based approach with LDNE through the latest phase of population recovery of the brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Finland (1993–2010; N = 621). This phase of the recovery was recently documented to be associated with major changes in genetic composition. In particular, differentiation between...

Data from: How much would it cost to monitor farmland biodiversity in Europe?

Ilse R. Geijzendorffer, Stefano Targetti, Manuel K. Schneider, Dick J. Brus, Philippe Jeanneret, Robert H. G. Jongman, Martin Knotters, Davide Viaggi, Siyka Angelova, Michaela Arndorfer, Debra Bailey, Katalin Balzacs, András Báldim, Marion M. B. Bogers, Robert G.H. Bunce, Jean-Philippe Choisis, Peter Dennis, Sebastian Eiter, Wendy Fjellstad, Jürgen F. Friedel, Tiziano Gomiero, Arjan Griffioen, Max Kainz, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Gisela Lüscher … & András Báldi
To evaluate progress on political biodiversity objectives, biodiversity monitoring provides information on whether intended results are being achieved. Despite scientific proof that monitoring and evaluation increase the (cost) efficiency of policy measures, cost estimates for monitoring schemes are seldom available, hampering their inclusion in policy programme budgets. Empirical data collected from 12 case studies across Europe were used in a power analysis to estimate the number of farms that would need to be sampled per...

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  • Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
  • University of Oslo
  • The Arctic University of Norway
  • University of Oulu
  • Aarhus University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Wageningen University & Research
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology