We review a recently discovered white spruce (Picea glauca) chemical defense against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) involving hydroxyacetophenones. These defense metabolites detected in the foliage accumulate variably as the aglycons, piceol and pungenol, or the corresponding glucosides, picein and pungenin. We summarize current knowledge of the genomic, molecular and biochemical as well as genetic underpinnings of this defense and its effects on C. fumiferana. We present an update with new results on the ontogenic variation...
Data for: Phytochemical shift from condensed tannins to flavonoids in transgenic Betula pendula decreases consumption and growth but improves growth efficiency of Epirrita autumnata larvaePaula Thitz, Lauri Mehtätalo, Panu Välimäki, Tendry Randriamanana, Mika Lännenpää, Ann E. Hagerman, Tommi Andersson, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto & Tommi Nyman
Despite active research, antiherbivore activity of specific plant phenolics remains largely unresolved. We constructed silver birch (Betula pendula) lines with modified phenolic metabolism to study the effects of foliar flavonoids and condensed tannins on consumption and growth of larvae of a generalist herbivore, the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata). We conducted a feeding experiment using birch lines in which expression of dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) or anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) had been decreased by RNA...
Data from: Early wasp plucks the flower: disparate extant diversity of sawfly superfamilies (Hymenoptera: 'Symphyta') may reflect asynchronous switching to angiosperm hostsTommi Nyman, Renske E. Onstein, Daniele Silvestro, Saskia Wutke, Andreas Taeger, Niklas Wahlberg, Stephan Blank & Tobias Malm
The insect order Hymenoptera originated during the Permian nearly 300 million years ago. Ancestrally herbivorous hymenopteran lineages today make up the paraphyletic suborder 'Symphyta,' which encompasses circa 8200 species with very diverse host-plant associations. We used phylogeny-based statistical analyses to explore drivers of diversity dynamics within the 'Symphyta,' with a particular focus on the hypothesis that diversification of herbivorous insects has been driven by the explosive radiation of angiosperms during and after the Cretaceous. Our...
Data from: Biogeography of plant root-associated fungal communities in the North-Atlantic region mirrors climatic variabilitySynnøve Smebye Botnen, Marie L. Davey, Anders B. Aas, Tor Carlsen, Ella Thoen, Einar Heegaard, Unni Vik, Philipp Dresch, Sunil Mundra, Ursula Peintner, Andy F.S. Taylor & Håvard Kauserud
Aim Polar and alpine ecosystems appear to be particularly sensitive to increasing temperatures and the altered precipitation patterns linked to climate change. However, little is currently known about how these environmental drivers may affect edaphic organisms within these ecosystems. In this study, we examined communities of plant root-associated fungi (RAF) over large biogeographic scales and along climatic gradients in the North Atlantic region in order to gain insights into the potential effects of climate variability...
With climate change, the effect of global warming on snow cover is expected to cause range expansion and enhance habitat suitability for species at their northern distribution limits. However, how this depend on landscape topography and sex in size-dimorphic species remains uncertain, and is further complicated for migratory animals following climate-driven seasonal resource fluctuations across vast landscapes. Using 11 years of data from a partially migratory ungulate at their northern distribution ranges, the red deer...
Data from: Wood modification by furfuryl alcohol caused delayed decomposition response in Rhodonia (Postia) placentaInger Skrede, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Jaqueline Hess, Carl Gunnar Fossdal, Olav Hegnar & Gry Alfredsen
The aim of this study was to investigate differential expression profiles of the brown rot fungus Rhodonia placenta (previously Postia placenta) harvested at several time points when grown on radiata pine (Pinus radiata) and radiata pine with three different levels of modification by furfuryl alcohol, an environmentally benign commercial wood protection system. The entire gene expression pattern of a decay fungus is followed in untreated and modified wood from initial to advanced stages of decay....
Data from: Genetic changes caused by restocking and hydroelectric dams in demographically bottlenecked brown trout in a transnational subarctic riverine systemCornelya F. C. Klutsch, Simo N. Maduna, Natalia Polikarpova, Kristin Forfang, Paul Eric Aspholm, Tommi Nyman, Hans Geir Eiken, Per-Arne Amundsen & Snorre B. Hagen
Habitat discontinuity, anthropogenic disturbance, and overharvesting have led to population fragmentation and declines worldwide. Preservation of remaining natural genetic diversity is crucial to avoid continued genetic erosion. Brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) is an ideal model species for studying anthropogenic influences on genetic integrity, as it has experienced significant genetic alterations throughout its natural distribution range due to habitat fragmentation, overexploitation, translocations, and stocking. The Pasvik River is a subarctic riverine system shared between Norway,...
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research7
University of Oslo3
University of Eastern Finland2
Norwegian University of Life Sciences2
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias1
The Arctic University of Norway1
German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research1
University of Gothenburg1
University of British Columbia1