158 Works

Data from: Y chromosome haplotype distribution of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe provides insight into population history and recovery (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Hans Geir Eiken, Finn Audun Grøndahl, Frank Hailer, Jouni Aspi, Ilpo Kojola, Konstantin Tirronen, Pjotr Danilov, Alexander Rykov, Eugene Poroshin, Axel Janke, Jon E. Swenson, Snorre B. Hagen & Piotr Danilov
High-resolution, male-inherited Y-chromosomal markers are a useful tool for population genetic analyses of wildlife species, but to date have only been applied in this context to relatively few species besides humans. Using nine Y-chromosomal STR and three Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers (Y-SNPs), we studied whether male gene flow was important for the recent recovery of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northern Europe, where the species declined dramatically in numbers and geographic distribution during...

Data from: From steps to home range formation: species-specific movement upscaling among sympatric ungulates

Zulima Tablado, Eloy Revilla, Dominique Dubray, Sonia Saïd, Daniel Maillard & Anne Loison
Animals move to interact with the environment in order to find food resources and cover. Intrinsic characteristics affecting feeding and antipredatory strategies likely shape variation in movement patterns and home range formation between individuals, populations and species. Browsing herbivores selectively forage on patchily distributed resources in areas with more canopy cover, whereas mixed feeders and grazers feed on more open grasslands and tend to aggregate as an antipredatory strategy. We therefore predicted that at small...

Data from: Is it worthwhile scaring geese to alleviate damage to crops? – an experimental study

Caroline Ernberg Simonsen, Jesper Madsen, Ingunn M. Tombre & Jacob Nabe-Nielsen
Increasing population sizes of geese are the cause of numerous agricultural conflicts in many regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Scaring is often used as a tool to chase geese away from fields, either as a means to protect vulnerable crops or as part of goose management schemes to drive geese to accommodation areas. Geese are quick to habituate to stationary scaring devices; hence, active scaring by humans is often employed. However, it remains undocumented how...

Data from: Community structure influences species’ abundance along environmental gradients

Antti P. Eloranta, Ingeborg P. Helland, Odd Terje Sandlund, Trygve Hesthagen, Ola Ugedal & Anders G. Finstad
Species response to abiotic environmental variation can be influenced by local community structure and interspecific interactions, particularly in restricted habitats such as islands and lakes. In temperate lakes, future increase in water temperature and runoff of terrestrial (allochthonous) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are predicted to alter community composition and the overall ecosystem productivity. However, little is known about how the present community structure and abiotic environmental variation interact to affect the abundance of native fish...

Data from: Mismatch between fishway operation and timing of fish movements: a risk for cascading effects in partial migration systems

Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Jon Museth, Odd Terje Sandlund, Tore Qvenild & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Habitat fragmentation is a growing problem worldwide. Particularly in river systems, numerous dams and weirs hamper the movement of a wide variety of species. With the aim to preserve connectivity for fish, many barriers in river systems are equipped with fishways (also called fish passages or fish ladders). However, few fishways provide full connectivity. Here we hypothesized that restricted seasonal opening times of fishways can importantly reduce their effectiveness by interfering with the timing of...

Data from: Demographic influences of translocated individuals on a resident population of house sparrows

Peter S. Ranke, Sigrun Skjelseth, Henrik Pärn, Ivar Herfindal, Åsa Alexandra Borg Borg, Bård Gunner Stokke, Thomas Kvalnes, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Translocation of individuals from source populations to augment small populations facing risk of extinction is an important conservation tool. Here we examine sex-specific differences between resident and translocated house sparrows Passer domesticus in reproductive success and survival, and the contribution of translocated individuals to the growth of a local population. We found evidence for assortative mating based on origin revealed by fewer parentages between translocated males and resident females than expected, and the total number...

Data from: Little impact of over-winter parasitism on a free-ranging ungulate in the high Arctic

Anja Morven Carlsson, Steve D. Albon, Stephen J. Coulson, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Ken Wilson, Leif Egil Loe, Vebjørn Veiberg, Robert Justin Irvine & Kenneth Wilson
1.Macroparasites have a central place in wildlife ecology because they have the potential to regulate host populations through effects on reproduction and/or survival. However, there remains a paucity of studies that have demonstrated the regulatory role of these parasites in free-ranging animals. 2.Previous work on Svalbard reindeer demonstrated that the experimental removal of the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode Ostertagia gruehneri transmitted in summer, improved reindeer fecundity, and that the species was capable of mediating a density-dependent...

Data from: On fitness and partial migration in a large herbivore – migratory moose have higher reproductive performance than residents

Christer Moe Rolandsen, Erling J. Solberg, Bengt-Erik Sæther, Bram Van Moorter, Ivar Herfindal, Kari Bjørneraas & Bernt-Erik Saether
Partially migratory populations comprise both resident and migratory individuals. These tactics may coexist if their demographic contribution to future generations (i.e. fitness) are equal or vary temporally with environmental conditions, or if individuals switch between being migrant and resident. Alternatively, the choice of movement tactic can be based on individual attributes such as age, competitive ability or personality. In the latter cases, the two tactics are not expected to have similar average fitness. In this...

Data from: Determinants of age at first reproduction and lifetime breeding success revealed by full paternity assignment in a male ungulate

Stine S. Markussen, Ivar Herfindal, Anne Loison, Erling J. Solberg, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Morten Heim, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Bernt-Erik Saether
Age at first reproduction is an important determinant of individual variation in reproductive success in ungulates, but few studies have examined its relationship with later fitness-related traits in males. We used a long-term individual based study of a harvested moose population to quantify the individual reproductive performance and survival of males, as well as to examine the determinants of age at first reproduction and consequences of age at first reproduction on lifetime breeding success. The...

Data from: Stress‐induced secondary leaves of a boreal deciduous shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) overwinter then regain activity the following growing season

Jarle W. Bjerke, Grzegorz Wierzbinski, Hans Tømmervik, Gareth K. Phoenix & Stef Bokhorst
The ericoid shrub Vaccinium myrtillus is one of several deciduous boreal plants that respond to larval defoliation by compensatory production of a new set of leaves within the same growing season soon after defoliation. This new set is termed as ‘secondary leaves’. The physiological performance and longevity of secondary leaves is poorly understood. Following a multi‐year larval outbreak in boreal Norway, we therefore monitored the fate of the secondary leaves from 2014 to 2016. We...

Data from: Movement is the glue connecting home ranges and habitat selection

Bram Van Moorter, Christer M. Rolandsen, Mathieu Basille & Jean-Michel Gaillard
1. Animal space use has been studied by focusing either on geographic (e.g. home ranges, species' distribution) or on environmental (e.g. habitat use and selection) space. However, all patterns of space use emerge from individual movements, which are the primary means by which animals change their environment. 2. Individuals increase their use of a given area by adjusting two key movement components: the duration of their visit and/or the frequency of revisits. Thus, in spatially...

Data from: The role of a dominant predator in shaping biodiversity over space and time in a marine ecosystem

Kari Elsa Ellingsen, Marti J. Anderson, Nancy L. Shackell, Torkild Tveraa, Nigel G. Yoccoz & Kenneth T. Frank
1. Exploitation of living marine resources has resulted in major changes to populations of targeted species and functional groups of large-bodied species in the ocean. However, the effects of overfishing and collapse of large top predators on the broad-scale biodiversity of oceanic ecosystems remain largely unexplored. 2. Populations of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were overfished and several collapsed in the early 1990s across Atlantic Canada, providing a unique opportunity to study potential ecosystem-level effects...

Data from: Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes

Antti P. Eloranta, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Chris Harrod & Roger I. Jones
Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic...

Data from: Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae)

Heather R. L. Lerner, Les Christidis, Anita Gamauf, Carole Griffiths, Elisabeth Haring, Christopher J. Huddleston, Sonia Kabra, Annett Kocum, Meade Krosby, Kirsti Kvaloy, David Mindell, Pamela Rasmussen, Nils Rov, Rachel Wadleigh, Michael Wink & Jan Ove Gjershaug
We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their...

Highways associated with expansion of boreal scavengers into the alpine tundra of Fennoscandia

Lars Rød-Eriksen, Johanna Skrutvold, Ivar Herfindal, Henrik Jensen & Nina Elisabeth Eide
1) Habitat fragmentation may affect species distributions through, for example, altered resource availability and shifts in species interactions. Fragmentation by roads has had negative impacts on Fennoscandian alpine ecosystems, with reduction of habitats and connectivity for alpine species. Concurrently, infrastructure development cause influx of subsidies through roadkills and litter, which may facilitate expansion of boreal scavenging species, such as the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), which may intensify negative interactions with alpine species. Hence, understanding the...

Timing is everything: survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolts during events of high salmon lice densities

Thomas Bøhn, Karl Øystein Gjelland, Rosa Serra-Llinares, Bengt Finstad, Raul Primicerio, Rune Nilsen, Ørjan Karlsen, Anne Sandvik, Ove Skilbrei, Kristine Marit Elvik, Øystein Skaala & Pål Bjørn
Atlantic salmon in aquaculture act as reservoir hosts and vectors of parasites like salmon lice and this parasite is shown to harm wild salmonid populations. In the present study, n=29817 tagged Atlantic salmon were studied in four release trials. Half of the released fish were given prophylactic treatment against lice, the other half represented sham control fish. We used a nested design comparing years with low and high lice density and seasonal dynamics in infestation...

Data from: Species-specific spatiotemporal patterns of leopard, lion and tiger attacks on humans

Craig Packer, Shweta Shivakumar, Vidya Athreya, Meggan E. Craft, Harshawardhen Dhanwatey, Poonam Dhanwatey, Bhim Gurung, Anup Joshi, Hadas Kushnir, John D.C. Linnell, Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones & John D. C. Linnell
1. Large carnivores of the genus Panthera can pose serious threats to public safety. Although the annual number of attacks on humans is rare compared to livestock depredation, such incidents undermine popular support for wildlife conservation and require immediate responses to protect human life. 2. We used a space-time scan method to perform a novel spatiotemporal analysis of 908 attacks on humans by lions, leopards and tigers to estimate the risks of further attacks in...

Data from: Challenges in the conservation of wide-ranging nomadic species

Dejid Nandintsetseg, Chloe Bracis, Kirk A. Olson, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Justin M. Calabrese, Buyanaa Chimeddorj, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming, Michael Heiner, Petra Kaczensky, Peter Leimgruber, Dalannast Munkhnast, Theresa Stratmann & Thomas Mueller
1. Conservation of nomadic ungulates presents significant conservation challenges because of unpredictability in their movements and space use. Long-term studies on nomadic ungulates offering insights into the variability in space use within and between years are largely missing but are necessary to develop effective conservation strategies. 2. We examined the temporal variability in space-use of 22 Mongolian gazelle, tracked for one to three years with GPS and used the resulting movement patterns to evaluate conservation...

Life history genomic regions explain differences in Atlantic salmon marine diet specialization

Tutku Aykanat, Martin Rasmussen, Mikhail Ozerov, Eero Niemelä, Lars Paulin, Juha-Pekka Vaha, Kjetil Hindar, Vidar Wennevik, Torstein Pedersen, Martin Svenning & Craig Primmer
Abstract 1. Animals employ various foraging strategies along their ontogeny to acquire energy, and with varying degree of efficiencies, to support growth, maturation and subsequent reproduction events. Individuals that can efficiently acquire energy early are more likely to mature at an earlier age, as a result of faster energy gain which can fuel maturation and reproduction. 2. We aimed to test the hypothesis that heritable resource acquisition variation that co-varies with efficiency along the ontogeny...

Genotype data from: Restoration of transborder connectivity for Fennoscandian brown bears (Ursus arctos)

Alexander Kopatz, Kleven Oddmund, Kojola Ilpo, Aspi Jouni, Anita J. Norman, Göran Spong, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Love Dalén, Ida Fløystad, Snorre B. Hagen, Jonas Kindberg & Øystein Flagstad
Knowledge about the connectivity among natural populations is essential to identify management units for effective conservation actions. Conservation-minded management has led to the recovery of large carnivore populations in northern Europe, possibly restoring connectivity between the two separated, but expanding brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations on the Scandinavian peninsula to the west and Karelia, a part of the large Eurasian population, to the east. The degree of connectivity between these populations has been poorly understood,...

Distribution of large carnivores in Europe 2012 - 2016: Distribution maps for Brown bear, Eurasian lynx, Grey wolf, and Wolverine

Petra Kaczensky, John D.C. Linnell, Djuro Huber, Manuela Von Arx, Henrik Andren, Urs Breitenmoser & Luigi Boitani
Regular assessments of species’ status are an essential component of conservation planning and adaptive management. They allow the progress of past or ongoing conservation actions to be evaluated and can be used to redirect and prioritise future conservation actions. Most countries perform periodic assessments for their own national adaptive management procedures or national red lists. Furthermore, the countries of the European Union have to report on the status of all species listed on the directives...

Age at first reproduction in wolves: different patterns of density dependence for females and males

Camilla Wikenros, Morgane Gicquel, Barbara Zimmermann, Øystein Flagstad & Mikael Åkesson
Age at first reproduction constitutes a key life history trait in animals and is evolutionary shaped by fitness benefits and costs of delayed versus early reproduction. The understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic changes affects age at first reproduction is crucial for conservation and management of threatened species because of its demographic effects on population growth and generation time. For a period of 40 years in the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population, including the recolonization...

Cercarial behaviour alters the consumer functional response of three-spined sticklebacks

Ana Born-Torrijos, Rachel Paterson, Gabrielle Van Beest, Tereza Vyhlídalová, Eirik Haugstvedt Henriksen, Rune Knudsen, Roar Kristoffersen, Per-Arne Amundsen & Miroslava Soldánová
1. Free-living parasite life stages may contribute substantially to ecosystem biomass and thus represent a significant source of energy flow when consumed by non-host organisms. However, ambient temperature and the predator’s own infection status may modulate consumption rates towards parasite prey. 2. We investigated the combined effects of temperature and predator infection status on the consumer functional response of three-spined sticklebacks towards the free-living cercariae stages of two common freshwater trematode parasites (Plagiorchis, Trichobilharzia). 3....

European shag provisioning foraging dives

Astrid Carlsen, Jonathan Wright & Svein-Håkon Lorentsen
Foraging dives in birds and mammals involve complex physiological and behavioural adaptations to cope with the breaks in normal respiration. Optimal dive strategies should maximise the proportion of time spent under water actively foraging versus the time spent on the surface. Oxygen loading and carbon-dioxide dumping carried out on the surface could involve recovery from the consequences of the last dive and/or preparation in anticipation of the next dive depth and duration. However, few studies...

Smolt outmigration timing in Norway

Robert Lennox, Knut Vollset, Ola Ugedal, Anders Lamberg, Øystein Skaala, Anne Sandvik, Harald Saegrov, Torstein Kristiensen, Arne Jensen, Tormond Haraldstad & Bjørn Barlaup
Aim - Accurate predictions about transition timing of salmon smolts between freshwater and marine environments are key to effective management. We aimed to use available data on Atlantic salmon smolt migration to predict the emigration timing in rivers throughout Norway. Location - In this study, we used data outmigration timing data of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts from 41 rivers collected from 1984-2018 to make a predictive model for the timing of out-migrating salmon smolts...

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