187 Works

Moving out of town? The status of alien plants in high-Arctic Svalbard, and a method for monitoring of alien flora in high-risk, polar environments

Jesamine Bartlett, Kristine Bakke-Westergaard, Ingrid Paulsen, Ronja Wedegartner, Florian Wilken & Virve Ravolainen
Rising human activity in the Arctic, combined with a warming climate, increases the probability of the introduction and establishment of alien plant species. While settlements are known hotspots for persistent populations, little is known about colonization of particularly susceptible natural habitats. Systematic monitoring is lacking and available survey methods vary greatly. Here we present the most comprehensive survey of alien vascular plant species in the high-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard to date, aimed at: i) providing...

Data from: Gene flow from domesticated escapes alters the life history of wild Atlantic salmon

Geir H. Bolstad, Kjetil Hindar, Grethe Robertsen, Bror Jonsson, Harald Sægrov, Ola H. Diserud, Peder Fiske, Arne J. Jensen, Kurt Urdal, Tor F. Næsje, Bjørn T. Barlaup, Bjørn Florø-Larsen, Håvard Lo, Eero Niemelä & Sten Karlsson
Interbreeding between domesticated and wild animals occurs in several species. This gene flow has long been anticipated to induce genetic changes in life-history traits of wild populations, thereby influencing population dynamics and viability. Here, we show that individuals with high levels of introgression (domesticated ancestry) have altered age and size at maturation in 62 wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar populations, including seven ancestral populations to breeding lines of the domesticated salmon. This study documents widespread...

Data from: Arthropod diversity in a tropical forest

Yves Basset, Lukas Cizek, Philippe Cuénoud, Raphael K. Didham, François Guilhaumon, Olivier Missa, Vojtech Novotny, Frode Ødegaard, Tomas Roslin, Jürgen Schmidl, Alexey K. Tishechkin, Neville N. Winchester, David W. Roubik, Henri-Pierre Aberlenc, Johannes Bail, Héctor Barrios, Jon R. Bridle, Gabriela Castaño-Meneses, Bruno Corbara, Gianfranco Curletti, Wesley Duarte Da Rocha, Domir De Bakker, Jacques H. C. Delabie, Alain Dejean, Laura L. Fagan … & Maurice Leponce
Most eukaryotic organisms are arthropods. Yet, their diversity in rich terrestrial ecosystems is still unknown. Here we produce tangible estimates of the total species richness of arthropods in a tropical rainforest. Using a comprehensive range of structured protocols, we sampled the phylogenetic breadth of arthropod taxa from the soil to the forest canopy in the San Lorenzo forest, Panama. We collected 6,144 arthropod species from 0.48 ha and extrapolated total species richness to larger areas...

Data from: Can novel pest outbreaks drive ecosystem transitions in northern-boreal birch forest?

Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad, Jane Uhd Jepsen, Malin Ek, Adam Pepi & Rolf Anker Ims
1. The boreal biome exhibits distinct alternative ecosystem states with high and low levels of tree-cover. Insect outbreaks facilitated by climate warming could potentially drive transitions from high to low tree-cover states. We investigated whether two key premises for such outbreak-induced transitions – critical thresholds (tipping points) and positive feedbacks that could maintain alternative states – are present in the northern-boreal mountain birch forest of Fennoscandia. Here, climate warming has promoted range expansions of defoliating...

Data from: Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon

Nicola J. Barson, Tuku Aykanat, Kjetil Hindar, Matthew Baranski, Geir H. Bolstad, Peder Fiske, Céleste Jacq, Arne J. Jensen, Susan E. Johnston, Sten Karlsson, Matthew Kent, Thomas Moen, Eero Niemelä, Torfinn Nome, Tor F. Næsje, Panu Orell, Atso Romakkaniemi, Harald Sægrov, Kurt Urdal, Jaakko Erkinaro, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic...

Data from: Using partial aggregation in Spatial Capture Recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Henrik Brøseth, Jonas Kindberg, J. Andrew Royle & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models are commonly used for analyzing data collected using non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS). Opportunistic NGS often leads to detections that do not occur at discrete detector locations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of individual detections into fixed detectors (e.g. center of grid cells) is an option to increase computing speed of SCR analyses. However, it may reduce precision and accuracy of parameter estimations. 2. Using simulations, we explored the impact that spatial aggregation...

Data from: Advancing restoration ecology: a new approach to predict time to recovery

Knut Rydgren, Rune Halvorsen, Joachim P. Töpper, Inger Auestad, Liv Norunn Hamre, Eelke Jongejans & Jan Sulavik
1. Species composition is a vital attribute of any ecosystem. Accordingly, ecological restoration often has the original, or ‘natural’, species composition as its target. However, we still lack adequate methods for predicting the expected time to compositional recovery in restoration studies. 2. We describe and explore a new, ordination regression-based approach (ORBA) for predicting time to recovery that allows both linear and asymptotic (logarithmic) relationships of compositional change with time. The approach uses distances between...

Data from: Rapid polygenic response to secondary contact in a hybrid species

Glenn-Peter Sætre, Angelica Cuevas, Jo S. Hermansen, Tore O. Elgvin, Laura Piñeiro Fernández, Stein A. Sæther, Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre & Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
Secondary contact between closely related species can have genetic consequences. Competition for essential resources may lead to divergence in heritable traits that reduces interspecific competition, thus leading to increased genetic divergence. Conversely, hybridization and backcrossing can lead to genetic convergence. Here we study a population of a hybrid species, the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), before and after it came into secondary contact with one of its parent species, the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis), in 2013....

Data from: Complementarity of statistical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion: the case of the Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis

Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Jonathan Lundgren, Robert Koch, Benoît Facon, Audrey Grez, Antoon Loomans, Thibaut Malausa, Oldrich Nedved, Emma Rhule, Arnstein Staverlokk, Tove Steenberg & Arnaud Estoup
Inferences about introduction histories of invasive species remain challenging because of the stochastic demographic processes involved. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help to overcome these problems, but such method requires a prior understanding of population structure over the study area, necessitating the use of alternative methods and an intense sampling design. In this study, we made inferences about the worldwide invasion history of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis by various population genetics statistical methods, using a...

Data from: Taking a trip to the shelf: behavioural decisions are mediated by the proximity to foraging habitats in the black-legged kittiwake

Signe Christensen-Dalsgaard, Roel May & Svein-Håkon Lorentsen
1. For marine top predators like seabirds, the oceans represent a multitude of habitats regarding oceanographic conditions and food availability. Worldwide, these habitats are undergoing alterations due to changes in climate and increased anthropogenic impact. This is causing a growing concern on how seabird populations might adapt to these changes. 2. Understanding how seabird populations respond to fluctuating environmental conditions and to what extent behavioural flexibility can buffer variations in food availability, can help predict...

Data from: Sex-specific genetic analysis indicates low correlation between demographic and genetic connectivity in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos)

Julia Schregel, Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson & Snorre B. Hagen
Species viability is strongly connected to the degree of gene flow within and among populations. Such genetic population connectivity may closely track demographic population connectivity or, alternatively, the rate of gene flow may change relative to the rate of dispersal. In this study, we have explored the relationship between genetic and demographic population connectivity using the Scandinavian brown bear as model species, due to its pronounced male dispersal and female philopatry. Our expectation, based on...

Data from: Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolation

Odd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum & Kjetil Hindar
The river-resident Salmo salar (“småblank”) has been isolated from other Atlantic salmon populations for 9,500 years in upper River Namsen, Norway. This is the only European Atlantic salmon population accomplishing its entire life cycle in a river. Hydropower development during the last six decades has introduced movement barriers and changed more than 50% of the river habitat to lentic conditions. Based on microsatellites and SNPs, genetic variation within småblank was only about 50% of that...

Data from: Modelled drift patterns of fish larvae link coastal morphology to seabird colony distribution

Hanno Sandvik, Robert T. Barrett, Kjell Einar Erikstad, Mari S. Myksvoll, Frode Vikebø, Nigel Yoccoz, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Svein-Håkon Lorentsen, Tone K. Reiertsen, Jofrid Skarðhamar, Mette Skern-Mauritzen & Geir Helge Systad
Colonial breeding is an evolutionary puzzle, as the benefits of breeding in high densities are still not fully explained. Although the dynamics of existing colonies are increasingly understood, few studies have addressed the initial formation of colonies, and empirical tests are rare. Using a high-resolution larval drift model, we here document that the distribution of seabird colonies along the Norwegian coast can be explained by variations in the availability and predictability of fish larvae. The...

Data from: Freezer on, lights off! Environmental effects on activity rhythms of fish in the Arctic

Kate L. Hawley, Carolyn M. Rosten, Thrond O. Haugen, Guttorm Christensen & Martyn C. Lucas
Polar regions are characterized by acute seasonal changes in the environment, with organisms inhabiting these regions lacking diel photoperiodic information for parts of the year. We present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution analysis of diel and seasonal activity of free-living fishes in polar waters (74°N), subject to extreme variation in photoperiod, temperature and food availability. Using biotelemetry, we tracked two sympatric ecomorphs of lake-dwelling Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus n = 23) over an annual...

Data from: Habitat segregation between brown bears and gray wolves in a human-dominated landscape

Cyril Milleret, Andrés Ordiz, Guillaume Chapron, Harry Peter Andreassen, Jonas Kindberg, Johan Månsson, Aimee Tallian, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Identifying how sympatric species belonging to the same guild coexist is a major question of community ecology and conservation. Habitat segregation between two species might help reduce the effects of interspecific competition and apex predators are of special interest in this context, because their interactions can have consequences for lower trophic levels. However, habitat segregation between sympatric large carnivores has seldom been studied. Based on monitoring of 53 brown bears (Ursus arctos) and 7 sympatric...

Data from: Survival estimates strongly depend on capture-recapture designs in a disturbed environment inducing dispersal

Aurore Ponchon, Rémi Choquet, Jérémy Tornos, Karen D. McCoy, Torkild Tveraa & Thierry Boulinier
Capture‐Recapture (CR) approaches are extensively used to estimate demographic parameters. Their robustness relies on the selection of suitable statistical models, but also on the sampling design and effort deployed in the field. In colonial or territorial species showing breeding site fidelity, recurrent local perturbations, such as predation‐induced breeding failure, may lead individuals to disperse locally or regionally. This might induce heterogeneity in individual CR histories and biases in demographic parameter estimates. Here, we assessed the...

Data from: Monitoring a Norwegian freshwater crayfish tragedy - eDNA snapshots of invasion, infection and extinction

David A. Strand, Stein Ivar Johnsen, Johannes C. Rusch, Sune Agersnap, William Brenner Larsen, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Peter Rask Møller & Trude Vrålstad
1.The European Noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) is threatened by crayfish plague caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces astaci, which is spread by the invasive North American crayfish (e.g. signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus). Surveillance of crayfish plague status in Norway has traditionally relied on the monitoring survival of cage‐held noble crayfish, a method of ethical concern. Additionally, trapping is used in crayfish population surveillance. Here we test whether environmental DNA (eDNA) monitoring could provide a suitable alternative...

Monitoring genetic diversity with new indicators applied to an alpine freshwater top predator

Anastasia Andersson, Sten Karlsson, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
Genetic diversity is the basis for population adaptation and long-term survival, yet rarely considered in biodiversity monitoring. One key issue is the need for useful and straightforward indicators of genetic diversity. We monitored genetic diversity over 40 years (1970-2010) in metapopulations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) inhabiting 27 small mountain lakes representing 10 lake systems in central Sweden using >1200 fish per time point. We tested six newly proposed indicators; three were designed for broad,...

When does weather synchronise life history traits? Spatiotemporal patterns in juvenile body mass of two ungulates

Ivar Herfindal, Torkild Tveraa, Audun Stien, Erling Johan Solberg & Vidar Grøtan
1. Theory predicts that animal populations will be synchronised over large distances by weather and climatic conditions with high spatial synchrony. However, local variation in population responses to weather, and low synchrony in key weather variables or in other ecological processes may reduce the population synchrony. 2. We investigated to what extent temperature and precipitation during different periods of the year synchronised juvenile body mass of moose and reindeer in Norway. We expected high synchronising...

The unique spatial ecology of human hunters

Atle Mysterud, Inger Maren Rivrud, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Vegard Gundersen & Christer Rolandsen
Human hunters are described as ‘superpredators’ with a unique ecology. Chronic Wasting Disease among cervids and African swine fever among wild boar are emerging wildlife diseases in Europe with huge economic and cultural repercussions. Understanding hunter movements at broad scales has implications for how to control their spread. Here we show, based on the analysis of the settlement patterns and movements of reindeer (n = 9,685), red deer (n = 47,845), moose (n = 60,365),...

Data from: Multi-generational genetic consequences of reinforcement in a bird metapopulation

Peter S. Ranke, Sigrun Skjelseth, Ingerid Julie Hagen, Anna Maria Billing, Åsa Alexandra Borg Pedersen, Henrik Pärn, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Henrik Jensen
Translocation of conspecific individuals to reduce extinction risk of small, isolated populations and prevent genetic depletion is a powerful tool in conservation biology. An important question is how the translocated individuals influence the long-term genetic composition of the recipient population. Here, we experimentally reinforced a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population, and examined the impact of this translocation on allele frequencies, levels of heterozygosity and genetic differentiation over six cohorts. We found no permanent increase in...

Data from: Effect of tower base painting on willow ptarmigan collision rates with wind turbines

Bård Stokke, Torgeir Nygard, Ulla Falkdalen, Hans Pedersen & Roel May
1. Birds colliding with turbine rotor blades is a well-known negative consequence of wind-power plants. However, there has been far less attention to the risk of birds colliding with the turbine towers, and how to mitigate this risk. 2. Based on data from the Smøla wind-power plant in Central Norway, it seems highly likely that willow ptarmigan (the only gallinaceous species found on the island) is prone to collide with turbine towers. By employing a...

Data from: Sámi knowledge and ecosystem-based adaptation strategies for managing pastures under threat from multiple land uses

Sigrid Engen & Vera Hausner
1. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) relies upon the capacity of ecosystems to buffer communities against the adverse impacts of climate change. Maintaining ecosystems that deliver critical services to communities can also provide co-benefits beyond adaptation, such as climate mitigation and protection of biological diversity and livelihoods. EbA has to a limited extent drawn upon indigenous-and local knowledge (ILK) for defining critical services and for implementing EbA in decision-making. This is a paradox given that the primary...

Population genomics of a forest fungus reveals high gene flow and climate adaptation signatures

Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Emiliano Trucchi, Jenni Nordén, Inger Skrede, Otto Miettinen, Sajeet Haridas, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Igor V. Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Håvard Kauserud & Sundy Maurice
Genome sequencing of spatially distributed individuals sheds light on how evolution structures genetic variation. Populations of Phellopilus nigrolimitatus, a red-listed wood-inhabiting fungus associated with old-growth coniferous forests, have decreased in size over the last century due to a loss of suitable habitats. We assessed the population genetic structure and investigated local adaptation in P. nigrolimitatus, by establishing a reference genome and genotyping 327 individuals sampled from 24 locations in Northern Europe by RAD sequencing. We...

Climate influence on plant–pollinator interactions in the keystone species Vaccinium myrtillus

Marianne Evju, Siri L. Olsen, Jens Åström, Jørn O. Løkken, Sondre Dahle, Jonas L. Andresen & Nina E. Eide
Background: Climate change is altering the world’s ecosystems through direct effects of climate warming and precipitation changes, but also indirectly through changes in biotic interactions. For instance, climate-driven changes in plant and/or insect communities may alter plant-pollinator interactions, thereby influencing plant reproductive success and ultimately population dynamics of insect-pollinated plants. Methods: To better understand how the importance of insect pollination for plant fruit set varies with climate, we experimentally excluded pollinators from the partly selfing...

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