196 Works

Fat storage influences fasting endurance more than body size in an ungulate

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Elżbieta Król, Steve Albon, Alina L. Evans, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
1. The fasting endurance hypothesis (FEH) predicts strong selection for large body size in mammals living in environments where food supply is interrupted over prolonged periods of time. The Arctic is a highly seasonal and food restricted environment, but contrary to predictions from the FEH, empirical evidence shows that Arctic mammals are often smaller than their temperate conspecifics. Intraspecific studies integrating physiology and behaviour of different-sized individuals, may shed light on this paradox. 2. We...

Rates of phenotypic plasticity in thermal tolerance

Sigurd Einum & Tim Burton
An individual's fitness cost associated with environmental change likely depends on the rate of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, and yet our understanding of plasticity rates in an ecological and evolutionary context remains limited. We provide the first quantitative synthesis of existing plasticity rate data, focusing on acclimation of temperature tolerance in ectothermic animals, where we demonstrate applicability of a recently proposed analytical approach. The analyses reveal considerable variation in plasticity rates of this trait among species,...

Population genomics of a forest fungus reveals high gene flow and climate adaptation signatures

Jørn Henrik Sønstebø, Emiliano Trucchi, Jenni Nordén, Inger Skrede, Otto Miettinen, Sajeet Haridas, Jasmyn Pangilinan, Igor V. Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Håvard Kauserud & Sundy Maurice
Genome sequencing of spatially distributed individuals sheds light on how evolution structures genetic variation. Populations of Phellopilus nigrolimitatus, a red-listed wood-inhabiting fungus associated with old-growth coniferous forests, have decreased in size over the last century due to a loss of suitable habitats. We assessed the population genetic structure and investigated local adaptation in P. nigrolimitatus, by establishing a reference genome and genotyping 327 individuals sampled from 24 locations in Northern Europe by RAD sequencing. We...

Data from: A pioneering pest: the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) is expanding its outbreak range into low-arctic shrub tundra

Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad, Jane Uhd Jepsen, Helge Molvig & Rolf Anker Ims
Climate warming allows generalist boreal consumers to expand into arctic ecosystems. We present experimental and observational field data showing that a generalist boreal insect pest – the winter moth (Operophtera brumata Linnaeus, 1758) – is expanding its outbreak range out of the northern-boreal mountain birch forest in northeast Fennoscandia and into the adjacent low-artic shrub tundra. This is the first documented example of an outbreaking boreal insect pest expanding into a tundra ecosystem. The expansion...

Incubation temperature and physiological aging in the zebra finch

Claus Bech & Johan Henrik Berntsen
In birds, incubation temperature has received increased attention as an important source of phenotypic variability in offspring. A lower than optimal incubation temperature may negatively affect aspects of nestling physiology, such as body growth and energy metabolism. However, the long-term effects of sub-optimal incubation temperature on morphology and physiology are not well understood. In a previous study, we showed that zebra finches from eggs incubated at a low temperature (35.9°C) for 2/3 of the total...

Defining and quantifying effective connectivity of landscapes for species' movements

Bram Van Moorter, Ilkka Kivimäki, Manuela Panzacchi & Marco Saerens
Demonstration of the workflow and supplementary information on the randomized shortest paths framework for "Defining and quantifying effective connectivity of landscapes for species’ movements" by Van Moorter B, Kivimäki I, Panzacchi M, Saerens M. (2021) in Ecography 44(6):1–15. Ecosystem functioning depends on multiple successful interactions, many supported by individual movements. The degree to which the landscape allows these interactions to take place has been referred to as ‘effective connectivity' (EC). Many of the cumulative impacts...

Climate influence on plant–pollinator interactions in the keystone species Vaccinium myrtillus

Marianne Evju, Siri L. Olsen, Jens Åström, Jørn O. Løkken, Sondre Dahle, Jonas L. Andresen & Nina E. Eide
Background: Climate change is altering the world’s ecosystems through direct effects of climate warming and precipitation changes, but also indirectly through changes in biotic interactions. For instance, climate-driven changes in plant and/or insect communities may alter plant-pollinator interactions, thereby influencing plant reproductive success and ultimately population dynamics of insect-pollinated plants. Methods: To better understand how the importance of insect pollination for plant fruit set varies with climate, we experimentally excluded pollinators from the partly selfing...

Data and R-scripts from: Multiple stressors: negative effects of nest predation on the viability of a threatened gull in different environmental conditions

Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen & Jan Ove Bustnes
This contains data and R-scripts used in: Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen and Jan Ove Bustnes (2022). Multiple stressors: negative effects of nest predation on the viability of a threatened gull in different environmental conditions. Journal of Avian Biology. This study assessed the population viability of a population of the lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus fuscus) using data collected during 2005-2020 from a nature reserve in Northern Norway. The study merged results from statistical analyses of empirical data...

Body size and digestive system shape resource selection by ungulates: a cross-taxa test of the Forage Maturation Hypothesis

Saeideh Esmaeili, Brett Jesmer, Shannon Albeke, Ellen Aikens, Kathryn Schoenecker, Sarah King, Briana Abrahms, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Jeffrey Beck, Randall Boone, Francesca Cagnacci, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Buyanaa Chimeddorj, Paul Cross, Nandintsetseg Dejid, Jagdag Enkhbayar, Ilya Fischhoff, Adam Ford, Kate Jenks, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Jacob Hennig, Takehiko Ito, Petra Kaczensky, Matthew Kauffman, John Linnell … & Jacob Goheen
The Forage Maturation Hypothesis (FMH) states that energy intake for ungulates is maximized when forage biomass is at intermediate levels. Nevertheless, metabolic allometry and different digestive systems suggest that resource selection should vary across ungulate species. By combining GPS relocations with remotely-sensed data on forage characteristics and surface water, we quantified the effect of body size and digestive system in determining movements of 30 populations of hindgut fermenters (equids) and ruminants across biomes. Selection for...

Data from: How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra

John-André Henden, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Rolf A. Ims & Knut Langeland
The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket...

Data from: Population properties affect inbreeding avoidance in moose

Ivar Herfindal, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Erling J. Solberg, Stine S. Markussen, Morten Heim, Bernt-Erik Sæther & B.-E. Saether
Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger...

Data from: Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes

Guillaume Chapron, Petra Kaczensky, John D. C. Linnell, Manuela Von Arx, Djuro Huber, Henrik Andrén, José Vicente López-Bao, Michal Adamec, Francisco Álvares, Ole Anders, Linas Balčiauskas, Vaidas Balys, Péter Bedő, Ferdinand Bego, Juan Carlos Blanco, Urs Breitenmoser, Henrik Brøseth, Luděk Bufka, Raimonda Bunikyte, Paolo Ciucci, Alexander Dutsov, Thomas Engleder, Christian Fuxjäger, Claudio Groff, Katja Holmala … & Luigi Boitani
The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success...

Data from: SNP-array reveals genome wide patterns of geographical and potential adaptive divergence across the natural range of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent, Craig R. Primmer, Anti Vasemägi, Sten Karlsson, Kjetil Hindar, Philip McGinnity, Eric Verspoor, Louis Bernatchez & Sigbjørn Lien
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this paper, we describe the development of a medium density Atlantic salmon...

Data from: Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears

Jacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Jon E. Swenson & Fanie Pelletier
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991–2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled...

Data from: Weak geographical structure in sperm morphology across the range of two willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus subspecies in Scandinavia

Hanna N. Støstad, Silje L. Rekdal, Oddmund Kleven, Terje Laskemoen, Gunnhild Marthinsen, Arild Johnsen & Jan T. Lifjeld
Sperm morphology is highly diversified among species and at higher taxonomic levels. In birds, there is also increasing evidence of geographical differentiation in sperm traits within species, especially in those with strong sperm competition. Geographical divergences in sperm traits might imply the formation of a reproductive barrier in a speciation process. Here we study sperm morphology variation of willow warblers Phylloscopus trochilus in a geographical context in Scandinavia, across the range of two subspecies that...

Data from: Intensity of space use reveals conditional sex-specific effects of prey and conspecific density on home range size

Malin Aronsson, Matthew Low, José V. López-Bao, Jens Persson, John Odden, John D C. Linnell & Henrik Andrén
Home range (HR) size variation is often linked to resource abundance, with sex differences expected to relate to sex-specific fitness consequences. However, studies generally fail to disentangle the effects of the two main drivers of HR size variation, food and conspecific density, and rarely consider how their relative influence change over spatiotemporal scales. We used location data from 77 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from a 16-year Scandinavian study to examine HR sizes variation relative to...

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Temporal variation in habitat selection breaks the catch-22 of spatially contrasting predation risk from multiple predators

Karen Lone, Atle Mysterud, Terje Gobakken, John Odden, John Linnell & Leif Egil Loe
Predator avoidance depends on prey being able to discern how risk varies in space and time, but this is made considerably more complicated if risk is simultaneously present from multiple predators. This is the situation for an increasing number of mammalian prey species, as large carnivores recover or are reintroduced in ecosystems on several continents. Roe deer Capreolus capreolus in southern Norway illustrate a case in which prey face two predators with contrasting patterns of...

Microsatellite variation in Nordic semi-domestic reindeer

Knut Røed, Kjersti Kvie, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Sauli Laaksonen, Hannes Lohi, Juoko Kumpula, Kjell-Åke Aronsson, Birgitta Åhman, Jørn Våge & Øystein Holand
We have analyzed DNA microsatellites and the mitochondrial control region in reindeer from 31 different husbandry areas in Norway, Sweden and Finland in order to better understand the processes that underlie the genetic variability of the Nordic domestic herds. The distinct differentiation found in the nuclear markers but less so in the mitochondrial marker, gives evidence of an origin from a common ancestral population which later evolved into the two main gene pools characterizing the...

Selection against individuals from genetic introgression of escaped farmed salmon in a natural population of Atlantic salmon

Sebastian Wacker, Tonje Aronsen, Sten Karlsson, Ola Ugedal, Ola Diserud, Eva Ulvan, Kjetil Hindar & Tor Næsje
The viability of wild Atlantic salmon populations is threatened by genetic introgression from escaped farmed salmon. Farmed Atlantic salmon are genetically improved for important commercial traits and a life in captivity but are poorly adapted to the natural environment. The rate of geneflow from escaped farmed to wild salmon depends on their spawning success and on offspring survival at various life-stages. We here investigate relative survival of introgressed juvenile Atlantic salmon (parr) in a river...

Data from: Breeding timed to maximize reproductive success for a migratory songbird: the importance of phenological asynchrony

Nina K. Lany, Matthew P. Ayres, Erik E. Stange, T. Scott Sillett, Nicholas L. Rodenhouse & Richard T. Holmes
Phenological advances and trophic mismatches are frequently reported ecological consequences of climate warming. Trophic mismatches occur when phenological responses to environmental conditions differ among trophic levels such that the timing of resource demand by consumers becomes decoupled from supply. We used 25 years of demographic measurements of a migratory songbird (the black-throated blue warbler Setophaga caerulescens) to compare its breeding phenology to the phenology of both its caterpillar prey and the foliage on which caterpillars...

Data from: Migration in geographic and ecological space by a large herbivore

Wibke Peters, Mark Hebblewhite, Atle Mysterud, Derek Spitz, Stefano Focardi, Ferdinando Urbano, Nicolas Morellet, Marco Heurich, Petter Kjellander, John D.C. Linnell, Francesca Cagnacci & John D. C. Linnell
Partial migration, when only part of the population migrates seasonally while the other part remains resident on the shared range, is the most common form of migration in ungulates. Migration is often defined by spatial separation of seasonal ranges and consequently, classification of individuals as migrants or residents is usually only based on geographic criteria. However, the underlying mechanism for migration is hypothesized to be movement in response to spatiotemporal resource variability and thus, migrants...

Data from: Maternal winter body mass and not spring phenology determine annual calf production in an Arctic herbivore

Vebjorn Veiberg, Leif Egil Loe, Steve Albon, Robert Irvine, Torkild Tveraa, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Steve D. Albon & R. Justin Irvine
Warming of the Arctic has resulted in earlier snowmelt and green-up of plants in spring, potentially disrupting the synchrony between plant phenology and breeding phenology in herbivores. A negative relationship between offspring survival in West-Greenland caribou and the timing of vegetation emergence was the first finding of such a mismatch in Arctic mammals. However, other studies indicate that the energy for foetal growth and early lactation is predominantly drawn from stored energy reserves typical of...

Data from: High-throughput microsatellite genotyping in ecology: improved accuracy, efficiency, standardization and success with low-quantity and degraded DNA

Marta De Barba, Christian Miquel, Stephane Lobreaux, Pierre Yves Quenette, Jon E. Swenson & Pierre Taberlet
Microsatellite markers have played a major role in ecological, evolutionary and conservation research during the past 20 years. However, technical constrains related to the use of capillary electrophoresis and a recent technological revolution that has impacted other marker types have brought to question the continued use of microsatellites for certain applications. We present a study for improving microsatellite genotyping in ecology using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). This approach entails selection of short markers suitable for HTS,...

Data from: The cost of migratory prey: seasonal changes in semi-domestic reindeer distribution influences breeding success of Eurasian lynx in northern Norway

Zea Walton, Jenny Mattisson, John D.C. Linnell, Audun Stien, John Odden & John D. C. Linnell
Migratory prey is a widespread phenomenon that has implications for predator–prey interactions. By creating large temporal variation in resource availability between seasons it becomes challenging for carnivores to secure a regular year-round supply of food. Some predators may respond by following their migratory prey, however, most predators are sedentary and experience strong seasonal variation in resource availability. Increased predation on alternative prey may dampen such seasonal resource fluctuations, but reduced reproduction rates in predators is...

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