191 Works

Data from: Community-wide mesocarnivore response to partial ungulate migration

John-André Henden, Audun Stien, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Nigel G. Yoccoz & Rolf A. Ims
Mesocarnivores increase in number and geographic range in human-disturbed ecosystems with cascading negative impact on biodiversity. To mitigate such impacts it is essential to identify the proximate causes of such mesocarnivore releases. Here we assess to what extent increased partial migration in semi-domesticated tundra reindeer induce a response in boreal and arctic mesocarnivores. We used a large-scale and multi-year quasi-experimental study design with camera traps deployed on coastal tundra peninsulas in northern Norway to estimate...

Data from: Allometric scaling of intraspecific space use

Carolyn M. Rosten, Rodolphe E. Gozlan & Martyn C. Lucas
Allometric scaling relationships enable exploration of animal space-use patterns, yet interspecific studies cannot address many of the underlying mechanisms. We present the first intraspecific study of home range (HR) allometry relative to energetic requirements over several orders of magnitude of body mass, using as a model the predatory fish, pike Esox lucius. Analogous with interspecific studies, we show that space use increases more rapidly with mass (exponent = 1.08) than metabolic scaling theories predict. Our...

Data from: Multi-level patterns in population genetics: variogram series detects a hidden isolation-by- distance- dominated structure of Scandinavian brown bears Ursus arctos

Julia Schregel, Jaanus Remm, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson, Urmas Saarma & Snorre B. Hagen
1. Large-scale pattern-oriented approaches are useful to understand the multi-level processes that shape the genetic structure of a population. Matching the scales of patterns and putative processes is both a key to success and a challenge. 2. We have developed a simple statistical approach, based on variogram analysis, that identifies multiple spatial scales where the population pattern, in this case genetic structure, have highest expression (i.e. the spatial scales at which the strength of patterning...

Data from: Predicting the continuum between corridors and barriers to animal movements using Step Selection Functions and Randomized Shortest Paths

Manuela Panzacchi, Bram Van Moorter, Olav Strand, Marco Saerens, Ilkka Kivimäki, Colleen Cassady St. Clair, Ivar Herfindal & Luigi Boitani
1. The loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat everywhere on Earth prompts increasing attention to identifying landscape features that support animal movement (corridors) or impedes it (barriers). Most algorithms used to predict corridors assume that animals move through preferred habitat either optimally (e.g. least cost path) or as random walkers (e.g. current models), but neither extreme is realistic. 2. We propose that corridors and barriers are two sides of the same coin and that animals...

Fear the reaper: ungulate carcasses may generate an ephemeral landscape of fear for rodents

Shane Frank, Rakel Blaalid, Martin Mayer, Andreas Zedrosser & Sam Steyaert
Animal carcasses provide an ephemeral pulse of nutrients for scavengers that utilize them. Carcass sites can increase species interactions and/or ephemeral, localized landscapes of fear for prey within the vicinity. Few studies have applied the landscape of fear to carcasses. Here we use a mass die-off of reindeer caused by lightning in Norway to test whether rodents avoided larger scavengers (e.g. corvids and fox). We used the presence and abundance of faeces as a proxy...

Decomposing demographic contributions to the effective population size with moose as a case study

Stine Svalheim Markussen, Aline Lee, Ane Myhre, Steinar Engen, Erling Solberg, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H Røed, Ivar Herfindal, Morten Heim & Bernt-Erik Sæther
Levels of random genetic drift are influenced by demographic factors, such as mating system, sex ratio and age structure. The effective population size (Ne) is a useful measure for quantifying genetic drift. Evaluating relative contributions of different demographic factors to Ne is therefore important to identify what makes a population vulnerable to loss of genetic variation. Until recently, models for estimating Ne have required many simplifying assumptions, making them unsuitable for this task. Here, using...

High-resolution modelling of uplift landscapes can inform micro-siting of wind turbines for soaring raptors

Frank Hanssen, Roel May & Torgeir Nygård
Collision risk of soaring birds is partly associated with updrafts to which they are attracted. To identify risk-enhancing landscape features, a micro-siting tool was developed to model orographic and thermal updraft velocities from high-resolution remote sensing data. The tool was applied to the island of Hitra, and validated using GPS-tracked white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla). Resource selection functions predicted that eagles preferred ridges with high orographic uplift, especially at flight altitudes within the rotor-swept zone (40-110...

Opposing fitness consequences of habitat use in a harvested moose population

Endre Grüner Ofstad, Endre Ofstad, Stine Markussen, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Erling Johan Solberg, Morten Heim, Hallvard Haanes, Knut Røed & Ivar Herfindal
1. Landscape changes are happening at an unprecedented pace, and together with high levels of wildlife harvesting humans have a large effect on wildlife populations. A thorough knowledge of their combined influence on individual fitness is important in order to understand factors affecting population dynamics. 2. The goal of the study was to assess the individual consistency in the use of risky habitat types, and how habitat use was related to fitness components and life-history...

Hidden treasure of the Gobi: understanding how water limits range use of khulan in the Mongolian Gobi

John C. Payne, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Diana E. Bowler, Kirk A. Olson, Chris Walzer & Petra Kaczensky
Most large herbivores in arid landscapes need to drink which constrains their movements and makes them vulnerable to disturbance. Asiatic wild ass or khulan (Equus hemionus) were widespread and abundant throughout the arid landscapes of Central Asia and Mongolia, but have undergone dramatic population declines and range constrictions; denying khulan access to water is believed to have played a major role. Mongolia’s South Gobi Region now houses the world largest remaining khulan population, but is...

End-user involvement to improve predictions and management of populations with complex dynamics and multiple drivers

John-André Henden, Einar Asbjørnsen, Rolf Ims, Nigel Yoccoz, Audun Stien, Jarad Mellard, Torkild Tveraa, Filippo Marolla & Jane Jepsen
Sustainable management of wildlife populations can be aided by building models that both identify current drivers of natural dynamics and provide near-term predictions of future states. We employed a Strategic Foresight Protocol (SFP) involving stakeholders to decide the purpose and structure of a dynamic state-space model for the population dynamics of the willow ptarmigan - a popular game species in Norway. Based on local knowledge of stakeholders, it was decided that the model should include...

Great cormorant diet data from the Norwegian coast

Nina Dehnhard, Magdalene Langset, Asgeir Aglen, Svein-Håkon Lorentsen & Tycho Anker-Nilssen
Piscivorous wildlife is often perceived as competitors by humans. Great cormorants of the continental subspecies (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in the Baltic and North Sea increase, while local cod (Gadus morhua) stocks decline. In contrast, numbers of the Atlantic subspecies (P. c. carbo), breeding along the Norwegian and Barents Seas have been relatively stable. We investigated the diet of both great cormorant subspecies in breeding colonies along the Norwegian Coast from Lofoten to the Skagerrak and...

Short-Tandem-Repeat (STR) marker set for Eurasian lynx for article: Genetic analysis indicates spatial-dependent patterns of sex-biased dispersal in Eurasian lynx in Finland

Annika Herrero, Cornelya Klutsch, Katja Holmala, Simo Maduna, Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken & Snorre Hagen
Conservation and management of large carnivores requires knowledge of female and male dispersal. Such information is crucial to evaluate the population’s status and thus management actions. This knowledge is challenging to obtain, often incomplete and contradictory at times. The size of the target population and the methods applied can bias the results. Also, population history and biological or environmental influences can affect dispersal on different scales within a study area. We have genotyped Eurasian lynx...

Extreme home range sizes among Eurasian lynx at the northern edge of their biogeographic range

Jenny Mattisson, John D. C. Linnell & John Odden
Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a wide distribution across Eurasia. The northern edge of this distribution is in Norway, where they reach up to 72 degrees north. We conducted a study of lynx space use in this region from 2007 to 2013 using GPS telemetry. The home range sizes averaged 2606 (± 438 SE) km2 for males (n=9 ranges) and 1456 (± 179 SE) km2 for females (n=24 ranges). These are the largest home ranges...

Data from: Congruence, but no cascade - pelagic biodiversity across 3 trophic levels in Nordic lakes

Tom Andersen, Dag O. Hessen, Johnny Håll, Maryia Khomich, Marcia Kyle, Markus Lindholm, Serana Rasconi, Birger Skjelbred, Jan-Erik Thrane & Bjørn Walseng
Covariation in species richness and community structure across taxonomical groups (cross-taxon congruence) has practical consequences for the identification of biodiversity surrogates and proxies, as well as theoretical ramifications for understanding the mechanisms maintaining and sustaining biodiversity. We found there to exist a high cross-taxon congruence between phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish in 73 large Scandinavian lakes across a 750 km longitudinal transect. The fraction of the total diversity variation explained by local environment alone was small...

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

Of wolves and bears: Seasonal drivers of interference and exploitation competition between apex predators

Aimee Tallian, Andrés Ordiz, Matthew Metz, Barbara Zimmermann, Camilla Wikenros, Douglas Smith, Daniel Stahler, Petter Wabakken, Jon Swenson, Håkan Sand & Jonas Kindberg
Competition between apex predators can alter the strength of top-down forcing, yet we know little about the behavioral mechanisms that drive competition in multipredator ecosystems. Interactions between predators can be synergistic (facilitative) or antagonistic (inhibitive), both of which are widespread in nature, vary in strength between species and across space and time, and affect predation patterns and predator-prey dynamics. Recent research suggests gray wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates decrease where they are sympatric with brown...

Data and scripts for: Quantitative assessment of observed vs. predicted responses to selection

Christophe Pelabon, Elena Albertsen, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Cyril Firmat, Geir H. Bolstad, W. Scott Armbruster & Thomas Hansen
Although artificial-selection experiments seem well suited to testing our ability to predict evolution, the correspondence between predicted and observed responses is often ambiguous due to the lack of uncertainty estimates. We present equations for assessing prediction error in direct and indirect responses to selection that integrate uncertainty in genetic parameters used for prediction and sampling effects during selection. Using these, we analyzed a selection experiment on floral traits replicated in two taxa of the Dalechampia...

Trust in researchers and researchers’ statements in large carnivore conservation

Kristin Mathiesen, Magnus Barmoen, Kim Magnus Bærum & Maria Johansson
Human-wildlife interactions occur when humans and wildlife overlap in the same landscapes. Due to the growing human population, the number of interactions will continue to increase, and in some cases, develop further into social conflicts. Conflicts may occur between people disagreeing about wildlife conservation or arguing over which wildlife management measures should be taken. Social conflicts between humans are based on different attitudes, values and land-use aspirations. The success of solving these social conflicts strongly...

Social environment shapes female settlement decisions in a solitary carnivore

Jenny Hansen, Anne Hertel, Shane Frank, Jonas Kindberg & Andreas Zedrosser
How and where a female selects an area to settle and breed is of central importance in dispersal and population ecology as it governs range expansion and gene flow. Social structure and organization have been shown to influence settlement decisions, but its importance in settlement of large, solitary mammals is largely unknown. We investigate how the identity of overlapping conspecifics on the landscape, acquired during the maternal care period, influences selection of settlement home ranges...

Whole-genome resequencing confirms reproductive isolation between sympatric demes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) detected with allozymes

Atal Saha, Anastasia Andersson, Sara Kurland, Naomi Keehnen, Verena Kutschera, Ola Hössjer, Diana Ekman, Sten Karlsson, Marty Kardos, Gunnar Ståhl, Fred Allendorf, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
The sympatric existence of genetically distinct populations of the same species remains a puzzle in ecology. Coexisting salmonid fish populations are known from over 100 freshwater lakes. Most studies of sympatric populations have used limited numbers of genetic markers making it unclear if genetic divergence involves only certain parts of the genome. We return to the first reported case of salmonid sympatry, initially detected through contrasting homozygosity at a single allozyme locus (coding for lactate...

MetaComNet: A random forest-based framework for making spatial prediction of plant-pollinator interactions

Markus Arne Kjær Sydenham, Zander Venter, Trond Reitan, Claus Rasmussen, Astrid Skrindo, Daniel Skoog, Kaj-Andreas Hanevik, Stein Joar Hegland, Yoko Dupont, Anders Nielsen, Joseph Chipperfield & Graciela Rusch
1. Predicting plant-pollinator interaction networks over space and time will improve our understanding of how environmental change is likely to impact the functioning of ecosystems. Here we propose a framework for producing spatially explicit predictions of the occurrence and number of pairwise plant-pollinator interactions and of the species richness, diversity, and abundance of pollinators visiting flowers. We call the framework ‘MetaComNet’ because it aims to link metacommunity dynamics to the assembly of ecological networks. 2....

Data from: Integrated population models poorly estimate the demographic contribution of immigration

Matthieu Paquet, Jonas Knape, Debora Arlt, Pär Forslund, Tomas Pärt, Øystein Flagstad, Carl G. Jones, Malcolm A. C. Nicoll, Ken Norris, Josephine M. Pemberton, Håkan Sand, Linn Svensson, Vikash Tatayah, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Mikael Åkesson & Matthew Low
Estimating the contribution of demographic parameters to changes in population growth is essential for understanding why populations fluctuate. Integrated Population Models (IPMs) offer a possibility to estimate contributions of additional demographic parameters, for which no data have been explicitly collected: typically immigration. Such parametersare often subsequently highlighted as important drivers of population growth. Yet, accuracy in estimating their temporal variation, and consequently their contribution to changes in population growth rate, has not been investigated. To...

Directed endozoochorous dispersal by scavengers facilitate sexual reproduction in otherwise clonal plants at cadaver sites

Mie P. Arnberg, Shane C. Frank, Rakel Blaalid, Marie L. Davey, Amy E. Eycott & Sam M. J. G. Steyaert
The regeneration niche of many plant species involves spatially and temporally unpredictable disturbances, called recruitment windows of opportunity. However, even species with clear dispersal adaptations such as fleshy berries may not successfully reach such elusive regeneration microsites. Ericaceous, berry-producing species in the northern hemisphere demonstrate this dispersal limitation. They are said to display a reproductive paradox owing to their lack of regeneration in apparently suitable microsites despite considerable investment in producing large quantities of berries....

Conserving on the edge: genetic variation and structure in northern populations of the endangered plant Dracocephalum ruyschiana L. (Lamiaceae)

Magni Olsen Kyrkjeeide, Kristine Bakke Westergaard, Oddmund Kleven, Marianne Evju, Anders Endrestøl, Marie Kristine Brandrud & Odd Stabbetorp
Loss of biodiversity is accelerating, including the loss of genetic diversity. Conservation of small, isolated populations may be important, as they can provide valuable contributions to overall genetic variation and long-term viability of species. Furthermore, such populations may play an essential role in adaptation to new environments following changes in e.g. land-use and climate. Dracocephalum ruyschiana is a threatened plant species throughout its European distribution, but 25% of the European populations are situated within Norway....

Data from: A camera trap based assessment of climate-driven phenotypic plasticity of seasonal moulting in an endangered carnivore

Lucie Laporte-Devylder, Kristine R. Ulvund, Lars Rød-Eriksen, Ola Olsson, Øystein Flagstad, Arild Landa, Nina E. Eide & Craig R. Jackson
For many species, the ability to rapidly adapt to changes in seasonality is essential for long-term survival. In the Arctic, seasonal moulting is a key life history event that provides year-round camouflage and thermal protection. However, increased seasonal variability can lead to phenological mismatch. In this study, we investigated whether winter-white (white morph) and winter-brown (blue morph) Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) could adjust their winter-to-summer moult to match local environmental conditions. We used camera trap...

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