168 Works

Data from: How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra

John-André Henden, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Rolf A. Ims & Knut Langeland
The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket...

Data from: Inferences of genetic architecture of bill morphology in house sparrow using a high‐density SNP array point to a polygenic basis

Sarah L. Lundregan, Ingerid J. Hagen, Jostein Gohli, Alina K. Niskanen, Petri Kemppainen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Bernt Rønning, Håkon Holand, Peter S. Ranke, Anna S. Båtnes, Linn-Karina Selvik, Sigbjorn Lien, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Arild Husby, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can provide insights into the mechanisms driving phenotypic evolution. Bill morphology is an ecologically important and phenotypically variable trait, which is highly heritable and closely linked to individual fitness. Thus, bill morphology traits are suitable candidates for gene mapping analyses. Previous studies have revealed several genes that may influence bill morphology, but the similarity of gene and allele effects between species and populations is unknown. Here, we develop...

Data from: Weak geographical structure in sperm morphology across the range of two willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus subspecies in Scandinavia

Hanna N. Støstad, Silje L. Rekdal, Oddmund Kleven, Terje Laskemoen, Gunnhild Marthinsen, Arild Johnsen & Jan T. Lifjeld
Sperm morphology is highly diversified among species and at higher taxonomic levels. In birds, there is also increasing evidence of geographical differentiation in sperm traits within species, especially in those with strong sperm competition. Geographical divergences in sperm traits might imply the formation of a reproductive barrier in a speciation process. Here we study sperm morphology variation of willow warblers Phylloscopus trochilus in a geographical context in Scandinavia, across the range of two subspecies that...

Data from: Long-lasting effects of logging on beetles in hollow oaks

Hanne Eik Pilskog, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Marianne Evju, Erik Framstad & Tone Birkemoe
There is growing evidence that biodiversity is important for ecosystem functions. Thus, identification of habitat requirements essential for current species richness and abundance to persist is crucial. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp.) are biodiversity hot spots for deadwood‐dependent insect species, and the main objective of this paper was to test the effect of habitat history and current habitat distribution at various spatial scales on the associated beetle community. We used a gradient spanning 40 km from...

Data from: The cost of migratory prey: seasonal changes in semi-domestic reindeer distribution influences breeding success of Eurasian lynx in northern Norway

Zea Walton, Jenny Mattisson, John D.C. Linnell, Audun Stien, John Odden & John D. C. Linnell
Migratory prey is a widespread phenomenon that has implications for predator–prey interactions. By creating large temporal variation in resource availability between seasons it becomes challenging for carnivores to secure a regular year-round supply of food. Some predators may respond by following their migratory prey, however, most predators are sedentary and experience strong seasonal variation in resource availability. Increased predation on alternative prey may dampen such seasonal resource fluctuations, but reduced reproduction rates in predators is...

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes

Guillaume Chapron, Petra Kaczensky, John D. C. Linnell, Manuela Von Arx, Djuro Huber, Henrik Andrén, José Vicente López-Bao, Michal Adamec, Francisco Álvares, Ole Anders, Linas Balčiauskas, Vaidas Balys, Péter Bedő, Ferdinand Bego, Juan Carlos Blanco, Urs Breitenmoser, Henrik Brøseth, Luděk Bufka, Raimonda Bunikyte, Paolo Ciucci, Alexander Dutsov, Thomas Engleder, Christian Fuxjäger, Claudio Groff, Katja Holmala … & Luigi Boitani
The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success...

Data from: Exploratory and confirmatory research in the open science era

Erlend B. Nilsen, Diana Bowler & John Linnell
1. Applied ecological research is increasingly inspired by the Open Science movement. However, new challenges about how we define our science when biodiversity data is being shared and re-used are not solved. Among these challenges is the risk associated with blurring the distinction between research that mainly seeks to explore patterns with no a-priori articulated hypotheses (exploratory research), and research that explicitly tests a-priori formulated hypotheses (confirmatory research). 2. A rapid screening of a random...

Scavenger community structure along an environmental gradient from boreal forest to alpine tundra in Scandinavia

Gjermund Gomo, Lars Rød-Eriksen, Harry P. Andreassen, Jenny Mattisson, Morten Odden, Olivier Devineau & Nina E. Eide
Scavengers can have strong impacts on food webs, and awareness of their role in ecosystems have increased during the last decades. In our study, we used baited camera traps to quantify the structure of the winter scavenger community in central Scandinavia across a forest-alpine continuum and assess how climatic conditions affected spatial patterns of species occurrences. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the main habitat type (forest or alpine tundra) and snow depth were main determinants...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

Data from: Assessing the usefulness of Citizen Science Data for habitat suitability modelling: opportunistic reporting versus sampling based on a systematic protocol

Laura Henckel, Ute Bradter, Mari Jönsson, Nick Isaac & Tord Snäll
Aim: To evaluate the potential of models based on opportunistic reporting (OR) compared to models based on data from a systematic protocol (SP) for modelling species distributions. We compared model performance for eight forest bird species with contrasting spatial distributions, habitat requirements, and rarity. Differences in the reporting of species were also assessed. Finally, we tested potential improvement of models when inferring high quality absences from OR based on questionnaires sent to observers. Location: Both...

Fungal sporocarps house diverse and host-specific communities of fungicolous fungi

Sundy Maurice, Gontran Arnault, Jenni Norden, Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Otto Miettinen & Håvard Kauserud
Sporocarps (fruit bodies) are the sexual reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi. They are highly nutritious and consequently vulnerable to grazing by birds and small mammals, and invertebrates, and can be infected by microbial and fungal parasites and pathogens. The complexity of communities thriving inside sporocarps is largely unknown. In this study, we revealed the diversity, taxonomic composition and host-preference of fungicolous fungi (i.e fungi that feed on other fungi) in sporocarps....

Microsatellite variation in Nordic semi-domestic reindeer

Knut Røed, Kjersti Kvie, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Sauli Laaksonen, Hannes Lohi, Juoko Kumpula, Kjell-Åke Aronsson, Birgitta Åhman, Jørn Våge & Øystein Holand
We have analyzed DNA microsatellites and the mitochondrial control region in reindeer from 31 different husbandry areas in Norway, Sweden and Finland in order to better understand the processes that underlie the genetic variability of the Nordic domestic herds. The distinct differentiation found in the nuclear markers but less so in the mitochondrial marker, gives evidence of an origin from a common ancestral population which later evolved into the two main gene pools characterizing the...

Data used in: \"Impacts of predator-mediated interactions along a climatic gradient on the population dynamics of an alpine bird\"

Diana Bowler, Mikkel Kvasnes, Hans Pedersen, Brett Sandercock & Erlend Nilsen
Data for: Impacts of predator-mediated interactions along a climatic gradient on the population dynamics of an alpine bird doi: 10.1098/rspb.2020.2653 Diana E. Bowler, Mikkel A. J. Kvasnes, Hans C. Pedersen, Brett K. Sandercock, Erlend B. Nilsen Questions to: diana.e.bowler@gmail.com or erlend.nilsen@nina.no

Selection against individuals from genetic introgression of escaped farmed salmon in a natural population of Atlantic salmon

Sebastian Wacker, Tonje Aronsen, Sten Karlsson, Ola Ugedal, Ola Diserud, Eva Ulvan, Kjetil Hindar & Tor Næsje
The viability of wild Atlantic salmon populations is threatened by genetic introgression from escaped farmed salmon. Farmed Atlantic salmon are genetically improved for important commercial traits and a life in captivity but are poorly adapted to the natural environment. The rate of geneflow from escaped farmed to wild salmon depends on their spawning success and on offspring survival at various life-stages. We here investigate relative survival of introgressed juvenile Atlantic salmon (parr) in a river...

Herbivores reduce seedling recruitment in alpine plant communities

Øystein H. Opedal, Kristin Nystuen, Dagmar Hagen, Håkon Holien, Mia Sørensen, Simone Lang, Sigrid Lindmo, G. RIchard Strimbeck & Bente Graae
Through changes in climate and other environmental factors, alpine tundra ecosystems are subject to increased cover of erect shrubs, reduced predictability of rodent dynamics, and changes in wild and domesticated herbivore densities. To predict the dynamics of these ecosystems, we need to understand how these simultaneous changes affect alpine vegetation. In the long term, vegetation dynamics may depend critically on seedling recruitment. To study drivers of alpine plant seedling recruitment, we set up a field...

Exceptionally high apparent adult survival in three tropical species of plovers in Madagascar

William Jones, Luke Eberhart-Hertel, Robert Freckleton, Joseph Hoffmann, Oliver Krüger, Brett Sandercock, Orsolya Vincze, Sama Zefania & Tamás Székely
Adult survival is a key component of population dynamics and understanding variation in and the drivers of adult survival rates and longevity is critical for ecological and evolutionary studies, as well as for conservation biology and practice. Tropical species of landbirds are often selected to have higher adult survival due to high nest predation rates, but it is unclear if the same patterns occur in other avian lineages with different life history strategies. Here, we...

Data from: Sampling beetle communities: trap design interacts with weather and species traits to bias capture rates

Ryan Burner, Tone Birkemoe, Siri Lie Olsen & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Globally, many insect populations are declining, prompting calls for action. Yet these findings have also prompted discussion about sampling methods and interpretation of long-term datasets. As insect monitoring and research efforts increase, it is critical to quantify the effectiveness of sampling methods. This is especially true if sampling biases of different methods covary with climate, which is also changing over time. We assess the effectiveness of two types of flight intercept traps commonly used for...

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