187 Works

Data from: How many routes lead to migration? Comparison of methods to assess and characterise migratory movements

Francesca Cagnacci, Stefano Focardi, Anne Ghisla, Bram Van Moorter, Eliezer Gurarie, Marco Heurich, Atle Mysterud, John Linnell, Manuela Panzacchi, Evelyn Merrill, Roel May, Torgeir Nygård, Christer Rolandsen, Mark Hebblewhite & Evelyn H. Merrill
1. Decreasing rate of migration in several species as a consequence of climate change and anthropic pressure, together with increasing evidence of space-use strategies intermediate between residency and complete migration, are very strong motivations to evaluate migration occurrence and features in animal populations. 2. The main goal of this paper was to perform a relative comparison between methods for identifying and characterising migration at the individual and population level on the basis of animal location...

Data from: Trophic interactions and abiotic factors drive functional and phylogenetic structure of vertebrate herbivore communities across the Arctic tundra biome

James D.M. Speed, Ina A. Skjelbred, Isabel C. Barrio, Michael D. Martin, Dominique Berteaux, C. Guillermo Bueno, Katie S. Christie, Bruce C. Forbes, Jennifer Forbey, Daniel Fortin, Jon-Arvid Grytnes, Katrine S. Hoset, Nicolas Lecomte, Bryndis Marteinsdottir, Jesper B. Mosbacher, Åshild O. Pedersen, Virve Ravolainen, Eileen C. Rees, Anna Skarin, Natalya Sokolova, Andrew H. Thornhill, Ingunn Tombre & Eeva M. Soininen
Communities are assembled from species that evolve or colonise a given geographic region, and persist in the face of abiotic conditions and interactions with other species. The evolutionary and colonisation histories of communities are characterised by phylogenetic diversity, while functional diversity is indicative of abiotic and biotic conditions. The relationship between functional and phylogenetic diversity infers whether species functional traits are divergent (differing between related species) or convergent (similar among distantly related species). Biotic interactions...

Data from: Through the eye of a Gobi khulan – application of camera collars for ecological research of far-ranging species in remote and highly variable ecosystems

Petra Kaczensky, Sanchir Khaliun, John Payne, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar & Chris Walzer
The Mongolian Gobi-Eastern Steppe Ecosystem is one of the largest remaining natural drylands and home to a unique assemblage of migratory ungulates. Connectivity and integrity of this ecosystem are at risk if increasing human activities are not carefully planned and regulated. The Gobi part supports the largest remaining population of the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus; locally called “khulan”). Individual khulan roam over areas of thousands of square kilometers and the scale of their movements...

Data from: SNP-array reveals genome wide patterns of geographical and potential adaptive divergence across the natural range of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Vincent Bourret, Matthew P. Kent, Craig R. Primmer, Anti Vasemägi, Sten Karlsson, Kjetil Hindar, Philip McGinnity, Eric Verspoor, Louis Bernatchez & Sigbjørn Lien
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this paper, we describe the development of a medium density Atlantic salmon...

Data from: Inferences of genetic architecture of bill morphology in house sparrow using a high‐density SNP array point to a polygenic basis

Sarah L. Lundregan, Ingerid J. Hagen, Jostein Gohli, Alina K. Niskanen, Petri Kemppainen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Bernt Rønning, Håkon Holand, Peter S. Ranke, Anna S. Båtnes, Linn-Karina Selvik, Sigbjorn Lien, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Arild Husby, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can provide insights into the mechanisms driving phenotypic evolution. Bill morphology is an ecologically important and phenotypically variable trait, which is highly heritable and closely linked to individual fitness. Thus, bill morphology traits are suitable candidates for gene mapping analyses. Previous studies have revealed several genes that may influence bill morphology, but the similarity of gene and allele effects between species and populations is unknown. Here, we develop...

Data from: How spatial variation in areal extent and configuration of labile vegetation states affect the riparian bird community in Arctic tundra

John-André Henden, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Rolf A. Ims & Knut Langeland
The Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by large herbivores and growing human activity. Thickets of tall shrubs represent a conspicuous vegetation state in northern and temperate ecosystems, where it serves important ecological functions, including habitat for wildlife. Thickets are however labile, as tall shrubs respond rapidly to both abiotic and biotic environmental drivers. Our aim was to assess how large-scale spatial variation in willow thicket...

Data from: Breeding timed to maximize reproductive success for a migratory songbird: the importance of phenological asynchrony

Nina K. Lany, Matthew P. Ayres, Erik E. Stange, T. Scott Sillett, Nicholas L. Rodenhouse & Richard T. Holmes
Phenological advances and trophic mismatches are frequently reported ecological consequences of climate warming. Trophic mismatches occur when phenological responses to environmental conditions differ among trophic levels such that the timing of resource demand by consumers becomes decoupled from supply. We used 25 years of demographic measurements of a migratory songbird (the black-throated blue warbler Setophaga caerulescens) to compare its breeding phenology to the phenology of both its caterpillar prey and the foliage on which caterpillars...

Data from: Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears

Jacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Jon E. Swenson & Fanie Pelletier
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991–2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled...

Data from: Weak geographical structure in sperm morphology across the range of two willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus subspecies in Scandinavia

Hanna N. Støstad, Silje L. Rekdal, Oddmund Kleven, Terje Laskemoen, Gunnhild Marthinsen, Arild Johnsen & Jan T. Lifjeld
Sperm morphology is highly diversified among species and at higher taxonomic levels. In birds, there is also increasing evidence of geographical differentiation in sperm traits within species, especially in those with strong sperm competition. Geographical divergences in sperm traits might imply the formation of a reproductive barrier in a speciation process. Here we study sperm morphology variation of willow warblers Phylloscopus trochilus in a geographical context in Scandinavia, across the range of two subspecies that...

Data from: Maternal winter body mass and not spring phenology determine annual calf production in an Arctic herbivore

Vebjorn Veiberg, Leif Egil Loe, Steve Albon, Robert Irvine, Torkild Tveraa, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Steve D. Albon & R. Justin Irvine
Warming of the Arctic has resulted in earlier snowmelt and green-up of plants in spring, potentially disrupting the synchrony between plant phenology and breeding phenology in herbivores. A negative relationship between offspring survival in West-Greenland caribou and the timing of vegetation emergence was the first finding of such a mismatch in Arctic mammals. However, other studies indicate that the energy for foetal growth and early lactation is predominantly drawn from stored energy reserves typical of...

Data from: Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes

Guillaume Chapron, Petra Kaczensky, John D. C. Linnell, Manuela Von Arx, Djuro Huber, Henrik Andrén, José Vicente López-Bao, Michal Adamec, Francisco Álvares, Ole Anders, Linas Balčiauskas, Vaidas Balys, Péter Bedő, Ferdinand Bego, Juan Carlos Blanco, Urs Breitenmoser, Henrik Brøseth, Luděk Bufka, Raimonda Bunikyte, Paolo Ciucci, Alexander Dutsov, Thomas Engleder, Christian Fuxjäger, Claudio Groff, Katja Holmala … & Luigi Boitani
The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success...

Data from: Intensity of space use reveals conditional sex-specific effects of prey and conspecific density on home range size

Malin Aronsson, Matthew Low, José V. López-Bao, Jens Persson, John Odden, John D C. Linnell & Henrik Andrén
Home range (HR) size variation is often linked to resource abundance, with sex differences expected to relate to sex-specific fitness consequences. However, studies generally fail to disentangle the effects of the two main drivers of HR size variation, food and conspecific density, and rarely consider how their relative influence change over spatiotemporal scales. We used location data from 77 Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from a 16-year Scandinavian study to examine HR sizes variation relative to...

Data from: Long-lasting effects of logging on beetles in hollow oaks

Hanne Eik Pilskog, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Marianne Evju, Erik Framstad & Tone Birkemoe
There is growing evidence that biodiversity is important for ecosystem functions. Thus, identification of habitat requirements essential for current species richness and abundance to persist is crucial. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp.) are biodiversity hot spots for deadwood‐dependent insect species, and the main objective of this paper was to test the effect of habitat history and current habitat distribution at various spatial scales on the associated beetle community. We used a gradient spanning 40 km from...

Data from: The cost of migratory prey: seasonal changes in semi-domestic reindeer distribution influences breeding success of Eurasian lynx in northern Norway

Zea Walton, Jenny Mattisson, John D.C. Linnell, Audun Stien, John Odden & John D. C. Linnell
Migratory prey is a widespread phenomenon that has implications for predator–prey interactions. By creating large temporal variation in resource availability between seasons it becomes challenging for carnivores to secure a regular year-round supply of food. Some predators may respond by following their migratory prey, however, most predators are sedentary and experience strong seasonal variation in resource availability. Increased predation on alternative prey may dampen such seasonal resource fluctuations, but reduced reproduction rates in predators is...

Data from: Spatial synchrony in sub-arctic geometrid moth outbreaks reflects dispersal in larval and adult lifecycle stages

Ole Petter L. Vindstad, Jane U. Jepsen, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Michel D.S. Mesquita & Rolf A. Ims
1. Spatial synchrony in population dynamics can be caused by dispersal or spatially correlated variation in environmental factors like weather (Moran effect). Distinguishing between these mechanisms is challenging for natural populations, and the study of dispersal-induced synchrony in particular has been dominated by theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments. 2. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the evidence for dispersal as a cause of meso-scale (distances of tens of kilometers) spatial synchrony in...

Data from: Assessing the effect of predator control on an endangered goose population subjected to predator-mediated food web dynamics

Filippo Marolla, Tomas Aarvak, Ingar Jostein Øien, Jarad Pope Mellard, John-André Henden, Sandra Hamel, Audun Stien, Torkild Tveraa, Nigel G. Yoccoz & Rolf A. Ims
1. Assessing the effectiveness of conservation actions to halt population declines is challenging when confounded by other factors. We assessed whether culling of red fox, a predator currently increasing in the sub-Arctic, contributed to recent recovery of the critically endangered Fennoscandian population of Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, while controlling for potentially confounding food web dynamics. 2. Using 19 years of data, 10 before and 9 after the implementation of annual red fox culling, we...

Data from: Spatio-temporally explicit model averaging for forecasting of Alaskan groundfish catch

Hannah E. Correia
(1) Fisheries management is dominated by the need to forecast catch and abundance of commercially and ecologically important species. The influence of spatial information and environmental factors on forecasting error is not often considered. We propose a forecasting method called spatio-temporally explicit model averaging (STEMA) to combine spatial and temporal information through model averaging. (2) We examine the performance of STEMA against two popular forecasting models and a modern spatial prediction model: the autoregressive integrated...

Disentangling the roles of plant functional diversity and plaint traits in regulating plant nitrogen accumulation and denitrification in freshwaters

Maidul I. Choudhury, Sara Hallin, Frauke Ecke, Valerie Hubalek, Jaanis Juhanson, André Frainer & Brendan G. McKie
1. There is a growing recognition that functional measures of diversity, based on quantification of functionally important species traits, are useful for explaining variation in ecosystem processes. However, the mechanisms linking functional diversity to different processes remain poorly understood, hindering development of a predictive framework for ecosystem functioning based on species traits. 2. The current understanding of how the functional traits of aquatic plants (macrophytes) affect nitrogen (N) cycling by regulating microbial communities and their...

Measures of infrastructure, browsing, and tree recruitment in Norway

Anne Catriona Mehlhoop
The data have been used in a study on a possible trophic cascade of human activity close to human infrasturcture on moose browsing pressure and effects on tree recruitment in Norway. The data includes measures on distances to human infrastructure, browsing pressure, tree recruitment and several environmental variables, as well as variables connected to forestry. The datasets are as used for the analyses, while the original data are available from the Norwegian Forest Inventory, www.nibio.no)....

Estimating abundance in unmarked populations of Golden Eagle

Jennifer Stien, Stien Audun, Torkild Tveraa, Lars Rød-Eriksen & Nina Eide
1. Estimates of species abundance are of key importance in population and ecosystem level research but can be hard to obtain. Study designs using camera-traps are increasingly being used for large-scale monitoring of species that are elusive and/or occur naturally at low densities. 2. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one such species, and we investigate whether existing large-scale monitoring programs using baited camera-traps can be used to estimate the abundance of golden eagles, as an...

Data from: Assessing the usefulness of Citizen Science Data for habitat suitability modelling: opportunistic reporting versus sampling based on a systematic protocol

Laura Henckel, Ute Bradter, Mari Jönsson, Nick Isaac & Tord Snäll
Aim: To evaluate the potential of models based on opportunistic reporting (OR) compared to models based on data from a systematic protocol (SP) for modelling species distributions. We compared model performance for eight forest bird species with contrasting spatial distributions, habitat requirements, and rarity. Differences in the reporting of species were also assessed. Finally, we tested potential improvement of models when inferring high quality absences from OR based on questionnaires sent to observers. Location: Both...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

Selection against individuals from genetic introgression of escaped farmed salmon in a natural population of Atlantic salmon

Sebastian Wacker, Tonje Aronsen, Sten Karlsson, Ola Ugedal, Ola Diserud, Eva Ulvan, Kjetil Hindar & Tor Næsje
The viability of wild Atlantic salmon populations is threatened by genetic introgression from escaped farmed salmon. Farmed Atlantic salmon are genetically improved for important commercial traits and a life in captivity but are poorly adapted to the natural environment. The rate of geneflow from escaped farmed to wild salmon depends on their spawning success and on offspring survival at various life-stages. We here investigate relative survival of introgressed juvenile Atlantic salmon (parr) in a river...

Microsatellite variation in Nordic semi-domestic reindeer

Knut Røed, Kjersti Kvie, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Sauli Laaksonen, Hannes Lohi, Juoko Kumpula, Kjell-Åke Aronsson, Birgitta Åhman, Jørn Våge & Øystein Holand
We have analyzed DNA microsatellites and the mitochondrial control region in reindeer from 31 different husbandry areas in Norway, Sweden and Finland in order to better understand the processes that underlie the genetic variability of the Nordic domestic herds. The distinct differentiation found in the nuclear markers but less so in the mitochondrial marker, gives evidence of an origin from a common ancestral population which later evolved into the two main gene pools characterizing the...

Data from: Sampling beetle communities: trap design interacts with weather and species traits to bias capture rates

Ryan Burner, Tone Birkemoe, Siri Lie Olsen & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Globally, many insect populations are declining, prompting calls for action. Yet these findings have also prompted discussion about sampling methods and interpretation of long-term datasets. As insect monitoring and research efforts increase, it is critical to quantify the effectiveness of sampling methods. This is especially true if sampling biases of different methods covary with climate, which is also changing over time. We assess the effectiveness of two types of flight intercept traps commonly used for...

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