The strength of sexual selection may vary between species, among populations, and within populations over time. While there is growing evidence that sexual selection may vary between years, less is known about variation in sexual selection within a season. Here, we investigate within-season variation in sexual selection in male two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). This marine fish experiences a seasonal change in the operational sex ratio from male- to female-biased, resulting in a dramatic decrease in...
Mesocarnivores increase in number and geographic range in human-disturbed ecosystems with cascading negative impact on biodiversity. To mitigate such impacts it is essential to identify the proximate causes of such mesocarnivore releases. Here we assess to what extent increased partial migration in semi-domesticated tundra reindeer induce a response in boreal and arctic mesocarnivores. We used a large-scale and multi-year quasi-experimental study design with camera traps deployed on coastal tundra peninsulas in northern Norway to estimate...
Data from: Spatial and temporal genetic structure of a river-resident Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after millennia of isolationOdd Terje Sandlund, Sten Karlsson, Eva B. Thorstad, Ole Kristian Berg, Matthew P. Kent, Ine C. J. Norum & Kjetil Hindar
The river-resident Salmo salar (“småblank”) has been isolated from other Atlantic salmon populations for 9,500 years in upper River Namsen, Norway. This is the only European Atlantic salmon population accomplishing its entire life cycle in a river. Hydropower development during the last six decades has introduced movement barriers and changed more than 50% of the river habitat to lentic conditions. Based on microsatellites and SNPs, genetic variation within småblank was only about 50% of that...
Data from: Complementarity of statistical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion: the case of the Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridisEric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Jonathan Lundgren, Robert Koch, Benoît Facon, Audrey Grez, Antoon Loomans, Thibaut Malausa, Oldrich Nedved, Emma Rhule, Arnstein Staverlokk, Tove Steenberg & Arnaud Estoup
Inferences about introduction histories of invasive species remain challenging because of the stochastic demographic processes involved. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help to overcome these problems, but such method requires a prior understanding of population structure over the study area, necessitating the use of alternative methods and an intense sampling design. In this study, we made inferences about the worldwide invasion history of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis by various population genetics statistical methods, using a...
Data from: Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmonSarah E. Yeates, Sigurd Einum, William V. Holt, Ian A. Fleming & Matthew J. G. Gage
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole...
Data from: The role of predation and food limitation on claims for compensation, reindeer demography and population dynamicsTorkild Tveraa, Audun Stien, Henrik Brøseth & Nigel Gilles Yoccoz
1. A major challenge in biodiversity conservation is to facilitate viable populations of large apex predators in ecosystems where they were recently driven to ecological extinction due to resource conflict with humans. 2. Monetary compensation for losses of livestock due to predation is currently a key instrument to encourage human–carnivore coexistence. However, a lack of quantitative estimates of livestock losses due to predation leads to disagreement over the practise of compensation payments. This disagreement sustains...
Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger...
The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success...
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research8
Norwegian University of Science and Technology4
Norwegian University of Life Sciences2
Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania1
Technical University of Zvolen1
University of Zagreb1
State Institute for Nature Protection1
University of Cambridge1
Provincia Autonoma di Trento1
University of Minnesota1