23 Works

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: High levels of multiple paternity in a spermcast mating freshwater mussel

Sebastian Wacker, Bjørn M. Larsen, Per Jakobsen & Sten Karlsson
Multiple paternity is an important characteristic of the genetic mating system and common across a wide range of taxa. Multiple paternity can increase within-population genotypic diversity, allowing selection to act on a wider spectre of genotypes, and potentially increasing effective population size. While the genetic mating system has been studied in many species with active mating behaviour, little is known about multiple paternity in sessile species releasing gametes into the water. In freshwater mussels, males...

Data from: Comparisons of reproductive function and fatty acid fillet quality between triploid and diploid farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

David S. Murray, Martin J. Kainz, Laura Hebberecht, Kris R. Sales, Kjetil Hindar & Matthew J.G. Gage
Triploidy could prevent escaped farm salmon breeding in the wild, while also improving nutrient quality within farmed fillets. Despite these potential advantages, triploid Atlantic salmon have not been widely used in aquaculture, and their reproductive function has yet to be fully evaluated. Here, we compare reproductive function and fillet composition between triploid and diploid farm salmon under standard aquaculture rearing conditions. We show that female triploids are sterile and do not develop gonads. In contrast,...

Data from: Multi-level patterns in population genetics: variogram series detects a hidden isolation-by- distance- dominated structure of Scandinavian brown bears Ursus arctos

Julia Schregel, Jaanus Remm, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson, Urmas Saarma & Snorre B. Hagen
1. Large-scale pattern-oriented approaches are useful to understand the multi-level processes that shape the genetic structure of a population. Matching the scales of patterns and putative processes is both a key to success and a challenge. 2. We have developed a simple statistical approach, based on variogram analysis, that identifies multiple spatial scales where the population pattern, in this case genetic structure, have highest expression (i.e. the spatial scales at which the strength of patterning...

Data from: Stress‐induced secondary leaves of a boreal deciduous shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) overwinter then regain activity the following growing season

Jarle W. Bjerke, Grzegorz Wierzbinski, Hans Tømmervik, Gareth K. Phoenix & Stef Bokhorst
The ericoid shrub Vaccinium myrtillus is one of several deciduous boreal plants that respond to larval defoliation by compensatory production of a new set of leaves within the same growing season soon after defoliation. This new set is termed as ‘secondary leaves’. The physiological performance and longevity of secondary leaves is poorly understood. Following a multi‐year larval outbreak in boreal Norway, we therefore monitored the fate of the secondary leaves from 2014 to 2016. We...

Data from: Determinants of age at first reproduction and lifetime breeding success revealed by full paternity assignment in a male ungulate

Stine S. Markussen, Ivar Herfindal, Anne Loison, Erling J. Solberg, Hallvard Haanes, Knut H. Røed, Morten Heim, Bernt-Erik Sæther & Bernt-Erik Saether
Age at first reproduction is an important determinant of individual variation in reproductive success in ungulates, but few studies have examined its relationship with later fitness-related traits in males. We used a long-term individual based study of a harvested moose population to quantify the individual reproductive performance and survival of males, as well as to examine the determinants of age at first reproduction and consequences of age at first reproduction on lifetime breeding success. The...

Data from: Species-specific spatiotemporal patterns of leopard, lion and tiger attacks on humans

Craig Packer, Shweta Shivakumar, Vidya Athreya, Meggan E. Craft, Harshawardhen Dhanwatey, Poonam Dhanwatey, Bhim Gurung, Anup Joshi, Hadas Kushnir, John D.C. Linnell, Nicholas M. Fountain-Jones & John D. C. Linnell
1. Large carnivores of the genus Panthera can pose serious threats to public safety. Although the annual number of attacks on humans is rare compared to livestock depredation, such incidents undermine popular support for wildlife conservation and require immediate responses to protect human life. 2. We used a space-time scan method to perform a novel spatiotemporal analysis of 908 attacks on humans by lions, leopards and tigers to estimate the risks of further attacks in...

Data from: Habitat segregation between brown bears and gray wolves in a human-dominated landscape

Cyril Milleret, Andrés Ordiz, Guillaume Chapron, Harry Peter Andreassen, Jonas Kindberg, Johan Månsson, Aimee Tallian, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Jon E. Swenson & Håkan Sand
Identifying how sympatric species belonging to the same guild coexist is a major question of community ecology and conservation. Habitat segregation between two species might help reduce the effects of interspecific competition and apex predators are of special interest in this context, because their interactions can have consequences for lower trophic levels. However, habitat segregation between sympatric large carnivores has seldom been studied. Based on monitoring of 53 brown bears (Ursus arctos) and 7 sympatric...

Data from: Using partial aggregation in Spatial Capture Recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Henrik Brøseth, Jonas Kindberg, J. Andrew Royle & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models are commonly used for analyzing data collected using non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS). Opportunistic NGS often leads to detections that do not occur at discrete detector locations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of individual detections into fixed detectors (e.g. center of grid cells) is an option to increase computing speed of SCR analyses. However, it may reduce precision and accuracy of parameter estimations. 2. Using simulations, we explored the impact that spatial aggregation...

Data from: Advancing restoration ecology: a new approach to predict time to recovery

Knut Rydgren, Rune Halvorsen, Joachim P. Töpper, Inger Auestad, Liv Norunn Hamre, Eelke Jongejans & Jan Sulavik
1. Species composition is a vital attribute of any ecosystem. Accordingly, ecological restoration often has the original, or ‘natural’, species composition as its target. However, we still lack adequate methods for predicting the expected time to compositional recovery in restoration studies. 2. We describe and explore a new, ordination regression-based approach (ORBA) for predicting time to recovery that allows both linear and asymptotic (logarithmic) relationships of compositional change with time. The approach uses distances between...

Data from: Survival estimates strongly depend on capture-recapture designs in a disturbed environment inducing dispersal

Aurore Ponchon, Rémi Choquet, Jérémy Tornos, Karen D. McCoy, Torkild Tveraa & Thierry Boulinier
Capture‐Recapture (CR) approaches are extensively used to estimate demographic parameters. Their robustness relies on the selection of suitable statistical models, but also on the sampling design and effort deployed in the field. In colonial or territorial species showing breeding site fidelity, recurrent local perturbations, such as predation‐induced breeding failure, may lead individuals to disperse locally or regionally. This might induce heterogeneity in individual CR histories and biases in demographic parameter estimates. Here, we assessed the...

Data from: Can novel pest outbreaks drive ecosystem transitions in northern-boreal birch forest?

Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad, Jane Uhd Jepsen, Malin Ek, Adam Pepi & Rolf Anker Ims
1. The boreal biome exhibits distinct alternative ecosystem states with high and low levels of tree-cover. Insect outbreaks facilitated by climate warming could potentially drive transitions from high to low tree-cover states. We investigated whether two key premises for such outbreak-induced transitions – critical thresholds (tipping points) and positive feedbacks that could maintain alternative states – are present in the northern-boreal mountain birch forest of Fennoscandia. Here, climate warming has promoted range expansions of defoliating...

Data from: Supplementary stocking selects for domesticated genotypes

Ingerid J. Hagen, Arne J. Jensen, Geir H. Bolstad, Ola H. Diserud, Kjetil Hindar, Håvard Lo & Sten Karlsson
Stocking of hatchery produced fish is common practise to mitigate declines in natural populations and may have unwanted genetic consequences. Here we describe a novel phenomenon arising where broodstock used for stocking may be introgressed with farmed individuals. We test how stocking affects introgression in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by quantifying how the number of adult offspring recaptured in a stocked river depend on parental introgression. We found that hatchery conditions...

Data from: Experimental herbivore exclusion, shrub introduction, and carbon sequestration in alpine plant communities

Mia Vedel Sørensen, Bente Jessen Graae, Dagmar Hagen, Brian Joseph Enquist, Kristin Odden Nystuen & Richard Strimbeck
Background: Shrub cover in arctic and alpine ecosystems has increased in recent decades, and is predicted to further increase with climate change. Changes in shrub abundance may alter ecosystem carbon (C) sequestration and storage, with potential positive feedback on global C cycling. Small and large herbivores may reduce shrub expansion and thereby counteract the positive feedback on C cycling, but herbivore pressures have also changed in the alpine-arctic tundra; the increased shrub cover together with...

Data from: The narrow gap between norms and cooperative behaviour in a reindeer herding community

Matthew Gwynfryn Thomas, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen & Marius Warg Næss
Cooperation evolves on social networks and is shaped, in part, by norms: beliefs and expectations about the behaviour of others or of oneself. Networks of cooperative social partners and associated norms are vital for pastoralists, such as Saami reindeer herders in northern Norway. However, little is known quantitatively about how norms structure pastoralists' social networks or shape cooperation. Saami herders reported their social networks and participated in field experiments, allowing us to gauge the overlap...

Data from: Circadian rhythmicity persists through the Polar night and midnight sun in Svalbard reindeer

Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Leif Egil Loe, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Vebjørn Veiberg & Steve D. Albon
Studies of locomotor activity in Svalbard reindeer reported the temporary absence of diel rhythms under Arctic photic conditions. However, using Lomb-Scargle periodogram analyses with high statistical power we found diel or circadian rhythmicity throughout the entire year in measures of behaviour, temperature in the rumen and heart rate in free-living Svalbard reindeer. Significant diel rhythmicity was only lacking during some of the 15-day intervals analysed in the less frequently measured heart rate. During Polar Night...

Data from: A local evaluation of the individual state-space to scale up Bayesian spatial capture recapture

Cyril Milleret, Pierre Dupont, Christophe Bonenfant, Henrik Brøseth, Øystein Flagstad, Chris Sutherland & Richard Bischof
1. Spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) are used to estimate animal density and to investigate a range of problems in spatial ecology that cannot be addressed with traditional non-spatial methods. Bayesian approaches in particular offer tremendous flexibility for SCR modelling. Increasingly, SCR data are being collected over very large spatial extents making analysis computational intensive, sometimes prohibitively so. 2. To mitigate the computational burden of large-scale SCR models, we developed an improved formulation of the Bayesian...

Data from: A method that accounts for differential detectability in mixed samples of long-term infections with applications to the case of Chronic Wasting Disease in cervids

Hildegunn Viljugrein, Petter Hopp, Sylvie L. Benestad, Erlend B. Nilsen, Jørn Våge, Saraya Tavornpanich, Christer M. Rolandsen, Olav Strand & Atle Mysterud
1. Surveillance of wildlife diseases is logistically difficult, and imperfect detection is a recurrent challenge for disease estimation. Using citizen science can increase sample sizes, but it is associated with a cost in terms of the anatomical type and quality of the sample. Additionally, biological tissue samples from remote areas lose quality due to autolysis. These challenges are faced in the case of emerging Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids. 2. Here, we develop a...

Data from: Can variation in standard metabolic rate explain context-dependent performance of farmed salmon offspring?

Grethe Robertsen, Donald Reid, Sigurd Einum, Tonje Aronsen, Ian A. Fleming, Line E. Sundt-Hansen, Sten Karlsson, Eli Kvingedal, Ola Ugedal & Kjetil Hindar
Escaped farmed Atlantic salmon interbreed with wild Atlantic salmon, leaving offspring that often have lower success in nature than pure wild salmon. On top of this, presence of farmed salmon descendants can impair production of wild type recruits. We hypothesize that both these effects connect with farmed salmon having acquired higher standard metabolic rates (SMR, the energetic cost of self-maintenance) during domestication. Furthermore, fitness related advantages of phenotypic traits associated with both high SMR and...

Data from: Reproduction as a bottleneck to treeline advance across the circumarctic forest tundra ecotone

Carissa D. Brown, Geneviève Dufour-Tremblay, Ryan G. Jameson, Steven D. Mamet, Andrew J. Trant, Xanthe J. Walker, Stéphane Boudraeu, Karen A. Harper, Greg H.R. Henry, Luise Hermanutz, Annika Hofgaard, Ludmila Isaeva, G. Peter Kershaw, Jill F. Johnstone & Gregory H. R. Henry
The fundamental niche of many species is shifting with climate change, especially in sub-arctic ecosystems with pronounced recent warming. Ongoing warming in sub-arctic regions should lessen environmental constraints on tree growth and reproduction, leading to increased success of trees colonising tundra. Nevertheless, variable responses of treeline ecotones have been documented in association with warming temperatures. One explanation for time lags between increasingly favourable environmental conditions and treeline ecotone movement is reproductive limitations caused by low...

Data from: Spatio-temporally explicit model averaging for forecasting of Alaskan groundfish catch

Hannah E. Correia
(1) Fisheries management is dominated by the need to forecast catch and abundance of commercially and ecologically important species. The influence of spatial information and environmental factors on forecasting error is not often considered. We propose a forecasting method called spatio-temporally explicit model averaging (STEMA) to combine spatial and temporal information through model averaging. (2) We examine the performance of STEMA against two popular forecasting models and a modern spatial prediction model: the autoregressive integrated...

Data from: Inferences of genetic architecture of bill morphology in house sparrow using a high‐density SNP array point to a polygenic basis

Sarah L. Lundregan, Ingerid J. Hagen, Jostein Gohli, Alina K. Niskanen, Petri Kemppainen, Thor Harald Ringsby, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Bernt Rønning, Håkon Holand, Peter S. Ranke, Anna S. Båtnes, Linn-Karina Selvik, Sigbjorn Lien, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Arild Husby, Henrik Jensen & Bernt-Erik Saether
Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits can provide insights into the mechanisms driving phenotypic evolution. Bill morphology is an ecologically important and phenotypically variable trait, which is highly heritable and closely linked to individual fitness. Thus, bill morphology traits are suitable candidates for gene mapping analyses. Previous studies have revealed several genes that may influence bill morphology, but the similarity of gene and allele effects between species and populations is unknown. Here, we develop...

Data from: Long-lasting effects of logging on beetles in hollow oaks

Hanne Eik Pilskog, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Marianne Evju, Erik Framstad & Tone Birkemoe
There is growing evidence that biodiversity is important for ecosystem functions. Thus, identification of habitat requirements essential for current species richness and abundance to persist is crucial. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp.) are biodiversity hot spots for deadwood‐dependent insect species, and the main objective of this paper was to test the effect of habitat history and current habitat distribution at various spatial scales on the associated beetle community. We used a gradient spanning 40 km from...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    23

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    23

Affiliations

  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    23
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    7
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    4
  • University of Glasgow
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • University of Oslo
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2
  • Memorial University of Newfoundland
    2
  • Norwegian Veterinary Institute
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1