37 Works

Great cormorant diet data from the Norwegian coast

Nina Dehnhard, Magdalene Langset, Asgeir Aglen, Svein-Håkon Lorentsen & Tycho Anker-Nilssen
Piscivorous wildlife is often perceived as competitors by humans. Great cormorants of the continental subspecies (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in the Baltic and North Sea increase, while local cod (Gadus morhua) stocks decline. In contrast, numbers of the Atlantic subspecies (P. c. carbo), breeding along the Norwegian and Barents Seas have been relatively stable. We investigated the diet of both great cormorant subspecies in breeding colonies along the Norwegian Coast from Lofoten to the Skagerrak and...

Short-Tandem-Repeat (STR) marker set for Eurasian lynx for article: Genetic analysis indicates spatial-dependent patterns of sex-biased dispersal in Eurasian lynx in Finland

Annika Herrero, Cornelya Klutsch, Katja Holmala, Simo Maduna, Alexander Kopatz, Hans Geir Eiken & Snorre Hagen
Conservation and management of large carnivores requires knowledge of female and male dispersal. Such information is crucial to evaluate the population’s status and thus management actions. This knowledge is challenging to obtain, often incomplete and contradictory at times. The size of the target population and the methods applied can bias the results. Also, population history and biological or environmental influences can affect dispersal on different scales within a study area. We have genotyped Eurasian lynx...

Data from: Integrated population models poorly estimate the demographic contribution of immigration

Matthieu Paquet, Jonas Knape, Debora Arlt, Pär Forslund, Tomas Pärt, Øystein Flagstad, Carl G. Jones, Malcolm A. C. Nicoll, Ken Norris, Josephine M. Pemberton, Håkan Sand, Linn Svensson, Vikash Tatayah, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Mikael Åkesson & Matthew Low
Estimating the contribution of demographic parameters to changes in population growth is essential for understanding why populations fluctuate. Integrated Population Models (IPMs) offer a possibility to estimate contributions of additional demographic parameters, for which no data have been explicitly collected: typically immigration. Such parametersare often subsequently highlighted as important drivers of population growth. Yet, accuracy in estimating their temporal variation, and consequently their contribution to changes in population growth rate, has not been investigated. To...

Data and scripts for: Quantitative assessment of observed vs. predicted responses to selection

Christophe Pelabon, Elena Albertsen, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Cyril Firmat, Geir H. Bolstad, W. Scott Armbruster & Thomas Hansen
Although artificial-selection experiments seem well suited to testing our ability to predict evolution, the correspondence between predicted and observed responses is often ambiguous due to the lack of uncertainty estimates. We present equations for assessing prediction error in direct and indirect responses to selection that integrate uncertainty in genetic parameters used for prediction and sampling effects during selection. Using these, we analyzed a selection experiment on floral traits replicated in two taxa of the Dalechampia...

Extreme home range sizes among Eurasian lynx at the northern edge of their biogeographic range

Jenny Mattisson, John D. C. Linnell & John Odden
Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) have a wide distribution across Eurasia. The northern edge of this distribution is in Norway, where they reach up to 72 degrees north. We conducted a study of lynx space use in this region from 2007 to 2013 using GPS telemetry. The home range sizes averaged 2606 (± 438 SE) km2 for males (n=9 ranges) and 1456 (± 179 SE) km2 for females (n=24 ranges). These are the largest home ranges...

Social environment shapes female settlement decisions in a solitary carnivore

Jenny Hansen, Anne Hertel, Shane Frank, Jonas Kindberg & Andreas Zedrosser
How and where a female selects an area to settle and breed is of central importance in dispersal and population ecology as it governs range expansion and gene flow. Social structure and organization have been shown to influence settlement decisions, but its importance in settlement of large, solitary mammals is largely unknown. We investigate how the identity of overlapping conspecifics on the landscape, acquired during the maternal care period, influences selection of settlement home ranges...

Whole-genome resequencing confirms reproductive isolation between sympatric demes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) detected with allozymes

Atal Saha, Anastasia Andersson, Sara Kurland, Naomi Keehnen, Verena Kutschera, Ola Hössjer, Diana Ekman, Sten Karlsson, Marty Kardos, Gunnar Ståhl, Fred Allendorf, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
The sympatric existence of genetically distinct populations of the same species remains a puzzle in ecology. Coexisting salmonid fish populations are known from over 100 freshwater lakes. Most studies of sympatric populations have used limited numbers of genetic markers making it unclear if genetic divergence involves only certain parts of the genome. We return to the first reported case of salmonid sympatry, initially detected through contrasting homozygosity at a single allozyme locus (coding for lactate...

Of wolves and bears: Seasonal drivers of interference and exploitation competition between apex predators

Aimee Tallian, Andrés Ordiz, Matthew Metz, Barbara Zimmermann, Camilla Wikenros, Douglas Smith, Daniel Stahler, Petter Wabakken, Jon Swenson, Håkan Sand & Jonas Kindberg
Competition between apex predators can alter the strength of top-down forcing, yet we know little about the behavioral mechanisms that drive competition in multipredator ecosystems. Interactions between predators can be synergistic (facilitative) or antagonistic (inhibitive), both of which are widespread in nature, vary in strength between species and across space and time, and affect predation patterns and predator-prey dynamics. Recent research suggests gray wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates decrease where they are sympatric with brown...

High-resolution modelling of uplift landscapes can inform micro-siting of wind turbines for soaring raptors

Frank Hanssen, Roel May & Torgeir Nygård
Collision risk of soaring birds is partly associated with updrafts to which they are attracted. To identify risk-enhancing landscape features, a micro-siting tool was developed to model orographic and thermal updraft velocities from high-resolution remote sensing data. The tool was applied to the island of Hitra, and validated using GPS-tracked white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla). Resource selection functions predicted that eagles preferred ridges with high orographic uplift, especially at flight altitudes within the rotor-swept zone (40-110...

Trust in researchers and researchers’ statements in large carnivore conservation

Kristin Mathiesen, Magnus Barmoen, Kim Magnus Bærum & Maria Johansson
Human-wildlife interactions occur when humans and wildlife overlap in the same landscapes. Due to the growing human population, the number of interactions will continue to increase, and in some cases, develop further into social conflicts. Conflicts may occur between people disagreeing about wildlife conservation or arguing over which wildlife management measures should be taken. Social conflicts between humans are based on different attitudes, values and land-use aspirations. The success of solving these social conflicts strongly...

MetaComNet: A random forest-based framework for making spatial prediction of plant-pollinator interactions

Markus Arne Kjær Sydenham, Zander Venter, Trond Reitan, Claus Rasmussen, Astrid Skrindo, Daniel Skoog, Kaj-Andreas Hanevik, Stein Joar Hegland, Yoko Dupont, Anders Nielsen, Joseph Chipperfield & Graciela Rusch
1. Predicting plant-pollinator interaction networks over space and time will improve our understanding of how environmental change is likely to impact the functioning of ecosystems. Here we propose a framework for producing spatially explicit predictions of the occurrence and number of pairwise plant-pollinator interactions and of the species richness, diversity, and abundance of pollinators visiting flowers. We call the framework ‘MetaComNet’ because it aims to link metacommunity dynamics to the assembly of ecological networks. 2....

Cercarial behaviour alters the consumer functional response of three-spined sticklebacks

Ana Born-Torrijos, Rachel Paterson, Gabrielle Van Beest, Tereza Vyhlídalová, Eirik Haugstvedt Henriksen, Rune Knudsen, Roar Kristoffersen, Per-Arne Amundsen & Miroslava Soldánová
1. Free-living parasite life stages may contribute substantially to ecosystem biomass and thus represent a significant source of energy flow when consumed by non-host organisms. However, ambient temperature and the predator’s own infection status may modulate consumption rates towards parasite prey. 2. We investigated the combined effects of temperature and predator infection status on the consumer functional response of three-spined sticklebacks towards the free-living cercariae stages of two common freshwater trematode parasites (Plagiorchis, Trichobilharzia). 3....

Age at first reproduction in wolves: different patterns of density dependence for females and males

Camilla Wikenros, Morgane Gicquel, Barbara Zimmermann, Øystein Flagstad & Mikael Åkesson
Age at first reproduction constitutes a key life history trait in animals and is evolutionary shaped by fitness benefits and costs of delayed versus early reproduction. The understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic changes affects age at first reproduction is crucial for conservation and management of threatened species because of its demographic effects on population growth and generation time. For a period of 40 years in the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population, including the recolonization...

The legacy of forest disturbance on stream ecosystem functioning

André Frainer & Brendan McKie
1. Forest clearance is a pervasive disturbance worldwide, but many of its impacts are regarded as transient, diminishing in intensity as forest recovers. However, forests can take decades to centuries to recover after severe disturbances, and temporal lags in recovery of ecosystem properties for different forest habitats are mostly unknown. This includes forest streams, where most studies of the impacts of forest clearance are restricted to the first years of recovery, typically finding that temporary...

European shag provisioning foraging dives

Astrid Carlsen, Jonathan Wright & Svein-Håkon Lorentsen
Foraging dives in birds and mammals involve complex physiological and behavioural adaptations to cope with the breaks in normal respiration. Optimal dive strategies should maximise the proportion of time spent under water actively foraging versus the time spent on the surface. Oxygen loading and carbon-dioxide dumping carried out on the surface could involve recovery from the consequences of the last dive and/or preparation in anticipation of the next dive depth and duration. However, few studies...

Smolt outmigration timing in Norway

Robert Lennox, Knut Vollset, Ola Ugedal, Anders Lamberg, Øystein Skaala, Anne Sandvik, Harald Saegrov, Torstein Kristiensen, Arne Jensen, Tormond Haraldstad & Bjørn Barlaup
Aim - Accurate predictions about transition timing of salmon smolts between freshwater and marine environments are key to effective management. We aimed to use available data on Atlantic salmon smolt migration to predict the emigration timing in rivers throughout Norway. Location - In this study, we used data outmigration timing data of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts from 41 rivers collected from 1984-2018 to make a predictive model for the timing of out-migrating salmon smolts...

Data from: Dispersal in a house sparrow metapopulation: an integrative case study of genetic assignment calibrated with ecological data and pedigree information

Dilan Saatoglu, Alina K. Niskanen, Markku Kuismin, Peter S. Ranke, Ingerid J. Hagen, Yimen G. Araya-Ajoy, Thomas Kvalnes, Henrik Pärn, Bernt Rønning, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Arild Husby, Mikko J. Sillanpää & Henrik Jensen
Dispersal has a crucial role determining eco-evolutionary dynamics through both gene flow and population size regulation. However, to study dispersal and its consequences, one must distinguish immigrants from residents. Dispersers can be identified using telemetry, capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods, or genetic assignment methods. All of these methods have disadvantages, such as, high costs and substantial field efforts needed for telemetry and CMR surveys, and adequate genetic distance required in genetic assignment. In this study, we used...

Distribution of large carnivores in Europe 2012 - 2016: Distribution maps for Brown bear, Eurasian lynx, Grey wolf, and Wolverine

Petra Kaczensky, John D.C. Linnell, Djuro Huber, Manuela Von Arx, Henrik Andren, Urs Breitenmoser & Luigi Boitani
Regular assessments of species’ status are an essential component of conservation planning and adaptive management. They allow the progress of past or ongoing conservation actions to be evaluated and can be used to redirect and prioritise future conservation actions. Most countries perform periodic assessments for their own national adaptive management procedures or national red lists. Furthermore, the countries of the European Union have to report on the status of all species listed on the directives...

Context dependent fitness costs of reproduction despite stable body mass costs in an Arctic herbivore

Gabriel Pigeon, Steve Albon, Leif Egil Loe, Richard Bischof, Christophe Bonenfant, Mads Farchhammer, Justine Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Vebjorn Veiberg & Audun Stein
1. The cost of reproduction on demographic rates is often assumed to operate through changing body condition. Several studies have found that reproduction depresses body mass more if the current conditions are severe, such as high population densities or adverse weather, than under benign environmental conditions. However, few studies have investigated the association between the fitness and body mass costs of reproduction. 2. Using 25 years of individual-based capture-recapture data from Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus...

Using genomics to guide seed-sourcing at the right taxonomical level for ecological restoration projects: the complex case of Carex bigelowii s.lat. in Norway

Kristine Bakke Westergaard, Magni Olsen Kyrkjeeide & Marie Kristine Brandrud
There is a growing demand for ecological restoration using suitable seeds following international standards or national legal demands for local seed-sourcing. However, before selecting the appropriate geographic origin of seeds, it is vital to explore taxonomic complexity related to the focal taxa. We used ddRAD-seq to screen genomic diversity within Carex bigelowii s.lat. focussing on Norway. This species complex is considered a candidate for seeding, but presents considerable morphological, ecological, and genetic variation. The genetic...

Numbers of reads of fungal operational taxonomic units in a soil warming experiment at Mars Oasis in maritime Antarctica from 2007-2012

Marie L Davey & Kevin K Newsham
The datasets consist of three csv files containing: (i) the numbers of DNA reads of 415 operational taxonomic units of fungi in 64 plots of a soil warming experiment sampled in 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, (ii) the taxonomic placements of the fungi and (iii) the treatments applied to the plots. The research was funded by an Antarctic Funding Initiative grant from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NE/D00893X/1), a NERC GW4+ Doctoral Training...

Moving out of town? The status of alien plants in high-Arctic Svalbard, and a method for monitoring of alien flora in high-risk, polar environments

Jesamine Bartlett, Kristine Bakke-Westergaard, Ingrid Paulsen, Ronja Wedegartner, Florian Wilken & Virve Ravolainen
Rising human activity in the Arctic, combined with a warming climate, increases the probability of the introduction and establishment of alien plant species. While settlements are known hotspots for persistent populations, little is known about colonization of particularly susceptible natural habitats. Systematic monitoring is lacking and available survey methods vary greatly. Here we present the most comprehensive survey of alien vascular plant species in the high-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard to date, aimed at: i) providing...

Data from: Local prey shortages drive foraging costs and breeding success in a declining seabird, the Atlantic puffin

Annette L Fayet, Gemma V Clucas, Tycho Anker-Nilssen, Martyna Syposz & Erpur S Hansen
As more and more species face anthropogenic threats, understanding causes of population declines in vulnerable taxa is essential. However, long-term datasets, ideal to identify lasting or indirect effects on fitness measures such as those caused by environmental factors, are not always available. Here we use a single year but multi-population approach on populations with contrasting demographic trends to identify possible drivers and mechanisms of seabird population changes in the north-east Atlantic, using the Atlantic puffin,...

Data from: Species interactions, environmental gradients and body size shape population niche width

Antti Eloranta, Anders Finstad, Odd Sandlund, Rune Knudsen, Anna Kuparinen & Per-Arne Amundsen
Competition for shared resources is commonly assumed to restrict population-level niche width of coexisting species. However, the identity and abundance of coexisting species, the prevailing environmental conditions, and the individual body size may shape the effects of interspecific interactions on species’ niche width. Here we study the effects of inter- and intraspecific interactions, lake area and altitude, and fish body size on the trophic niche width and resource use of a generalist predator, the littoral-dwelling...

Analyzing disparity and rates of morphological evolution with model-based phylogenetic comparative methods

Thomas F. Hansen, Geir Bolstad & Masahito Tsuboi
Understanding variation in rates of evolution and morphological disparity is a goal of macroevolutionary research. In a phylogenetic comparative methods framework, we present three explicit models for linking the rate of evolution of a trait to the state of another evolving trait. This allows testing hypotheses about causal influences on rates of phenotypic evolution with phylogenetic comparative data. We develop a statistical framework for fitting the models with generalized least-squares regression, and use this to...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • The Arctic University of Norway
  • University of Oslo
  • Lund University
  • University of Aberdeen
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland