Supplementary information for: A continuous-score occupancy modeling framework for incorporating uncertain machine learning output in autonomous biodiversity surveysTessa Rhinehart, Daniel Turek & Justin Kitzes
Ecologists often study biodiversity by evaluating species occupancy and the relationship between occupancy and other covariates. Occupancy models are now widely used to account for false absences in field surveys and to reduce bias in estimates of covariate relationships. Existing occupancy models take as inputs binary detection/non-detection observations of species at each visit to each site. However, autonomous sensing devices and machine learning models are increasingly used to survey biodiversity, generating a new type of...
Using GBIF to Demonstrate Colonial Legacies on Biodiversity DataRyan S. Mohammed, Melissa Kemp, Michelle J. LeFebvre, Alexis M. Mychajliw, Grace Turner, Kelly Fowler, Michael Pateman, Maria A. Nieves-Colón, Lanya Fanovich, Siobhan B. Cooke, Liliana M. Dávalos, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, Christina M. Giovas, Myles Stokowski & Ashley A. Wrean
Biologists recognize the Caribbean archipelago as a biodiversity hotspot and employ it for their research as a “natural laboratory”, but do not always appreciate that these ecosystems are in fact palimpsests shaped by multiple human cultures over millennia. We discuss two case studies of the Caribbean’s fragmented natural history collections, the effects of differing legislation and governance by the region’s multiple nation states. We use digital natural history specimen data from GBIF to demonstrate how...
Cumulative cultural evolution and mechanisms for cultural selection in wild bird songsHeather Williams, Andrew Scharf, Anna R. Ryba, D. Ryan Norris, Daniel J. Mennill, Amy E. M. Newman, Stéphanie M. Doucet & Julie C. Blackwood
Cumulative cultural evolution, the accumulation of sequential changes within a single socially learned behaviour that results in improved function, is prominent in humans and has been documented in experimental studies of captive animals and managed wild populations. Here, we provide evidence that cumulative cultural evolution has occurred in the learned songs of Savannah sparrows. In a first step, “click trains” replaced “high note clusters” over a period of three decades. We use mathematical modeling to...
Lagged effects of herbivory impact host-choice but not nymphal survivorship in an ant-protected treehopperManuel Morales, Daniel Kirsch & Diana Sanchez
Theoretical studies have shown that in protection mutualism, modification of top-down control by protectors may be destabilizing. Central to this prediction are the assumptions that 1) protection mutualism increases the abundance of protected partners, 2) this increased abundance generates a lagged effect on partner resources, and 3) spatial dynamics can be ignored. Although a number of studies have confirmed that protection mutualism can increase the abundance of protected herbivores, the evidence for a negative effect...
Phylogeny of the Ordovician and Silurian members of the order AtrypidaLuana Maroja, B. Gudveig Baarli & Bing Huang
The brachiopod order Atrypida originated in the Middle Ordovician and went extinct in the Late Devonian. Few cladistic studies have been undertaken for this group. Here we investigate their early evolution through the Silurian time. We present a parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis of 41 characters and 70 genera representing all the early taxonomic groups within the order. The stratigraphic record of the fossil genera analysed here strongly supports the parsimony phylogeny. Most currently recognized subfamilies and...
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