77 Works

Data from: Disentangling the effects of key innovations on the diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae)

Daniele Silvestro, Georg Zizka & Katharina Schulte
The evolution of key innovations, novel traits that promote diversification, is often seen as major driver for the unequal distribution of species richness within the tree of life. In this study, we aim to determine the factors underlying the extraordinary radiation of the subfamily Bromelioideae, one of the most diverse clades among the neotropical plant family Bromeliaceae. Based on an extended molecular phylogenetic data set, we examine the effect of two putative key innovations, that...

Data from: The clock gene Period1 regulates innate routine behaviour in mice

Philipp Bechstein, Nils-Jörn Rehbach, Gowzekan Yuhasingham, Christoph Schürmann, Melanie Göpfert, Manfred Kössl, Erik Maronde, M. Gopfert, M. Kossl, N.-J. Rehbach & C. Schurmann
Laboratory mice are well capable of performing innate routine behaviour programmes necessary for courtship, nest-building and exploratory activities although housed for decades in animal facilities. We found that in mice inactivation of the clock gene Period1 profoundly changes innate routine behaviour programmes like those necessary for courtship, nest building, exploration and learning. These results in wild-type and Period1 mutant mice, together with earlier findings on courtship behaviour in wild-type and period-mutant Drosophila melanogaster, suggest a...

Data from: Extremophile Poeciliidae: multivariate insights into the complexity of speciation along replicated ecological gradients

Rüdiger Riesch, Michael Tobler, Hannes Lerp, Jonas Jourdan, Tess Doumas, Patrik Nosil, R. Brian Langerhans & Martin Plath
Background: Replicate population pairs that diverge in response to similar selective regimes allow for an investigation of (a) whether phenotypic traits diverge in a similar and predictable fashion, (b) whether there is gradual variation in phenotypic divergence reflecting variation in the strength of natural selection among populations, (c) whether the extent of this divergence is correlated between multiple character suites (i.e., concerted evolution), and (d) whether gradual variation in phenotypic divergence predicts the degree of...

Data from: On the occurrence of three non-native cichlid species including the first record of a feral population of Pelmatolapia (Tilapia) mariae (Boulenger, 1899) in Europe

Juliane A. Y. Lukas, Jonas Jourdan, Gregor Kalinkat, Sebastian Emde, Friedrich Miesen, Hannah Jüngling, Berardino Cocchiararo & David Bierbach
Thermally influenced freshwater systems provide suitable conditions for non-native species of tropical and subtropical origin to survive and form proliferating populations beyond their native ranges. In Germany, non-native convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) and tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) have established populations in the Gillbach, a small stream that receives warm water discharge from a local power plant. Here, we report on the discovery of spotted tilapia (Pelmatolapia mariae) in the Gillbach, the first record of a reproducing...

Data from: Single-molecule imaging and quantification of the immune-variant adhesin VAR2CSA on knobs of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

Cecilia P. Sanchez, Christos Karathanasis, Rodrigo Sanchez, Marek Cyrklaff, Julia Jäger, Bernd Buchholz, Ulrich S. Schwarz, Mike Heilemann & Michael Lanzer
PfEMP1 (erythrocyte membrane protein 1) adhesins play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of falciparum malaria, by mediating sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the microvasculature. PfEMP1 variants are expressed by var genes and are presented on membrane elevations, termed knobs. However, the organization of PfEMP1 on knobs is largely unclear. Here, we use super-resolution microscopy and genetically altered parasites expressing a modified var2csa gene in which the coding sequence of the photoactivatable mEOS2 was...

Post-fire vegetation succession in the Siberian subarctic tundra over 45 years

Ramona Julia Heim, Anna Bucharova, Leya Brodt, Johannes Kamp, Daniel Rieker, Andrey Soromotin, Andrey Yurtaev & Norbert Hölzel
Wildfires are relatively rare in subarctic tundra ecosystems, but they can strongly change ecosystem properties. Short-term fire effects on subarctic tundra vegetation are well documented, but long-term vegetation recovery has been studied less. The frequency of tundra fires will increase with climate warming. Understanding the long-term effects of fire is necessary to predict future ecosystem changes. We used a space-for-time approach to assess vegetation recovery after fire over more than four decades. We studied soil...

Data from: Environmental context determines the limiting demographic processes for plant recruitment across a species’ elevational range

Dominik Merges, Jörg Albrecht, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Matthias Schleuning & Eike Lena Neuschulz
Plant recruitment is a multi-stage process determining population dynamics and species distributions. Still, we have limited understanding of how the successive demographic processes depend on the environmental context across species’ distributional ranges. We conducted a large-scale transplant experiment to study recruitment of Pinus cembra over six years. We quantified the effects of environmental conditions on four demographic processes and identified the most limiting across and beyond the pines’ elevational range over several years. Realized transition...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Foucault und die Affekte : Warum uns genealogische Kritiken affizieren

Dominik Herold
In my paper I draw the connection between Michel Foucault’s way of using genealogy as a criticalmethod and the role of affects. I argue that genealogy as critique works because of its affectivedimension insofar as it offers us an experience of thinking and acting differently once we have beenconfronted with the genealogical text. Foucauldian genealogies tell us stories about power relations andsubjectivations that take their starting point from a current political problem. I show that...

Complete list of fungal specimens from Benin, West Africa and locality data

Yalemwork Meswaet, Ralph Mangelsdorff, Nourou Yorou & Meike Piepenbring
Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae, Mycosphaerellales, Ascomycota) are one of the largest and most diverse groups of hyphomycetes causing a wide range of diseases of economically important plants as well as of plants in the wild. Although more than 6000 species are known for this group, the documentation of this fungal group is far from complete. Especially in the tropics, the diversity of cercosporoid fungi is poorly known. The present study aims to identify and characterize cercosporoid...

Epidermal Growth Factor signaling promotes sleep through a combined series and parallel neural circuit

Jan Konietzka, Maximilian Fritz, Silvan Spiri, Rebecca McWhirter, Andreas Leha, Sierra Palumbos, Wagner Steuer Costa, Alexandra Oranth, Alexander Gottschalk, , Alex Hajnal & Henrik Bringmann
Sleep requires sleep-active neurons that depolarize to inhibit wake circuits. Sleep-active neurons are under the control of homeostatic mechanisms that determine sleep need. However, little is known about the molecular and circuit mechanisms that translate sleep need into the depolarization of sleep-active neurons. During many stages and conditions in C. elegans, sleep requires a sleep-active neuron called RIS. Here, we defined the transcriptome of RIS to discover that genes of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor...

Data from: Detecting the population dynamics of an autosomal sex-ratio distorter transgene in malaria vector mosquitoes

Paola Pollegioni, Ace North, Tania Persampieri, Alessandro Bucci, Roxana Minuz, David Alexander Groneberg, Tony Nolan, Philippos-Aris Papathanos, Andrea Crisanti & Ruth Muller
1. The development of genetically modified mosquitoes and their subsequent field release offers innovative and cost-effective approaches to reduce mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria. A sex-distorting autosomal transgene has been developed recently in G3 mosquitoes, a lab strain of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. The transgene expresses an endonuclease called I-PpoI during spermatogenesis, which selectively cleaves the X chromosome to result in ~95% male progeny. Following the World Health Organization Guidance Framework for the...

Data from: Computing the local field potential (LFP) from integrate-and-fire network models

Alberto Mazzoni, Henrik Anders Lindén, Hermann Cuntz, Anders Lansner, Stefano Panzeri, Gaute Tomas Einevoll & Henrik Lindén
Leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) network models are commonly used to study how the spiking dynamics of neural networks changes with stimuli, tasks or dynamic network states. However, neurophysiological studies in vivo often rather measure the mass activity of neuronal microcircuits with the local field potential (LFP). Given that LFPs are generated by spatially separated currents across the neuronal membrane, they cannot be computed directly from quantities defined in models of point-like LIF neurons. Here, we explore...

Data from: Chironomus riparius (Diptera) genome sequencing reveals the impact of minisatellite transposable elements on population divergence

Ann-Marie Oppold, Hanno Schmidt, Marcel Rose, Sören Lukas Hellman, Florian Dolze, Fabian Ripp, Bettina Weich, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Erwin Schmidt, Robert Kofler, Thomas Hankeln & Markus Pfenninger
Active transposable elements (TEs) may result in divergent genomic insertion and abundance patterns among conspecific populations. Upon secondary contact, such divergent genetic backgrounds can theoretically give rise to classical Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI), thus contributing to the evolution of endogenous genetic barriers and eventually cause population divergence. We investigated differential TE abundance among conspecific populations of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and evaluated their potential role in causing endogenous genetic incompatibilities between these populations. We focussed...

Data from: Breakdown of local information processing may underlie isoflurane anesthesia effects

Patricia Wollstadt, Kristin K. Sellers, Lucas Rudelt, Viola Priesemann, Axel Hutt, Flavio Fröhlich, Michael Wibral & Flavio Fröhlich
The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source—such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we...

Data from: How weather instead of urbanity measures affects song trait variability in three European passerine bird species

Julia E. Schäfer, Marcel M. Janocha, Sebastian Klaus & Dieter Thomas Tietze
Previous studies detected an influence of urban characteristics on song traits in passerine birds, that is, song adjustments to ambient noise in urban areas. Several studies already described the effect of weather conditions on the behavior of birds, but not the effect on song traits. We investigate, if song trait variability changes along a continuous urbanity gradient in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. We examined, for the first time on a larger scale, the influence of...

Data from: Correcting for missing and irregular data in home-range estimation

Christen H. Fleming, Daniel Sheldon, William F. Fagan, Peter Leimgruber, Thomas Mueller, Dejid Nandintsetseg, Michael J. Noonan, Kirk A. Olson, Edy Setyawan, Abraham Sianipar & Justin M. Calabrese
Home-range estimation is an important application of animal tracking data that is frequently complicated by autocorrelation, sampling irregularity, and small effective sample sizes. We introduce a novel, optimal weighting method that accounts for temporal sampling bias in autocorrelated tracking data. This method corrects for irregular and missing data, such that oversampled times are downweighted and undersampled times are upweighted to minimize error in the home-range estimate. We also introduce computationally efficient algorithms that make this...

Data from: Seed-dispersal networks respond differently to resource effects in open and forest habitats

Maximilian G. R. Vollstaedt, Stefan W. Ferger, Andreas Hemp, Kim M. Howell, Katrin Böhning-Gaese & Matthias Schleuning
While patterns in species diversity have been well studied across large-scale environmental gradients, little is known about how species' interaction networks change in response to abiotic and biotic factors across such gradients. Here we studied seed-dispersal networks on 50 study plots distributed over ten different habitat types on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, to disentangle the effects of climate, habitat structure, fruit diversity and fruit availability on different measures of interaction diversity. We...

Data from: Resting-state gamma-band power alterations in schizophrenia reveal E/I-balance abnormalities across illness-stages

Tineke Grent-'T-Jong, Joachim Gross, Jozien Goense, Michael Wibral, Ruchika Gajwani, Andrew I. Gumley, Stephen M. Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Dagmar Koethe, F. Markus Leweke, Wolf Singer & Peter J. Uhlhaas
We examined alterations in E/I-balance in schizophrenia (ScZ) through measurements of resting-state gamma-band activity in participants meeting clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria (n = 88), 21 first episode (FEP) patients and 34 chronic ScZ-patients. Furthermore, MRS-data were obtained in CHR-participants and matched controls. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) resting-state activity was examined at source level and MEG-data were correlated with neuropsychological scores and clinical symptoms. CHR-participants were characterized by increased 64–90 Hz power. In contrast, FEP- and ScZ-patients showed...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: The abiotic and biotic drivers of rapid diversification in Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

Laura P. Lagomarsino, Fabien L. Condamine, Alexandre Antonelli, Andreas Mulch & Charles C. Davis
The tropical Andes of South America, the world’s richest biodiversity hotspot, are home to many rapid radiations. While geological, climatic, and ecological processes collectively explain such radiations, their relative contributions are seldom examined within a single clade. We explore the contribution of these factors by applying a series of diversification models that incorporate mountain building, climate change, and trait evolution to the first dated phylogeny of Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Our framework is novel for...

DEI Excavations on the Southwestern Slope of Mount Zion (2015–2019)

Dieter Vieweger, Jennifer Zimni, Friederike Schöpf & Michael Wuerz
The excavations of the GPIA Mount Zion project are located around the Protestant Cemetery in Jerusalem. Three areas reveal archaeological remains dating from the Iron Age II up until the Islamic period. After reinvestigating the area of the »Gate of the Essenes« the GPIA excavated further living quarter structures, mainly dating into the Early Roman as well as into the Byzantine era. The results shed new light on the course of the ancient city walls...

Das Leben von jungen Menschen in der Corona-Pandemie

Sabine Andresen, Lea Heyer, Anna Lips, Tanja Rusack, Wolfgang Schröer, Severine Thomas & Johanna Wilmes
Wie sieht das Leben von jungen Menschen in der Corona-Pandemie aus? Wie geht es ihnen und was macht ihnen Sorgen? Diesen Fragen gehen Jugendforscher:innen der Universitäten Hildesheim und Frankfurt am Main mit den beiden „Online-Befragungen zu Erfahrungen und Perspektiven von jungen Menschen während der Corona-Maßnahmen“ (JuCo I und II) auf den Grund. Im April/Mai und im November 2020 haben sie junge Menschen zwischen 15 und 30 Jahren befragt. Mit der vorliegenden Publikation legen sie eine...

Data from: Structural alterations of the social brain: a comparison between schizophrenia and autism

Daniel Radeloff, Angela Ciaramidaro, Sabine Schlitt, Sven Bölte, Fritz Poustka, Daniela Hainz, Bernhard Weber, Michael Siniatchkin, Henrik Walter & Christine Margarete Freitag
Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia share a substantial number of etiologic and phenotypic characteristics. Still, no direct comparison of both disorders has been performed to identify differences and commonalities in brain structure. In this voxel based morphometry study, 34 patients with autism spectrum disorder, 21 patients with schizophrenia and 26 typically developed control subjects were included to identify global and regional brain volume alterations. No global gray matter or white matter differences were found between...

Data from: Processing of simple and complex acoustic signals in a tonotopically organized ear

Jennifer Hummel, Konstantin Wolf, Manfred Kössl, Manuela Nowotny & M. Kossl
Processing of complex signals in the hearing organ remains poorly understood. This paper aims to contribute to this topic by presenting investigations on the mechanical and neuronal response of the hearing organ of the tropical bushcricket species Mecopoda elongata to simple pure tone signals as well as to the conspecific song as a complex acoustic signal. The high-frequency hearing organ of bushcrickets, the crista acustica (CA), is tonotopically tuned to frequencies between about 4 and...

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