75 Works

Data from: The effects of sub-curative praziquantel treatment on life-history traits and trade-offs in drug-resistant Schistosoma mansoni

Mafalda Viana, Christina L. Faust, Dan T. Haydon, Joanne P. Webster, Poppy H.L. Lamberton, Poppy H. L. Lamberton & Daniel T. Haydon
Natural selection acts on all organisms, including parasites, to maximise reproductive fitness. Drug resistance traits are often associated with life-history costs in the absence of treatment. Schistosomiasis control programmes rely on mass drug administration to reduce human morbidity and mortality. Although hotspots of reduced drug efficacy have been reported, resistance is not widespread. Using Bayesian State-Space Models (SSMs) fitted to data from an in vivo laboratory system, we tested the hypothesis that the spread of...

Data from: Trait-dependent distributional shifts in fruiting of common British fungi

Alan C. Gange, Einar Heegaard, Lynne Boddy, Carrie Andrew, Paul Kirk, Rune Halvorsen, Thomas W. Kuyper, Claus Bässler, Jeffrey Diez, Jacob Heilman-Clausen, Klaus Høiland, Ulf Büntgen & Håvard Kauserud
Despite the dramatic phenological responses of fungal fruiting to recent climate warming, it is unknown whether spatial distributions of fungi have changed and to what extent such changes are influenced by fungal traits, such as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or saprotrophic lifestyles, spore characteristics, or fruit body size. Our overall aim was to understand how climate and fungal traits determine whether and how species-specific fungal fruit body abundances have shifted across latitudes over time, using the UK...

Data from: General and species-specific impacts of a neonicotinoid insecticide on the ovary development and feeding of wild bumblebee queens

Gemma L. Baron, Nigel E. Raine, Mark J.F. Brown & Mark J. F. Brown
Bumblebees are essential pollinators of crops and wild plants, but are in decline across the globe. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a potential driver of these declines, but most of our evidence base comes from studies of a single species. There is an urgent need to understand whether such results can be generalized across a range of species. Here, we present results of a laboratory experiment testing the impacts of field-relevant doses (1.87–5.32 ppb)...

Data from: Evolution of sociality in spiders leads to depleted genomic diversity at both population and species level

Virginia Settepani, Mads F. Schou, Michelle Greve, Lena Grinsted, Jesper Bechsgaard, Trine Bilde, L. Grinsted, V. Settepani, M. F. Schou, J. Bechsgaard, T. Bilde & M. Greve
Across several animal taxa, the evolution of sociality involves a suite of characteristics, a ‘social syndrome’, that includes cooperative breeding, reproductive skew, primary female biased sex-ratio, and the transition from outcrossing to inbreeding mating system, factors that are expected to reduce effective population size (Ne). This social syndrome may be favoured by short-term benefits but come with long-term costs, because the reduction in Ne amplifies loss of genetic diversity by genetic drift, ultimately restricting the...

Data from: Lower bumblebee colony reproductive success in agricultural compared to urban environments

Ash E. Samuelson, Richard J. Gill, Mark J.F. Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater & Mark J. F. Brown
Urbanisation represents a rapidly growing driver of land-use change. While it is clear that urbanisation impacts species abundance and diversity, direct effects of urban land-use on animal reproductive success are rarely documented. Here we show that urban land-use is linked to long-term colony reproductive output in a key pollinator. We reared colonies from wild-caught bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) queens, placed them at sites characterised by varying degrees of urbanisation from inner city to rural farmland, and...

Data from: Flower preferences and pollen transport networks for cavity nesting solitary bees: implications for the design of agri-environment schemes

Catherine E.A. Gresty, Elizabeth Clare, Dion S. Devey, Robyn S. Cowan, Laszlo Csiba, Panagiota Malakasi, Owen T. Lewis, Katherine J. Willis & Catherine E. A. Gresty
Floral foraging resources are valuable for pollinator conservation on farmland, and their provision is encouraged by agri-environment schemes in many countries. Across Europe, wildflower seed mixtures are widely sown on farmland to encourage pollinators, but the extent to which key pollinator groups such as solitary bees exploit and benefit from these resources is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing of 164 pollen samples extracted from the brood cells of 6 common cavity nesting solitary bee species...

Data from: Sperm morph and remating frequency in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella

Doko-Miles J. Thorburn, Robert J. Knell & Jonathan M. Parrett
All Lepidoptera produce two sperm types: normal, nucleated ‘eupyrene’ sperm and anucleate ‘apyrene’ sperm. One hypothesis for the evolution of apyrene sperm suggests that they act to reduce female remating rate. Apyrene sperm require less resources to produce than do eupyrene sperm, and could delay remating by females by acting as a “cheap filler”, packing the spermatheca and thereby reducing receptivity. This would reduce the risk of sperm competition, giving a potential adaptive advantage to...

Data from: Petiolate wings: effects on the leading-edge vortex in flapping flight

Nathan Phillips, Kevin Knowles & Richard J. Bomphrey
The wings of many insect species including crane flies and damselflies are petiolate (on stalks), with the wing planform beginning some distance away from the wing hinge, rather than at the hinge. The aerodynamic impact of flapping petiolate wings is relatively unknown, particularly on the formation of the lift-augmenting leading-edge vortex (LEV): a key flow structure exploited by many insects, birds and bats to enhance their lift coefficient. We investigated the aerodynamic implications of petiolation...

Data from: Environmental and genetic control of brain and song structure in the zebra finch

Joseph Luke Woodgate, Katherine L. Buchanan, Andrew T. D. Bennett, Clive K. Catchpole, Roswitha Brighton, Stefan Leitner, Joseph L. Woodgate & Andrew T.D. Bennett
Birdsong is a classic example of a learned trait with cultural inheritance, with selection acting on trait expression. To understand how song responds to selection, it is vital to determine the extent to which variation in song learning and neuroanatomy is attributable to genetic variation, environmental conditions, or their interactions. Using a partial cross fostering design with an experimental stressor, we quantified the heritability of song structure and key brain nuclei in the song control...

Data from: Efficiency of lift production in flapping and gliding flight of swifts

Per Henningsson, Anders Hedenström & Richard J. Bomphrey
Many flying animals use both flapping and gliding flight as part of their routine behaviour. These two kinematic patterns impose conflicting requirements on wing design for aerodynamic efficiency and, in the absence of extreme morphing, wings cannot be optimised for both flight modes. In gliding flight, the wing experiences uniform incident flow and the optimal shape is a high aspect ratio wing with an elliptical planform. In flapping flight, on the other hand, the wing...

Data from: Who is spreading avian influenza in the moving duck flock farming network of Indonesia?

Joerg Henning, Dirk U. Pfeiffer, Mark Stevenson, Didik Yulianto, Walujo Priyono & Joanne Meers
Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds,...

Data from: Warming at the population level: effects on age structure, density, and generation cycles.

Alice M. Laughton & Robert J. Knell
The impact of climate change on strongly age-structured populations is poorly understood, despite the central role of temperature in determining developmental rates in ectotherms. Here we examine the effect of warming and its interactions with resource availability on the population dynamics of the pyralid moth Plodia interpunctella, populations of which normally show generation cycles, a consequence of strong and asymmetric age-related competition. . Warming by 3°C above the standard culture temperature led to substantial changes...

Data from: Land use alters trophic redundancy and resource flow through stream food webs

Elliott L. Price, Mirela Sertić Perić, Romero Q. Gustavo & Pavel Kratina
1. The changes to physical and chemical ecosystem characteristics as a response to pervasive and intensifying land use have the potential to alter the consumer-resource interactions and to rewire the flow of energy through entire food webs. 2. We investigated these structural and functional properties of food webs in stream ecosystems distributed across woodland, agricultural and urban areas in the Zagreb region of Croatia. We compared resource availability and consumer diet composition using stable isotope...

Data from: Assessment of healthcare delivery in the early management of bacterial meningitis in UK young infants: an observational study

Ifeanyichukwu O. Okike, Shamez N. Ladhani, Mark Anthony, Nelly Ninis & Paul T. Heath
OBJECTIVE: To define early presenting features of bacterial meningitis in young infants in England and to review the adequacy of individual case management as compared with relevant national guidelines and an expert panel review. DESIGN: Retrospective medical case note review and parental recall using standardised questionnaires. SETTING: England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Infants aged <90 days with bacterial meningitis diagnosed between July 2010 and July 2013. RESULTS: Of the 97 cases recruited across England and Wales,...

Data from: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) use adaptable transportation networks to track changes in resource quality

Tanya Latty, Michael J. Holmes, James C. Makinson & Madeleine Beekman
Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been...

Data from: A tilt after-effect for images of buildings: evidence of selectivity for the orientation of everyday scenes

Ahamed Miflah Hussain Ismail, Joshua A. Solomon, Miles Hansard & Isabelle Mareschal
The tilt after-effect (TAE) is thought to be a manifestation of gain control in mechanisms selective for spatial orientation in visual stimuli. It has been demonstrated with luminance-defined stripes, contrast-defined stripes, orientation-defined stripes and even with natural images. Of course, all images can be decomposed into a sum of stripes, so it should not be surprising to find a TAE when adapting and test images contain stripes that differ by 15° or so. We show...

Data from: Rapid human-induced divergence of life-history strategies in Bahamian livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae)

Rüdiger Riesch, Tara Easter, Craig A. Layman, R. Brian Langerhans & Randall Brian Langerhans
1. Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) can have dramatic impacts on ecosystems, leading to rapid trait changes in some organisms and extinction in others. Such changes in traits signify that human actions can lead to cases of increased phenotypic diversity and consequently can strongly impact population-, community- and ecosystem-level dynamics. 2. Here, we examine whether the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation have led to changes in the life histories of three native species of mosquitofish...

Data from: The biogeography of Sulawesi revisited: is there evidence for a vicariant origin of taxa on Wallace’s “anomalous island”?

Björn Stelbrink, Christian Albrecht, Robert Hall & Thomas Von Rintelen
Sulawesi, the largest island in the Indonesian biodiversity hotspot region Wallacea, hosts a diverse endemic fauna whose origin has been debated for more than 150 years. We use a comparative approach based on dated phylogenies and geological constraints to test the role of vicariance versus dispersal in the origin of Sulawesi taxa. Most divergence time estimates for the split of Sulawesi lineages from their sister groups postdate relevant tectonic vicariant events, suggesting that the island...

Data from: Genome sequence of dwarf birch (Betula nana) and cross-species RAD markers

Nian Wang, Marian Thomson, William J. A. Bodles, Robert M. M. Crawford, Harriet V. Hunt, Alan Watson Featherstone, Jaume Pellicer & Richard J. A. Buggs
New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridisation. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 67X short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) – a diploid that is the keystone woody species of sub-arctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present...

Data from: Allometry and growth of eight tree taxa in United Kingdom woodlands

Matthew R. Evans, Aristides Moustakas, Gregory Carey, Yadvinder Malhi, Nathalie Butt, Sue Benham, Denise Pallett & Stefanie Schäfer
As part of a project to develop predictive ecosystem models of United Kingdom woodlands we have collated data from two United Kingdom woodlands - Wytham Woods and Alice Holt. Here we present data from 582 individual trees of eight taxa in the form of summary variables relating to the allometric relationships between trunk diameter, height, crown height, crown radius and trunk radial growth rate to the tree’s light environment and diameter at breast height. In...

Data from: Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect

Aaron A. Comeault, Samuel M. Flaxman, Rüdiger Riesch, Emma Curran, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Timothy E. Farkas, Moritz Muschick, Thomas L. Parchman, Tanja Schwander, Jon Slate & Patrik Nosil
The interplay between selection and aspects of the genetic architecture of traits (such as linkage, dominance, and epistasis) can either drive or constrain speciation. Despite accumulating evidence that speciation can progress to “intermediate” stages—with populations evolving only partial reproductive isolation—studies describing selective mechanisms that impose constraints on speciation are more rare than those describing drivers. The stick insect Timema cristinae provides an example of a system in which partial reproductive isolation has evolved between populations...

Data from: Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players

Hikaru Tsujimura, Michael J. Banissy & M. J. Banissy
In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one's facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and...

Data from: A pragmatic approach to the analysis of diets of generalist predators: the use of next-generation sequencing with no blocking probes

Josep Piñol, Victoria San Andrés, Elizabeth L. Clare, Gisela Mir & William O. C. Symondson
Predicting whether a predator is capable of affecting the dynamics of a prey species in the field implies the analysis of the complete diet of the predator, not simply rates of predation on a target taxon. Here, we employed the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing technology to investigate the diet of a generalist arthropod predator. A complete dietary analysis requires the use of general primers, but these will also amplify the predator unless suppressed using a...

Data from: Do agri-environment schemes result in improved water quality?

John Iwan Jones, John F. Murphy, Steven G. Anthony, Amanda Arnold, John H. Blackburn, Chas P. Duerdoth, Adrianna Hawczak, Greg O. Hughes, James L. Pretty, Peter D. Scarlett, Richard D. Gooday, Yusheng S. Zhang, Laura E. Fawcett, Diane Simpson, Anthony W. B. Turner, Pamela S. Naden, James Skates, J. Iwan Jones & Peter M. Scarlett
Improved water quality, through a reduction in diffuse pollution from agricultural sources, is an expected benefit of agri-environment schemes, but this has yet to be demonstrated in practice. Here, we evaluate the impact of Welsh agri-environment schemes on water quality and freshwater ecosystem condition through a combined monitoring and modelling framework. To determine the influence of the agri-environment schemes on ecosystem condition, spatially independent catchments dominated by a single scheme (>40% of catchment) were compared...

Data from: Tempo and mode of performance evolution across multiple independent origins of adhesive toe pads in lizards

Travis Jay Hagey, Josef C. Uyeda, Kristen E. Crandell, Jorn A. Cheney, Kellar Autumn, Luke J. Harmon & Travis J. Hagey
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics....

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