79 Works

Data from: Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players

Hikaru Tsujimura & Michael J. Banissy
In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one's facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and...

Data from: Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) use adaptable transportation networks to track changes in resource quality

Tanya Latty, Michael J. Holmes, James C. Makinson & Madeleine Beekman
Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been...

Data from: Social chromosome variants differentially affect queen determination and the survival of workers in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

Séverine D. Buechel, Yannick Wurm & Laurent Keller
Intraspecific variation in social organization is common, yet the underlying causes are rarely known. An exception is the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in which the existence of two distinct forms of social colony organization is under the control of the two variants of a pair of social chromosomes, SB and Sb. Colonies containing exclusively SB/SB workers accept only one single queen and she must be SB/SB. By contrast, when colonies contain more than 10% of...

Data from: Gaze-contingent reinforcement learning reveals incentive value of social signals in young children and adults

Angélina Vernetti, Tim J. Smith & Atsushi Senju
While numerous studies have demonstrated that infants and adults preferentially orient to social stimuli, it remains unclear as to what drives such preferential orienting. It has been suggested that the learned association between social cues and subsequent reward delivery might shape such social orienting. Using a novel, spontaneous indication of reinforcement learning (with the use of a gaze contingent reward-learning task), we investigated whether children and adults' orienting towards social and non-social visual cues can...

Data from: Tempo and mode of performance evolution across multiple independent origins of adhesive toe pads in lizards

Travis Jay Hagey, Josef C. Uyeda, Kristen E. Crandell, Jorn A. Cheney, Kellar Autumn & Luke J. Harmon
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics....

Data from: Temperature-dependence of minimum resource requirements alters competitive hierarchies in phytoplankton

Leah Lewington-Pearce, Anita Narwani, Mridul K. Thomas, Colin Kremer, Helena Vogler & Pavel Kratina
1. Resource competition theory is a conceptual framework that provides mechanistic insights into competition and community assembly of species with different resource requirements. However, there has been little exploration of how resource requirements depend on other environmental factors, including temperature. Changes in resource requirements as influenced by environmental temperature would imply that climate warming can alter the outcomes of competition and community assembly. 2. We experimentally demonstrate that environmental temperature alters the minimum light and...

Data from: Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

Chavaunne T. Thorpe, Graham P. Riley, Helen L. Birch, Peter D. Clegg & Hazel R. C. Screen
Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess...

Data from: Experimental design in phylogenetics: testing predictions from expected information

Diego San Mauro, David J. Gower, James A. Cotton, Rafael Zardoya, Mark Wilkinson & Tim Massingham
Taxon and character sampling is central to phylogenetic experimental design yet we lack general rules. Goldman introduced a method to construct efficient sampling designs in phylogenetics, based on the calculation of expected Fisher information given a probabilistic model of sequence evolution. The considerable potential of this approach remains largely unexplored. In an earlier study, we applied Goldman’s method to a problem in the phylogenetics of caecilian amphibians and made an a priori evaluation and testable...

Data from: Miniaturisation of biologgers is not alleviating the 5% rule

Steven J. Portugal & Craig R. White
1. The use of biologging technology has increased exponentially over the last decade, allowing us to study animal behaviour at a level of detail not previously possible. 2. It is clear from recent meta-analyses that the attachment of such devices can have negative effects on individual animals, particularly their behaviour and physiology. In recognition of this, a commonly applied rule is to ensure that devices borne by flying animals weigh less than 5% of their...

Data from: Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem

Jolanda Jetten, Nyla R. Branscombe, S. Alexander Haslam, Catherine Haslam, Tegan Cruwys, Janelle M. Jones, Lijuan Cui, Genevieve Dingle, James Liu, Sean Murphy, Anh Thai, Zoe Walter & Airong Zhang
Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to...

Data from: Molecular footprints of the Holocene retreat of dwarf birch in Britain

Nian Wang, James S. Borrell, William J. A. Bodles, Ana Kuttapitiya, Richard A. Nicholes, Richard J. A. Buggs, Anasuya Kuttapitiya & Richard A. Nichols
Past reproductive interactions among incompletely isolated species may leave behind a trail of introgressed alleles, shedding light on historical range movements. Betula pubescens is a widespread native tetraploid tree species in Britain, occupying habitats intermediate to those of its native diploid relatives, B. pendula and B. nana. Genotyping 1134 trees from the three species at 12 microsatellite loci we found evidence of introgression from both diploid species into B. pubescens, despite the ploidy difference. Surprisingly,...

Data from: Foraging bumblebees acquire a preference for neonicotinoid-treated food with prolonged exposure

Andres N. Arce, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Jiajun Yu, Thomas J. Colgan, Yannick Wurm & Richard J. Gill
Social bees represent an important group of pollinating insects but can be exposed to potentially harmful pesticides when foraging on treated or contaminated flowering plants. To investigate if such exposure is detrimental to bees, many studies have exclusively fed individuals with pesticide spiked food, informing us about the hazard but not necessarily the risk of exposure. Whilst such studies are important to establish the physiological and behavioural effects on individuals they do not consider the...

Data from: The predictability and magnitude of life-history divergence to ecological agents of selection: a meta-analysis in livebearing fishes

Michael Moore, Rüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin & Michael P. Moore
Environments causing variation in age-specific mortality – ecological agents of selection – mediate the evolution of reproductive life-history traits. However, the relative magnitude of life-history divergence across selective agents, whether divergence in response to specific selective agents is consistent across taxa and whether it occurs as predicted by theory, remains largely unexplored. We evaluated divergence in offspring size, offspring number, and the trade-off between these traits using a meta-analysis in livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae). Life-history divergence...

Data from: Building a beetle: how larval environment leads to adult performance in a horned beetle

Leeann T. Reaney & Robert J. Knell
The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related...

Data from: The role of host phenology in determining the incidence of an insect sexually transmitted infection

Daria Pastok, Mary-Jo Hoare, Jonathan J. Ryder, Michael Boots, Rob J. Knell, David Atkinson, Gregory D. D. Hurst & Mike Boots
Changes in the timing of life history events within the year alter the degree to which the activity patterns of different species coincide, making the dynamics of interspecific interactions sensitive to the phenology of the interacting parties. For parasites, the availability of suitable hosts to infect represents a crucial determinant of dynamics, and changes in the host (and parasite) phenology may thus alter disease epidemiology and the conditions for disease maintenance. We tested the hypothesis...

Data from: Increased dystrophin production with golodirsen in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Diane E. Frank, Frederick J. Schnell, Cody Akana, Saleh H. El-Husayni, Cody A. Desjardins, Jennifer Morgan, Jay S. Charleston, Valentina Sardone, Joana Domingos, George Dickson, Volker Straub, Michela Guglieri, Eugenio Mercuri, Laurent Servais & Francesco Muntoni
Objective To report safety, pharmacokinetics, exon 53 skipping, and dystrophin expression in golodirsen-treated patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) amenable to exon 53 skipping. Methods Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week dose titration of once-weekly golodirsen; Part 2 is an ongoing, open-label evaluation. Safety and pharmacokinetics were primary and secondary objectives of Part 1. Primary biological outcome measures of part 2 were blinded exon skipping and dystrophin protein production on muscle biopsies (baseline,...

Chinese historic perceptions of the South China Sea : Zheng He and his legacy

Mark Hoskin
From the moment the period that now bears his name in China’s history ended, Zheng He has been an enigma for politicians and historians alike. In the post Imperial period, Sun Yat-Sen referred to him as an example of China’s maritime past, technical ingenuity, and therefore an enduring symbol of national pride. For China’s Republican leader, reference to Zheng He in 1918 was a natural extension of his upbringing in Cuiheng, Guangdong, a village which...

What Clients Want: A Conjoint Analysis of Precursors to Coach Selection

Céline Rojon, Nicole Bode & Almuth McDowall
This study investigated individuals’ preference structures for workplace coaching providers. Guided by questions about relative weightings of seven important coach(ing) characteristics (i.e., coach work experience/background/gender; coaching training; personal recommendations; client feedback; coaching cost), we carried out a conjoint analysis, using a mixed occupational sample (N = 383). In addition, we conducted linear regression analyses to determine the extent to which coaches’ perceived competence, likeability and trustworthiness might impact on individuals’ decision-making processes. Potential coachees favoured...

Data from: The effect of sexual selection on adaptation and extinction under increasing temperatures

Jonathan M. Parrett & Robert J. Knell
Strong sexual selection has been reported to both enhance and hinder the adaptive capacity and persistence of populations when exposed to novel environments. Consequently, how sexual selection influences population adaption and persistence under stress remains widely debated. Here we present two empirical investigations of the fitness consequences of sexual selection on populations of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, exposed to stable or gradually increasing temperatures. When faced with increasing temperatures strong sexual selection was...

Data from: A game-theoretical model of kleptoparasitic behaviour in an urban gull (Laridae) population.

Robert Spencer & Mark Broom
Kleptoparasitism (food stealing) is a significant behaviour for animals that forage in social groups as it permits some individuals to obtain resources whilst avoiding the costs of searching for their own food. Evolutionary game theory has been used to model kleptoparasitism, with a series of differential equation based compartmental models providing significant theoretical insights into behaviour in kleptoparasitic populations. In this paper we apply this compartmental modelling approach to kleptoparasitic behaviour in a real foraging...

Data from: Year-round sexual harassment as a behavioral mediator of vertebrate population dynamics

Victoria Wearmouth, Emily Southall, David Morritt, Richard C. Thompson, Innes C. Cuthill, Julian Partridge, David W. Sims & Julian C. Partridge
Within-species sexual segregation is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates but its causes remain a topic of much debate. Female avoidance of male coercive mating attempts has the potential to influence the social structure of animal populations, yet it has been largely overlooked as a driver of sexual separation. Indeed, its potential role in long-term structuring of natural populations has not been studied. Here we use a comparative approach to examine the suitability of multiple hypotheses...

Data from: Speciation processes in putative island endemic sister bat species: false impressions from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data

Hao-Chih Kuo, Shiang-Fan Chen, Yin-Ping Fang, James A. Cotton, Joe D. Parker, Gábor Csorba, Burton K. Lim, Judith L. Eger, Chia-Hong Chen, Cheng-Han Chou & Stephen J. Rossiter
Cases of geographically restricted co-occurring sister taxa are rare and may point to potential divergence with gene flow. The two bat species Murina gracilis and M. recondita are both endemic to Taiwan and are putative sister species. To test for non-allopatric divergence and gene flow in these taxa, we generated sequences using Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing, and combined these with microsatellite data for coalescent-based analyses. MtDNA phylogenies supported the reciprocally monophyletic sister relationship between...

Data from: Elevational changes in the avian community of a Mesoamerican cloud forest park

Montague H. C. Neate-Clegg, Samuel E. I. Jones, Oliver Burdekin, Merlijn Jocque & Çağan Hakkı Şekercioğlu.
Harboring many range-restricted and specialized species, high elevation tropical cloud forests are diverse habitats represented in many protected areas. Despite this, many such areas receive little practical protection from deforestation and land conversion. Moreover, montane species may be more sensitive to climate change owing to various factors affecting community assembly across elevational gradients. Few studies have used annual monitoring to assess how biological communities in cloud forests may be shifting in response to habitat or...

Data from: A phylogenomic analysis of the role and timing of molecular adaptation in the aquatic transition of cetartiodactyl mammals

Georgia Tsagkogeorga, Michael R. McGowen, Kalina T. J. Davies, Simon Jarman, Andrea Polanowski, Mads F. Bertelsen & Stephen J. Rossiter
Recent studies have reported multiple cases of molecular adaptation in cetaceans related to their aquatic abilities. However, none of these has included the hippopotamus, precluding an understanding of whether molecular adaptations in cetaceans occurred before or after they split from their semi-aquatic sister taxa. Here, we obtained new transcriptomes from the hippopotamus and humpback whale, and analysed these together with available data from eight other cetaceans. We identified more than 11 000 orthologous genes and...

Data from: Input-dependent frequency modulation of cortical gamma oscillations shapes spatial synchronization and enables phase coding

Eric Lowet, Mark Roberts, Avgis Hadjipapas, Alina Peter, Jan Van Der Eerden & Peter De Weerd
Fine-scale temporal organization of cortical activity in the gamma range (~25–80Hz) may play a significant role in information processing, for example by neural grouping (‘binding’) and phase coding. Recent experimental studies have shown that the precise frequency of gamma oscillations varies with input drive (e.g. visual contrast) and that it can differ among nearby cortical locations. This has challenged theories assuming widespread gamma synchronization at a fixed common frequency. In the present study, we investigated...

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  • University of London
  • Queen Mary University of London
  • Imperial College London
  • University College London
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Edinburgh
  • Royal Holloway University of London
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
  • University of Manchester
  • University of Exeter