79 Works

Data from: Elevated virulence of an emerging viral genotype as a driver of honeybee loss

Dino P. McMahon, Myrsini E. Natsopoulou, Vincent Doublet, Matthias Fürst, Silvio Weging, Mark J. F. Brown, Andreas Gogol-Döring & Robert J. Paxton
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have contributed significantly to the current biodiversity crisis, leading to widespread epidemics and population loss. Owing to genetic variation in pathogen virulence, a complete understanding of species decline requires the accurate identification and characterization of EIDs. We explore this issue in the Western honeybee, where increasing mortality of populations in the Northern Hemisphere has caused major concern. Specifically, we investigate the importance of genetic identity of the main suspect in mortality,...

Data from: Ageing and agency: age-related changes in susceptibility to illusory experiences of control

Maria Cristina Cioffi, Gianna Cocchini, Michael J. Banissy & James W. Moore
Sense of agency (SoAg) is the feeling of control over one's actions and their effects. It can be augmented or attenuated by internal signals and by external cues. Research has shown a reduction in the SoAg in older adulthood, but the reasons behind this change remain unclear. We investigated agency processing differences that may underpin age-related changes in SoAg. Using a modified version of a vicarious agency paradigm, we tested the modulation of SoAg by...

Data from: Multiple cases of asymmetric introgression among horseshoe bats detected by phylogenetic conflicts across loci

Xiuguang Mao, Vu D. Thong, Paul J. J. Bates, Gareth Jones, Shuyi Zhang & Stephen J. Rossiter
Phylogenetic discordance among taxa can provide powerful insights into past episodes of introgressive hybridization, as well as lineage sorting. Previously, we showed that the taxonomically distinct taxon Rhinolophus sinicus septentrionalis has undergone historical introgression with its sympatric sister subspecies Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus. To examine in more detail the extent of gene flow between these two taxa, and also between these and their sister species Rhinolophus thomasi, we obtained new samples from China, Myanmar, and Vietnam,...

Data from: Microform-scale variations in peatland permeability and their ecohydrological implications

Andy J. Baird, Alice M. Milner, Antony Blundell, Graeme T. Swindles & Paul J. Morris
1. The acrotelm-catotelm model of peatland hydrological and biogeochemical processes posits that the permeability of raised bogs is largely homogenous laterally but varies strongly with depth through the soil profile; uppermost peat layers are highly permeable while deeper layers are, effectively, impermeable. 2. We measured down-core changes in peat permeability, plant macrofossil assemblages, dry bulk density and degree of humification beneath two types of characteristic peatland microform – ridges and hollows – at a raised...

Data from: Interactions between plant genome size, nutrients and herbivory by rabbits, molluscs and insects on a temperate grassland

Maïté S. Guignard, Michael J. Crawley, Dasha Kovalenko, Richard A. Nichols, Mark Trimmer, Andrew R. Leitch & Ilia J. Leitch
Angiosperm genome sizes (GS) vary c. 2,400-fold. Recent research has shown that GS influences plant abundance, and plant competition. There are also tantalising reports that herbivores may select plants as food dependent on their GS. To test the hypothesis that GS plays a role in shaping plant communities under herbivore pressure, we exploit a grassland experiment that has experimentally excluded herbivores and applied nutrient over 8 years. Using phylogenetically-informed statistical models and path analyses, we...

Data from: Copy-when-uncertain: bumblebees rely on social information when rewards are highly variable

Marco Smolla, Sylvain Alem, Lars Chittka & Susanne Shultz
To understand the relative benefits of social and personal information use in foraging decisions, we developed an agent-based model of social learning that predicts social information should be more adaptive where resources are highly variable and personal information where resources vary little. We tested our predictions with bumblebees and found that foragers relied more on social information when resources were variable than when they were not. We then investigated whether socially salient cues are used...

Anatomy, ontogeny, and evolution of the archosaurian respiratory system: a case study on Alligator mississippiensis and Struthio camelus

Emma Schachner, Brandon Hedrick, Heather Richbourg, John Hutchinson & CG Farmer
The avian lung is highly specialized and is both functionally and morphologically distinct from that of their closest extant relatives, the crocodilians. It is highly partitioned, with a unidirectionally ventilated and immobilized gas-exchanging lung, and fully decoupled, compliant, poorly vascularized ventilatory air-sacs. To understand the evolutionary history of the archosaurian (birds, crocodilians and their common ancestors) respiratory system, it is essential to determine which anatomical characteristics are shared between birds and crocodilians and the role...

Association of SUMOlation pathway genes with stroke in a genome-wide association study in India

Amit Kumar, Ganesh Chauhan, Shriram Sharma, Surekha Dabla, P. N. Sylaja, Neera Chaudhary, Salil Gupta, Chandra Sekhar Agrawal, Kuljeet Singh Anand, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Deepti Vibha, Ram Sagar, Ritesh Raj, Ankita Maheswari, Subbiah Vivekanandhan, Bhavna Kaul, Samudrala Raghavan, Sankar Prasad Gorthi, Dheeraj Mohania, Samander Kaushik, Rohtas Kanwar Yadav, Anjali Hazarika, Pankaj Sharma & Kameshwar Prasad
Objective: To undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants for stroke in Indians. Methods: In a hospital-based case-control study, eight teaching hospitals in India recruited 4,088 subjects, including 1,609 stroke cases. Imputed genetic variants were tested for association with stroke subtypes using both single-marker and gene-based tests. Association with vascular risk factors was performed using logistic regression. Various databases were searched for replication, functional annotation, and association with related traits. Status of...

Data from: Divergent evolutionary processes associated with colonization of offshore islands

Natália Martínková, Ross Barnett, Thomas Cucchi, Rahel Struchen, Marine Pascal, Michel Pascal, Martin C. Fischer, Thomas Higham, Selina Brace, Simon Y. W. Ho, Jean-Pierre Quéré, Paul O'Higgins, Laurent Excoffier, Gerald Heckel, A. Rus Hoelzel, Keith M. Dobney & Jeremy B. Searle
Oceanic islands have been a test ground for evolutionary theory, but here, we focus on the possibilities for evolutionary study created by offshore islands. These can be colonized through various means and by a wide range of species, including those with low dispersal capabilities. We use morphology, modern and ancient sequences of cytochrome b (cytb) and microsatellite genotypes to examine colonization history and evolutionary change associated with occupation of the Orkney archipelago by the common...

Data from: Multiscale patterns of rarity in fungi, inferred from fruiting records

Alan C. Gange, Lewis P. Allen, Aline Nussbaumer, Edward G. Gange, Carrie Andrew, Simon Egli, Beatrice Senn-Irlet & Lynne Boddy
Aim: It is unknown whether fungi show similar trends to other organisms in their macroecological patterns of abundance and spatial distribution. Here, we investigated fungal abundance-occupancy relationships to determine whether fungi that are common at a local scale tend to be more widely distributed. Location: UK and Switzerland Time period: 1950 - 2014 Major taxa studied: Fungi Methods: We used a local dataset of fruiting records of 2,319 species in the UK, accumulated over 65...

Data from: Reconstructing the emergence of a lethal infectious disease of wildlife supports a key role for spread through translocations by humans

Stephen J. Price, Trenton W.J. Garner, Andrew A. Cunningham, Tom E.S. Langton & Richard A. Nichols
There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease...

Data from: New quantitative approaches reveal the spatial preference of nuclear compartments in mammalian fibroblasts

David J. Weston, Richard A. Russell, Elizabeth Batty, Kirsten Jensen, David A. Stephens, Niall M. Adams & Paul S. Freemont
The nuclei of higher eukaryotic cells display compartmentalization and certain nuclear compartments have been shown to follow a degree of spatial organization. To date, the study of nuclear organization has often involved simple quantitative procedures that struggle with both the irregularity of the nuclear boundary and the problem of handling replicate images. Such studies typically focus on inter-object distance, rather than spatial location within the nucleus. The concern of this paper is the spatial preference...

Data from: Long-term balancing selection on chromosomal variants associated with crypsis in a stick insect

Dorothea Lindtke, Kay Lucek, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Romain Villoutreix, Timothy E. Farkas, Rüdiger Riesch, Stuart R. Dennis, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
How polymorphisms are maintained within populations over long periods of time remains debated, because genetic drift and various forms of selection are expected to reduce variation. Here, we study the genetic architecture and maintenance of phenotypic morphs that confer crypsis in Timema cristinae stick insects, combining phenotypic information and genotyping-by-sequencing data from 1360 samples across 21 populations. We find two highly divergent chromosomal variants that span megabases of sequence and are associated with color polymorphism....

Data from: Impact of controlled neonicotinoid exposure on bumblebees in a realistic field setting

Andres N. Arce, Thomas I. David, Emma L. Randall, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Thomas J. Colgan, Yannick Wurm & Richard J. Gill
Pesticide exposure has been implicated as a contributor to insect pollinator declines. In social bees, which are crucial pollination service providers, the effect of low-level chronic exposure is typically non-lethal leading researchers to consider whether exposure induces sublethal effects on behaviour and whether such impairment can affect colony development. Studies under laboratory conditions can control levels of pesticide exposure and elucidate causative effects, but are often criticized for being unrealistic. In contrast, field studies can...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: C, N, and P fertilization in an Amazonian rainforest support stoichiometric dissimilarity as a driver of litter diversity effects on decomposition

Sandra Barantal, Heidy Schimann, Nathalie Fromin & Stephan Hättenschwiler
Plant leaf litter generally decomposes faster as a group of different species than when individual species decompose alone, but underlying mechanisms of these diversity effects remain poorly understood. Because resource C : N : P stoichiometry (i.e. the ratios of these key elements) exhibits strong control on consumers, we supposed that stoichiometric dissimilarity of litter mixtures (i.e. the divergence in C : N : P ratios among species) improves resource complementarity to decomposers leading to...

Data from: A sting in the spit: widespread cross-infection of multiple RNA viruses across wild and managed bees

Dino P. McMahon, Matthias A. Fürst, Jesicca Caspar, Panagiotis Theodorou, Mark J. F. Brown & Robert J. Paxton
1.Declining populations of bee pollinators are a cause of concern, with major repercussions for biodiversity loss and food security. RNA viruses associated with honeybees represent a potential threat to other insect pollinators, but the extent of this threat is poorly understood. 2.This study aims to attain a detailed understanding of the current and on going risk of emerging infectious disease (EID) transmission between managed and wild pollinator species across a wide range of RNA viruses....

Data from: Thermal regime drives a latitudinal gradient in morphology and life history in a livebearing fish

Rüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin, Sarah E. Diamond, Jonas Jourdan, Martin Plath & R. Brian Langerhans
Within-species diversity is often driven by changing selective regimes along environmental gradients. Here, we provide a direct test of the environmental factors underlying phenotypic diversity across the wide native distribution of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). We investigated life-history and body-shape divergence (including multiple measures of body size) across more than 14 degrees of latitude in North America, and used Akaike’s information criterion-based model selection to determine the relative contributions of thermal regime, population densities and...

Data from: Multi-serotype pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence in vaccine naïve Nepalese children, assessed using molecular serotyping.

Rama Kandasamy, Meeru Gurung, Anushil Thapa, Susan Ndimah, Neelam Adhikari, David R. Murdoch, Dominic F. Kelly, Denise E. Waldron, Katherine A. Gould, Stephen Thorson, Shrijana Shrestha, Jason Hinds & Andrew J. Pollard
Invasive pneumococcal disease is one of the major causes of death in young children in resource poor countries. Nasopharyngeal carriage studies provide insight into the local prevalence of circulating pneumococcal serotypes. There are very few data on the concurrent carriage of multiple pneumococcal serotypes. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and serotype distribution of pneumococci carried in the nasopharynx of young healthy Nepalese children prior to the introduction of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine using...

Data from: Shifts along parasite-mutualist continuum are opposed by fundamental trade-offs

Andrew C. Matthews, Lauri Mikonranta & Ben Raymond
Theory suggests that symbionts can readily evolve more parasitic or mutualistic strategies with respect to hosts. However, many symbionts have stable interactions with hosts that improve nutrient assimilation or confer protection from pathogens. We explored the potential for evolution of increased parasitism or decreased parasitism and mutualism in a natural gut symbiosis between larvae of Plutella xylostella and the microbe Enterobacter cloacae. We focused on interactions with the pathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis: selecting for parasitism in...

Data from: Bayesian estimation of species divergence times using correlated quantitative characters

Sandra Álvarez-Carretero, Anjali Goswami, Ziheng Yang & Mario Dos Reis
Discrete morphological data have been widely used to study species evolution, but the use of quantitative (or continuous) morphological characters is less common. Here, we implement a Bayesian method to estimate species divergence times using quantitative characters. Quantitative character evolution is modelled using Brownian diffusion with character correlation and character variation within populations. Through simulations, we demonstrate that ignoring the population variation (or population “noise”) and the correlation among characters leads to biased estimates of...

Data from: Microglial activation in early Alzheimer trajectory is associated with higher grey matter volume

Grazia Daniela Femminella, Melanie Dani, Melanie Wood, Zhen Fan, Valeria Calsolaro, Rebecca Atkinson, Trudi Edginton, Rainer Hinz, David J. Brooks & Paul Edison
Objective: To investigate the influence of microglial activation in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease trajectory, we assessed the relationship between microglial activation and grey matter volume and hippocampal volume in MCI patients. Methods: In this study, fifty-five participants (37 early stages MCI and 18 controls) underwent [11C]PBR28 PET, a marker of microglial activation; volumetric MRI to evaluate grey matter and hippocampal volumes as well as clinical and neuropsychometric evaluation. [11C]PBR28 VT (volume of distribution)...

Data from: Unidirectional diploid–tetraploid introgression among British birch trees with shifting ranges shown by restriction site-associated markers

Jasmin Zohren, Nian Wang, Igor Kardailsky, James S. Borrell, Anika Joecker, Richard A. Nichols & Richard J. A. Buggs
Hybridization may lead to introgression of genes among species. Introgression may be bidirectional or unidirectional, depending on factors such as the demography of the hybridizing species, or the nature of reproductive barriers between them. Previous microsatellite studies suggested bidirectional introgression between diploid Betula nana (dwarf birch) and tetraploid B. pubescens (downy birch) and also between B. pubescens and diploid B. pendula (silver birch) in Britain. Here, we analyse introgression among these species using 51 237...

Data from: Spatio-temporal and demographic variation in the diet of New Zealand lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata)

Zenon J. Czenze, J. Leon Tucker, Elizabeth L. Clare, Joanne E. Littlefair, David Hemprich-Bennet, Hernani F.M. Oliveira, R. Mark Brigham, Anthony J.R. Hickey & Stuart Parsons
Variation in the diet of generalist insectivores can be affected by site-specific traits including weather, habitat, and season, as well as demographic traits like reproductive status and age. We used molecular methods to compare diets of three distinct New Zealand populations of lesser short-tailed bats, Mystacina tuberculata. Summer diets were compared between a southern cold-temperate (Eglinton) and a northern population (Puroera). Winter diets were compared between Pureora and a subtropical offshore island population (Hauturu). This...

Data from: Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Anna Rudzinski, Abang Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, Allowen Evin, James Burton, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Rodrigo Vega, Evan K. Irving-Pease, James Haile, Richard Allen, Kristin Leus, Jill Shephard, Mia Hillyer, Sarah Gillemot, Jeroen Van Den Hurk, Sharron Ogle, Cristina Atofanei, Mark G. Thomas, Friederike Johansson, Abdul Haris Mustari, John Williams, Kusdiantoro Mohamad, Chandramaya Siska Damayanti … & Greger Larson
The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions...

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