163 Works

2012 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

2017 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

2018 Machine Learning Data Set for NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

David Fouhey, Meng Jin, Mark Cheung, Abndres Munoz-Jaramillo, Richard Galvez, Rajat Thomas, Paul Wright, Alexander Szenicer, Monica G. Bobra, Yang Liu & James Mason
We present a curated dataset from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission in a format suitable for machine learning research. Beginning from level 1 scientific products we have processed various instrumental corrections, downsampled to manageable spatial and temporal resolutions, and synchronized observations spatially and temporally. We anticipate this curated dataset will facilitate machine learning research in heliophysics and the physical sciences generally, increasing the scientific return of the SDO mission. This work is a...

Data from: Origins of global mountain plant biodiversity: testing the “mountain-geobiodiversity hypothesis”

Alexandra Muellner-Riehl, Jan Schnitzler, W. Daniel Kissling, Volker Mosbrugger, Kenneth Rijsdijk, Arie Seijmonsbergen, Hannes Versteegh & Adrien Favre
Aim Our objective is to analyse global-scale patterns of mountain biodiversity (vascular plants) and the driving forces leading to the observed patterns. More specifically, we test the “mountain geobiodiversity hypothesis” (MGH) which is based on the assumption that it is not mountain-uplift alone which drives the evolution of mountain biodiversity, but rather the combination of geodiversity evolution and Neogene and Pleistocene climate changes. Hence, we address the following questions: 1) Do areas of high geodiversity...

Data from: Combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis identifies defence responses in spider-mite infested pepper

Yuanyuan Zhang, Harro J. Bouwmeester & Iris F. Kappers
Plants regulate responses towards herbivory through fine-tuning of defence-related hormone production, expression of defence genes and production of secondary metabolites. Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a key role in plant-herbivorous arthropod interactions. To understand how pepper responds to herbivory, leaf transcriptomes and metabolomes of two genotypes different in their susceptibility to spider mites, were studied. Mites induced both JA and salicylic acid (SA) signalling. However, mite infestation and exogenous JA resulted in distinct transcriptome profiles. Compared...

Data from: Prey exploitation and dispersal strategies vary among natural populations of a predatory mite

Alexandra M. Revynthi, Martijn Egas, Arne Janssen & Maurice W. Sabelis
When predators commonly overexploit local prey populations, dispersal drives the dynamics in local patches, which together form a metapopulation. Two extremes in a continuum of dispersal strategies are distinguished: the “Killer” strategy, where predators only start dispersing when all prey are eliminated, and the “Milker” strategy, in which predator dispersal occurs irrespective of prey availability. Theory shows that the Milker strategy is not evolutionarily stable if local populations are well connected by dispersal. Using strains...

Data from: A synthesis of animal-mediated seed dispersal of palms reveals distinct biogeographic differences in species interactions

Gabriel Muñoz, Kristian Trøjelsgaard & W. Daniel Kissling
Aim: To synthesize published knowledge on palm-frugivore seed dispersal observations and to test whether broad-scale differences in geographic coverage, diversity, composition and functional structure of plant-animal interactions emerge between biogeographic regions. Location: Neotropics and Afrotropics. Methods: We constructed a meta-network for both regions by aggregating observations of pairwise palm-frugivore interactions from the primary literature. We assessed sampling completeness with accumulation curves and estimated knowledge gaps for individual palm species and geographic units within biogeographic regions....

Data from: Greenhouse gas emissions from reservoir water surfaces: a new global synthesis

Bridget R. Deemer, John A. Harrison, Siyue Li, Jake J. Beaulieu, Tonya DelSontro, Nathan Barros, José F. Bezerra-Neto, Stephen M. Powers, Marco A. Dos Santos & J. Arie Vonk
Collectively, reservoirs created by dams are thought to be an important source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. So far, efforts to quantify, model, and manage these emissions have been limited by data availability and inconsistencies in methodological approach. Here, we synthesize reservoir CH4, CO2, and N2O emission data with three main objectives: (1) to generate a global estimate of GHG emissions from reservoirs, (2) to identify the best predictors of these emissions, and...

Data from: Testing for reproductive interference in the population dynamics of two congeneric species of herbivorous mites

Yukie Sato, Juan M. Alba & Maurice W. Sabelis
When phylogenetically close, two competing species may reproductively interfere, and thereby affect their population dynamics. We tested for reproductive interference (RI) between two congeneric haplo-diploid spider mites, Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae, by investigating their interspecific mating and their population dynamics when they competed on the same plants. They are both pests of tomato, but differ in the host plant defences that they suppress or induce. To reduce the effect of plant-mediated interaction, we used...

Data from: Sex in the wild: how and why field-based studies contribute to solving the problem of sex

Maurine Neiman, Patrick Gerardus Meirmans, Tanja Schwander & Stephanie Meirmans
Why and how sexual reproduction is maintained in natural populations, the so-called “queen of problems”, is a key unanswered question in evolutionary biology. Recent efforts to solve the problem of sex have often emphasized results generated from laboratory settings. Here, we use a survey of representative “sex in the wild” literature to review and synthesize the outcomes of empirical studies focused on natural populations. Especially notable results included relatively strong support for mechanisms involving niche...

Data from: Fitness costs of key point mutations that underlie acaricide target-site resistance in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae

Sabina Bajda, Maria Riga, Nicky Wybouw, Stavrini Papadaki, Eleni Ouranou, Seyedeh Masoumeh Fotoukkiaii, John Vontas & Thomas Van Leeuwen
The frequency of insecticide/acaricide target-site resistance is increasing in arthropod pest populations and is typically underpinned by single point mutations that affect the binding strength between the insecticide/acaricide and its target-site. Theory predicts that although resistance mutations clearly have advantageous effects under the selection pressure of the insecticide/acaricide, they might convey negative pleiotropic effects on other aspects of fitness. If such fitness costs are in place, target-site resistance is thus likely to disappear in the...

Data from: Frugivory-related traits promote speciation of tropical palms

Renske E. Onstein, William J. Baker, Thomas L. P. Couvreur, Søren Faurby, Jens-Christian Svenning & W. Daniel Kissling
Animal-mediated seed dispersal by frugivorous birds and mammals is central to the ecology and functioning of ecosystems, but whether and how frugivory-related traits have affected plant speciation remains little explored. Fruit size is directly linked to plant dispersal capacity and therefore influences gene flow and genetic divergence of plant populations. Using a global species-level phylogeny with comprehensive data on fruit sizes and plant species distributions, we test whether fruit size has affected speciation rates of...

Data from: Mauritius on fire: tracking historical human impacts on biodiversity loss

William D. Gosling, Jona De Kruif, Sietze J. Norder, Erik J. De Boer, Henry Hooghiemstra, Kenneth F. Rijsdijk, Crystal N.H. McMichael & Crystal N. H. McMichael
Fire was rare on Mauritius prior to human arrival (AD 1598); subsequently three phases of elevated fire activity occurred: c. 1630-1747, 1787-1833, and 1950-modern. Elevated fire frequency coincided with periods of high human impact evidenced from the historical record, and is linked to the extinction of island endemics.

Data from: Time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of pteropods

Alice K. Burridge, Christine Hörnlein, Arie W. Janssen, Martin Hughes, Stephanie L. Bush, Ferdinand Marlétaz, Rebeca Gasca, Annelies C. Pierrot-Bults, Ellinor Michel, Jonathan A. Todd, Jeremy R. Young, Karen J. Osborn, Steph B.J. Menken, Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg & Steph B. J. Menken
Pteropods are a widespread group of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs and are uniquely suitable for study of long-term evolutionary processes in the open ocean because they are the only living metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. Pteropods have been proposed as bioindicators to monitor the impacts of ocean acidification and in consequence have attracted considerable research interest, however, a robust evolutionary framework for the group is still lacking. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and...

Data from: Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids

David A. Puts, Alexander K. Hill, Drew H. Bailey, Robert S. Walker, Drew Rendall, John R. Wheatley, Lisa L. M. Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo A. Cárdenas, Robert P. Burriss, Nina G. Jablonski, Mark D. Shriver, Daniel J. Weiss, Adriano R. Lameira, Coren L. Apicella, Michael J. Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E. Glenn & Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism...

Data from: A single 17D Yellow Fever vaccination provides lifelong immunity; characterization of Yellow-Fever-specific neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses after vaccination

Rosanne W. Wieten, Emile F. F. Jonker, Ester M. M. Van Leeuwen, Ester B. M. Remmerswaal, Ineke J. M. Ten Berge, Adriëtte W. De Visser, Perry J. J. Van Genderen, Abraham Goorhuis, Leo G. Visser, Martin P. Grobusch & Godelieve J. De Bree
Introduction: Prompted by recent amendments of Yellow Fever (YF) vaccination guidelines from boost to single vaccination strategy and the paucity of clinical data to support this adjustment, we used the profile of the YF-specific CD8+ T-cell subset profiles after primary vaccination and neutralizing antibodies as a proxy for potentially longer lasting immunity. Methods and Findings: PBMCs and serum were collected in six individuals on days 0, 3, 5, 12, 28 and 180, and in 99...

Data from: Body stores persist as fitness correlate in a long-distance migrant released from food constraints

Adriaan M. Dokter, Wimke Fokkema, Steven K. Bekker, Willem Bouten, Barwoldt S. Ebbinge, Gerard Müskens, Han Olff, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd, Bart A. Nolet & Barwolt S Ebbinge
Long-distance migratory birds rely on acquisition of body reserves to fuel their migration and reproduction. Breeding success depends on the amount of body reserve acquired prior to migration, which is thought to increase with access to food at the fuelling site. Here we studied how food abundance during fuelling affected time budgets and reproductive success. In a regime of plenty, we expected that (1) limitations on food harvesting would become lifted, allowing birds to frequently...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: International collaboration and spatial dynamics of US patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010

Mariann Leskó & Balázs Lengyel
How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in...

Data from: Ecological dispersal barrier across the equatorial Atlantic in a migratory planktonic copepod

Erica Goetze, Patricia T. Hüdepohl, Chantel Chang, Lauren Van Woudenberg, Matthew Iacchei & Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg
Resolving the large-scale genetic structure of plankton populations is important to understanding their responses to climate change. However, few studies have reported on the presence and geographic extent of genetically distinct populations of marine zooplankton at ocean-basin scales. Using mitochondrial sequence data (mtCOI, 718 animals) from 18 sites across a basin-scale Atlantic transect (39 N–40 S), we show that populations of the dominant migratory copepod, Pleuromamma xiphias, are genetically subdivided across subtropical and tropical waters...

Data from: Decisions reduce sensitivity to subsequent information

Zohar Z. Bronfman, Noam Brezis, Rani Moran, Konstantinos Tsetsos, Tobias Donner & Marius Usher
Behavioural studies over half a century indicate that making categorical choices alters beliefs about the state of the world. People seem biased to confirm previous choices, and to suppress contradicting information. These choice-dependent biases imply a fundamental bound of human rationality. However, it remains unclear whether these effects extend to lower level decisions, and only little is known about the computational mechanisms underlying them. Building on the framework of sequential-sampling models of decision-making, we developed...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of quantitative variation in an adaptive trait at the regional scale: the case of zinc hyperaccumulation in Arabidopsis halleri

Alicja Babst-Kostecka, Henk Schat, Pierre Saumitou-Laprade, Krystyna Grodzińka, Angélique Bourceaux, Maxime Pauwels & Hélène Frérot
Metal hyperaccumulation in plants is an ecological trait whose biological significance remains debated, in particular because the selective pressures that govern its evolutionary dynamics are complex. One of the possible causes of quantitative variation in hyperaccumulation may be local adaptation to metalliferous soils. Here we explored the population genetic structure of Arabidopsis halleri at fourteen metalliferous and non-metalliferous sampling sites in Southern Poland. The results were integrated with a quantitative assessment of variation in zinc...

Data from: A mechanistic assessment of the relationship between gut morphology and endozoochorous seed dispersal by waterfowl

Erik Kleyheeg, Bart A. Nolet, Sandra Otero-Ojea & Merel B. Soons
Many plants and invertebrates rely on internal transport by animals for long-distance dispersal. Their dispersal capacity is greatly influenced by interactions with the animal’s digestive tract. Omnivorous birds adjust their digestive tract morphology to seasonally variable diets. We performed feeding trials in waterfowl to unravel how changing organ size, in combination with seed size, affects dispersal potential. We subjected captive mallards to mimics of summer (animal-based), winter (plant-based) and intermediate diets, and analysed gut passage...

'Most' vs 'More Than Half': An Alternatives Explanation

Fausto Carcassi & Jakub Szymanik

Expanding the Horizon of Grey Literature

John Mackenzie Owen
Grey literature - loosely defined as information distributed directly by its creator - is gaining importance due to the development of digital information networks. Individuals and organizations are using these networks, making vast amounts of information available on a global scale. The role and added value of traditional publishers and libraries is being questioned. Some argue that grey literature will become more important than published literature; others disagree. During the Third International Conference on Grey...

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