160 Works

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: International collaboration and spatial dynamics of US patenting in Central and Eastern Europe 1981-2010

Mariann Leskó & Balázs Lengyel
How did post-socialist transition and a parallel shift in international labor division restructure regional innovation systems in Central and Eastern Europe? This question is increasingly important, because current EU innovation policy is combined with regional development in Smart Specialization Strategies; however, spatial trends of innovation in Central and Eastern Europe are not fully understood which might lead to less than perfectly efficient policy. In this paper we describe the spatial dynamics of inventor activity in...

Data from: Ecological dispersal barrier across the equatorial Atlantic in a migratory planktonic copepod

Erica Goetze, Patricia T. Hüdepohl, Chantel Chang, Lauren Van Woudenberg, Matthew Iacchei & Katja T.C.A. Peijnenburg
Resolving the large-scale genetic structure of plankton populations is important to understanding their responses to climate change. However, few studies have reported on the presence and geographic extent of genetically distinct populations of marine zooplankton at ocean-basin scales. Using mitochondrial sequence data (mtCOI, 718 animals) from 18 sites across a basin-scale Atlantic transect (39 N–40 S), we show that populations of the dominant migratory copepod, Pleuromamma xiphias, are genetically subdivided across subtropical and tropical waters...

Data from: Decisions reduce sensitivity to subsequent information

Zohar Z. Bronfman, Noam Brezis, Rani Moran, Konstantinos Tsetsos, Tobias Donner & Marius Usher
Behavioural studies over half a century indicate that making categorical choices alters beliefs about the state of the world. People seem biased to confirm previous choices, and to suppress contradicting information. These choice-dependent biases imply a fundamental bound of human rationality. However, it remains unclear whether these effects extend to lower level decisions, and only little is known about the computational mechanisms underlying them. Building on the framework of sequential-sampling models of decision-making, we developed...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of quantitative variation in an adaptive trait at the regional scale: the case of zinc hyperaccumulation in Arabidopsis halleri

Alicja Babst-Kostecka, Henk Schat, Pierre Saumitou-Laprade, Krystyna Grodzińka, Angélique Bourceaux, Maxime Pauwels & Hélène Frérot
Metal hyperaccumulation in plants is an ecological trait whose biological significance remains debated, in particular because the selective pressures that govern its evolutionary dynamics are complex. One of the possible causes of quantitative variation in hyperaccumulation may be local adaptation to metalliferous soils. Here we explored the population genetic structure of Arabidopsis halleri at fourteen metalliferous and non-metalliferous sampling sites in Southern Poland. The results were integrated with a quantitative assessment of variation in zinc...

Data from: A mechanistic assessment of the relationship between gut morphology and endozoochorous seed dispersal by waterfowl

Erik Kleyheeg, Bart A. Nolet, Sandra Otero-Ojea & Merel B. Soons
Many plants and invertebrates rely on internal transport by animals for long-distance dispersal. Their dispersal capacity is greatly influenced by interactions with the animal’s digestive tract. Omnivorous birds adjust their digestive tract morphology to seasonally variable diets. We performed feeding trials in waterfowl to unravel how changing organ size, in combination with seed size, affects dispersal potential. We subjected captive mallards to mimics of summer (animal-based), winter (plant-based) and intermediate diets, and analysed gut passage...

'Most' vs 'More Than Half': An Alternatives Explanation

Fausto Carcassi & Jakub Szymanik

Modelling the distribution of Amazonian tree species in response to long-term climate change during the mid-late Holocene

Vitor Gomes, Francis Mayle, William Gosling, Ima Vieira, Rafael Salomão & Hans Ter Steege
Aim: To (a) assess the environmental suitability for rainforest tree species of Moraceae and Urticaceae across Amazonia during the Mid-Late Holocene and (b) determine the extent to which their distributions increased in response to long-term climate change over this period. Location: Amazonia. Methods: We used MaxEnt and inverse distance weighting interpolation to produce environmental suitability and relative abundance models at 0.5-degree resolution for tree species of Moraceae and Urticaceae, based on natural history collections and...

Social Protection in Ghana and Kenya through an Inclusive Development Lens: complex effects and risks

Nicky Pouw, Barbara Rohregger, Esther Schüring, Kennedy Alatinga, Bethuel Kinuthia & Katja Bender
This paper analyzes the complex effects and risks of social protection programmes in Ghana and Kenya on poor people’s human wellbeing, voice and empowerment and interactions with the social protection regulatory framework and policy instruments. For this purpose, it adopts a comprehensive Inclusive Development framework to systematically explore the complex effects of cash transfers and health insurance at the individual, household and community level. The findings highlight the positive provisionary and preventive effects of social...

Winds at departure shape seasonal patterns of nocturnal bird migration over the North Sea

Maja Bradarić, Willem Bouten, Ruben Fijn, Karen Krijgsveld & Judy Shamoun-Baranes
On their migratory journeys, terrestrial birds can come across large inhospitable areas with limited opportunities to rest and refuel. Flight over these areas poses a risk especially when wind conditions en route are adverse, in which case inhospitable areas can act as an ecological barrier for terrestrial migrants. Thus, within the East-Atlantic flyway, the North Sea can function as an ecological barrier. The main aim of this study was to shed light on seasonal patterns...

Data from: Integration and harmonization of trait data from plant individuals across heterogeneous sources

Tim P. Lenters, Andrew Henderson, Caroline M. Dracxler, Guilherme A. Elias, Suzanne Mogue Kamga, Thomas L. P. Couvreur & W. Daniel Kissling
Trait data represent the basis for ecological and evolutionary research and have relevance for biodiversity conservation, ecosystem management and earth system modelling. The collection and mobilization of trait data has strongly increased over the last decade, but many trait databases still provide only species-level, aggregated trait values (e.g. ranges, means) and lack the direct observations on which those data are based. Thus, the vast majority of trait data measured directly from individuals remains hidden and...

Quantifying thermal exposure for migratory riverine species: phenology of Chinook salmon populations predicts thermal stress

Alyssa FitzGerald, Sara John, Travis Apgar, Nathan Mantua & Benjamin Martin
Migratory species are particularly vulnerable to climate change because habitat throughout their entire migration cycle must be suitable for the species to persist. For migratory species in rivers, predicting climate change impacts is especially difficult because there is a lack of spatially-continuous and seasonally-varying stream temperature data, habitat conditions can vary for an individual throughout its life cycle, and vulnerability can vary by life stage and season. To predict thermal impacts on migratory riverine populations,...

Apparent breeding success drives long-term population dynamics of a migratory swan

Rascha Nuijten, Stefan Vriend, Kevin Wood, Trinus Haitjema, Eileen Rees, Eelke Jongejans & Bart Nolet
The ability of a species to adapt to environmental change is ultimately reflected in its vital rates – i.e., survival and reproductive success of individuals. Together, vital rates determine trends in numbers, commonly monitored using counts of species abundance. Rapid changes in abundance can give rise to concern, leading to calls for research into the biological mechanisms underlying variations in demography. For the NW European population of Bewick’s swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii), there have been...

Data from: Weak phylogenetic signal in physiological traits of methane-oxidizing bacteria

Sascha Krause, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell & Paul L. E. Bodelier
The presence of phylogenetic signal is assumed to be ubiquitous. However, for microorganisms, this may not be true given that they display high physiological flexibility and have fast regeneration. This may result in fundamentally different patterns of resemblance, that is, in variable strength of phylogenetic signal. However, in microbiological inferences, trait similarities and therewith microbial interactions with its environment are mostly assumed to follow evolutionary relatedness. Here, we tested whether indeed a straightforward relationship between...

Data from: Global biogeography and evolution of Cuvierina pteropods

Alice K. Burridge, Erica Goetze, Niels Raes, Jef Huisman & Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg
Background: Shelled pteropods are planktonic gastropods that are potentially good indicators of the effects of ocean acidification. They also have high potential for the study of zooplankton evolution because they are metazoan plankton with a good fossil record. We investigated phenotypic and genetic variation in pteropods belonging to the genus Cuvierina in relation to their biogeographic distribution across the world’s oceans. We aimed to assess species boundaries and to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Results: We...

Data from: Membrane potential dynamics of spontaneous and visually evoked gamma activity in V1 of awake mice

Quentin Perrenoud, Cyriel M. A. Pennartz & Luc J. Gentet
Cortical gamma activity (30–80 Hz) is believed to play important functions in neural computation and arises from the interplay of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV) and pyramidal cells (PYRs). However, the subthreshold dynamics underlying its emergence in the cortex of awake animals remain unclear. Here, we characterized the intracellular dynamics of PVs and PYRs during spontaneous and visually evoked gamma activity in layers 2/3 of V1 of awake mice using targeted patch-clamp recordings and synchronous local field...

Data from: Context-dependent alarm signalling in an insect

Paulien J. A. De Bruijn, Martijn Egas, Maurice W. Sabelis & Astrid T. Groot
Animals often respond to danger by raising alarm to inform others. Alarm signals come in many different forms, such as visual or mechanical display, sound or odour. Some animals produce vocal alarm signals that vary with the level of danger. For chemical alarm signals, virtually nothing is known about such context-dependent signalling due to a general notion that alarm pheromones have fixed compositions. Here, we show that larvae of the Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)...

Data from: Directed flight and optimal airspeeds: homeward-bound gulls react flexibly to wind yet fly slower than predicted

James D. McLaren, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, C J Camphuysen & Willem Bouten
Birds in flight are proposed to adjust their body orientation (heading) and airspeed to wind conditions adaptively according to time and energy constraints. Airspeeds in goal-directed flight are predicted to approach or exceed maximum-range airspeeds, which minimize transport costs (energy expenditure per unit distance) and should increase in headwinds and crosswinds. Diagnosis of airspeed adjustment is however obscured by uncertainty regarding birds' goal-directions, transport costs, interrelations with orientation strategy and the attainability of predicted behaviour....

Data from: Wind conditions and geography shape the first outbound migration of juvenile honey buzzards and their distribution across sub-Saharan Africa

Wouter M. G. Vansteelant, Jaana Kekkonen & Patrik Byholm
Contemporary tracking studies reveal that low migratory connectivity between breeding and non-breeding ranges is common in migrant landbirds. It is unclear, however, how internal factors and early-life experiences of individual migrants shape the development of their migration routes and concomitant population-level non-breeding distributions. Stochastic wind conditions and geography may determine whether and where migrants end up by the end of their journey. We tested this hypothesis by satellite-tagging 31 fledgling honey buzzards Pernis apivorus from...

Data from: Comparison of T2*-weighted and QSM contrasts in Parkinson's disease to visualize the STN with MRI

Anneke Alkemade, Gilles De Hollander, Max C. Keuken, Andreas Schäfer, Derek V.M. Ott, David Weise, Sonja A. Kotz, Birte U. Forstmann & Derek V. M. Ott
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in the surgical treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies investigating optimal protocols for STN visualization using state of the art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have shown that susceptibility weighted images, which display the magnetic susceptibility distribution, yield better results than T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and T2*-weighted contrasts. However, these findings are based on young healthy individuals, and require validation in elderly individuals and persons suffering from PD. Using...

Data from: Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds

Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Felix Liechti & Wouter M. G. Vansteelant
The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments....

Data from: Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

James D. McLaren, Jeffrey J. Buler, Tim Schreckengost, Jaclyn A. Smolinsky, Matthew Boone, E. Emiel Van Loon, Deanna K. Dawson & Eric L. Walters
With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern...

Data from: Isotopic methods for non-destructive assessment of carbon dynamics in shrublands under long-term climate change manipulation

Louise C. Andresen, Maria T. Dominguez, Sabine Reinsch, Andy R. Smith, Inger Kappel Schmidt, Per Ambus, Claus Beier, Pascal Boeckx, Roland Bol, Giovanbattista De Dato, Bridget A. Emmett, Marc Estiarte, Mark H. Garnett, György Kröel-Dulay, Sharon L. Mason, Cecilie S. Nielsen, Josep Penuelas, Albert Tietema & Andrew R. Smith
1.Long-term climate change experiments are extremely valuable for studying ecosystem responses to environmental change. Examination of the vegetation and the soil should be non-destructive to guarantee long-term research. In this paper, we review field methods using isotope techniques for assessing carbon dynamics in the plant-soil-air continuum, based on recent field experience and examples from a European climate change manipulation network. 2.Eight European semi-natural shrubland ecosystems were exposed to warming and drought manipulations. One field site...

Data from: Climate change and functional traits affect population dynamics of a long-lived seabird

Stephanie Jenouvrier, Marine Desprez, Rémi Fay, Christophe Barbraud, Henri Weimerskirch, Karine Delord & Hal Caswell
1. Recent studies unravelled the effect of climate changes on populations through their impact on functional traits and demographic rates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, but such understanding in marine ecosystems remains incomplete. 2. Here, we evaluate the impact of the combined effects of climate and functional traits on population dynamics of a long-lived migratory seabird breeding in the southern ocean: the black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris, BBA). We address the following prospective question: ''Of all...

Data from: Agricultural pastures challenge the attractiveness of natural saltmarsh for a migratory goose

Adriaan M. Dokter, Wimke Fokkema, Barwolt S. Ebbinge, Han Olff, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd & Bart A. Nolet
1. Broad-scale land conversions and fertilizer use have dramatically altered the available staging area for herbivorous long-distance migrants. Instead of natural land, these birds rely increasingly on pastures for migratory fuelling and stopover, often conflicting with farming practices. To be able to predict and manage birds’ future habitat use, the relative advantages and disadvantages of natural (e.g. saltmarsh, intertidal) versus anthropogenic staging sites for foraging need to be understood. 2. We compared the migratory staging...

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