12 Works

The importance of kelp to an intertidal ecosystem varies by trophic level: insights from amino acid δ13C analysis

Emma Elliott Smith, Chris Harrod & Seth D. Newsome
A fundamental question in ecology is understanding how energy and nutrients move through and between food webs, and which sources of production support consumers. In marine ecosystems, these basic questions have been challenging to answer given the limitation of observational methods. Stable isotope analysis of essential amino acids (EAA δ13C) has great potential as a tool to quantify energy and nutrient flow through marine food webs; however, it has been primarily utilized at large spatial...

Data from: Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes

Antti P. Eloranta, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Chris Harrod & Roger I. Jones
Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic...

Data from: The effects of spatial scale and isoscape on consumer isotopic niche width

Carl J. Reddin, John H. Bothwell, Nessa E. O'Connor & Chris Harrod
1. The mean and variance of ecological variables are dependent on sampling attributes such as the coverage of environmental heterogeneity (sampling extent) and spatial scale. Trophic niche width is often approximated by bulk tissue stable isotopes of C and N, i.e. the population isotopic niche. However, recent studies suggest that environmental heterogeneity (experienced by individuals) may be more important in defining the isotopic niche width than trophic variability. We hypothesised that isotopic niche width will...

Data from: Breaking out of the comfort zone: El Niño-Southern Oscillation as a driver of trophic flows in a benthic consumer of the Humboldt Current ecosystem

José M. Riascos, Marco A. Solís, Aldo S. Pacheco & Manuel Ballesteros
The trophic flow of a species is considered a characteristic trait reflecting its trophic position and function in the ecosystem and its interaction with the environment. However, climate patterns are changing and we ignore how patterns of trophic flow are being affected. In the Humboldt Current ecosystem, arguably one of the most productive marine systems, El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the main source of interannual and longer-term variability. To assess the effect of this variability on...

Leaf resistance traits influence endophytic fungi colonization and community composition in a South American temperate rainforest

Marcia González-Teuber, Guevara-Araya María José, Vilo Claudia, Salgado-Luarte Cristian & Gianoli Ernesto
Despite the ubiquitous presence of fungal endophytes in woody plants, mechanisms underlying variation in foliar fungal endophyte communities are poorly understood. Given that endophytes in woody plants are predominantly horizontally transmitted, fungal endophyte colonization of foliar tissues is likely to be influenced by plant resistance traits. Here, we evaluated the association between leaf resistance traits and colonization and community composition of horizontally transmitted endophytes (HTE) in ten dominant trees species in a temperate rainforest in...

Intraspecific variation and energy channel coupling within a Chilean kelp forest

Emma Elliott Smith, Chris Harrod, Felipe Docmac, Seth Newsome & Emma Elliott Smith
The widespread importance of variable types of primary production, or energy channels, to consumer communities has become increasingly apparent. However, the mechanisms underlying this ‘multichannel’ feeding remain poorly understood, especially for aquatic ecosystems that pose unique logistical constraints given the diversity of potential energy channels. Here, we use bulk tissue isotopic analysis along with carbon isotope (δ13C) analysis of individual amino acids to characterize the relative contribution of pelagic and benthic energy sources to a...

Data from: A down-shifting Eu 3+ -doped Y 2 WO 6 /TiO 2 photoelectrode for improved light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells

Jaime Llanos, Ivan Brito, Dario Espinoza, Ramkumar Sekar & Paulraj Manidurai
Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 phosphors were prepared using a solid-state reaction method. Their optical properties were analysed, and they was mixed with TiO2, sintered, and used as a photoelectrode (PE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The as-prepared photoelectrode was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray diffraction. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC with TiO2:Y1.86Eu0.14WO6 (100:2.5) was 25.8% higher than that of a DSCC using pure TiO2 as PE. This high efficiency...

Climate change and lithium mining influence flamingo abundance in the Lithium Triangle

Jorge Gutiérrez, Johnnie Moore, Patrick Donnelli, Cristina Dorador, Juan Navedo & Nathan Senner
The development of technologies to slow climate change has been identified as a global imperative. Nonetheless, such ‘green’ technologies can potentially have negative impacts on biodiversity. We explored how climate change and the mining of lithium for green technologies influence surface water availability, primary productivity, and the abundance of three threatened and economically important flamingo species in the ‘Lithium Triangle’ of the Chilean Andes. We combined climate and primary productivity data with remotely sensed measures...

Testing for deterministic succession in metazoan parasite communities of marine fish

Marcelo Oliva, Juan Espinola-Novelo, Maria Gonzalez, Aldo Pacheco & Jose Luque
Parasite communities are similar to free-living communities; decay of similarity over geographic distance, theory of island biogeography, species-area relationships and nestedness have been documented in both communities. Ecological succession has been studied in free-living communities but has rarely been examined in parasite communities. We use seriation with replication to test the hypothesis that succession of parasite community structure is deterministic, thus developing throughout consecutive changes along the fish ontogeny, via a seriated pattern. 12,306 marine...

Data from: Competition between co-occurring invasive and native consumers switches between habitats

Nadescha Zwerschke, Henk Van Rein, Chris Harrod, Carl Reddin, Mark C. Emmerson, Dai Roberts, Nessa E. O'Connor & Henk Rein
1. The introduction of a non-native species frequently has adverse direct effects on native species. The underlying mechanisms, however, often remain unclear, in particular where native and invasive species are taxonomically similar. 2. We found evidence of direct competitive interactions between a globally distributed invasive species (the Pacific oyster, Magallana gigas) and its native counterpart (the European oyster, Ostrea edulis). We also discovered that the competitive outcome differed between different habitat types and structures by...

Data from: Contrasting definitive hosts as determinants of the genetic structure in a parasite with complex life cycle along the Southeastern Pacific

Zambra López, Leyla Cárdenas, Fernando Runil & M. Teresa González
The spatial genetic structure (and gene flow) of parasites with complex life cycles, such as digeneans, has been attributed mainly to the dispersion ability of the most mobile host, which most often corresponds to the definitive host (DH). In this study, we compared the genetic structure and diversity of adult Neolebouria georgenascimentoi in two fish species (DHs) that are extensively distributed along the Southeastern Pacific (SEP). The analysis was based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit...

Data from: Unravelling the macro-evolutionary ecology of fish-jellyfish associations: life in the ‘gingerbread house’

Donal C. Griffin, Chris Harrod, Jonathan D.R. Houghton & Isabella Capellini
Fish-jellyfish interactions are important factors contributing to fish stock success. Jellyfish can compete with fish for food resources, or feed on fish eggs and larvae, which works to reduce survivorship and recruitment of fish species. However, jellyfish also provide habitat and space for developing larval and juvenile fish which use their hosts as means of protection from predators and feeding opportunities, helping to reduce fish mortality and increase recruitment. Yet, relatively little is known about...

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