87 Works

Data from: Host range expansion of native insects to exotic trees increases with area of introduction and presence of congeneric native trees

Manuela Branco, Eckehard G. Brockerhoff, Bastien Castagneyrol, Christophe Orazio & Hervé Jactel
1. Exotic tree species are widely used in forest plantations for their often high productivity and performance compared to native trees. However, these advantages may be compromised by herbivore damage. 2. A list of European insect species that have expanded their host range to one of 28 exotic tree species introduced to Europe was compiled from a systematic literature review. The number of successful expansions was analysed using three predictors: (1) phylogenetic relatedness between exotic...

Data from: Characterizing DNA preservation in degraded specimens of Amara alpina (Carabidae: Coleoptera)

Peter D. Heintzman, Scott A. Elias, Karen Moore, Konrad Paszkiewicz & Ian Barnes
DNA preserved in degraded beetle (Coleoptera) specimens, including those derived from dry-stored museum and ancient permafrost-preserved environments, could provide a valuable resource for researchers interested in species and population histories over timescales from decades to millenia. However, the potential of these samples as genetic resources is currently unassessed. Here, using Sanger and Illumina shotgun sequence data, we explored DNA preservation in specimens of the ground beetle Amara alpina, from both museum and ancient environments. Nearly...

Data from: A land classification protocol for pollinator ecology research: an urbanisation case study

Ash E. Samuelson & Ellouise Leadbeater
1. Land-use change is one of the most important drivers of widespread declines in pollinator populations. Comprehensive quantitative methods for land classification are critical to understanding these effects, but co-option of existing human-focussed land classifications is often inappropriate for pollinator research. 2. Here we present a flexible GIS-based land classification protocol for pollinator research using a bottom-up approach driven by reference to pollinator ecology, with urbanisation as a case study. Our multi-step method involves manually...

Data from: Quantifying the impact of pesticides on learning and memory in bees

Harry Siviter, Julia Koricheva, Mark J.F. Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater & Mark J. F. Brown
1) Most insecticides are insect neurotoxins. Evidence is emerging that sublethal doses of these neurotoxins are affecting learning and memory of both wild and managed bee colonies; exacerbating the negative effects of pesticide exposure and reducing individual foraging efficiency. 2) Variation in methodologies and interpretation of results across studies has precluded the quantitative evaluation of these impacts that is needed to make recommendations for policy change. It is not clear whether robust effects occur under...

Methane emissions from contrasting production regions within Alberta, Canada: Implications under new federal methane regulations

Elizabeth O'Connell, David Risk, Emmaline Atherton, Evelise Bourlon, Chelsea Fougère, Jennifer Baillie & David Lowry
Aggressive reductions of oil and gas sector methane, a potent greenhouse gas, have been proposed in Canada. Few large-scale measurement studies have been conducted to confirm a baseline. This study used a vehicle-based gas monitoring system to measure fugitive and vented gas emissions across Lloydminster (heavy oil), Peace River (heavy oil/bitumen), and Medicine Hat (conventional gas) developments in Alberta, Canada. Four gases (CO2, CH4, H2S, C2H6), and isotopic δ13CCH4 were recorded in real-time at 1...

Age-related pharmacodynamics in a bumblebee-microsporidian system mirror similar patterns in vertebrates

Arran J. Folly, Philip C. Stevenson & Mark J. F. Brown
Immune systems provide a key defence against diseases. However, they are not a panacea and so both vertebrates and invertebrates co-opt naturally occurring bioactive compounds to treat themselves against parasites and pathogens. In vertebrates this co-option is complex, with pharmacodynamics leading to differential effects of treatment at different life stages, which may reflect age-linked differences in the immune system. However, our understanding of pharmacodynamics in invertebrates is almost non-existent. Critically, this knowledge may elucidate broad...

Strengthening Resilience Across Scales: Moving Cities beyond COVID-19

Andrea Lampis

Protecting wellbeing and resilience in BAME families and communities during a public health emergency

Iyiola Solanke, florence ayisi, Claudia Bernard, Gargi Bhattacharyya, Anna Gupta, Raminder Kaur, Monica Lakhanpaul, Sabu Padmadas, Shirin Rai & Maria Stokes
Ignoring race, gender and class when tackling a pandemic can undermine not only wellbeing across Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic families and communities (BAME FC) but also their levels of trust in government. A framework to protect wellbeing and resilience in BAME FC during public health emergencies was developed by Co-POWeR to ensure that laws and guidance adopted are culturally competent.

Self-Censorship Between Self-Ridicule and Self-Reflection

Agnieszka Jakimiak
This essay investigates the notion of humour as a tool used to highlight the acts of self-censorship in theatre and performing arts and its subversive potential. By referring to the examples from the process of working on the Imaginary Europe performance directed by Oliver Frljić, the essay problematizes the acts of self-prevention committed by artists who decide to withdraw a certain figure of speech in order not to cause harm towards minorities or underprivileged groups....

Impact of disease characteristics and knowledge on public risk perception of Zoonoses

Caroline Spence, Sarah Jenkins & Magda Osman
Zoonoses represent a global public health threat. Understanding lay perceptions of risk associated with these diseases can better inform proportionate policy interventions that mitigate their current and future impacts. While individual zoonoses (e.g. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) have received scientific and public attention, we know little about how multiple zoonotic diseases vary relative to each other in lay risk perceptions. To this end, we examined public perceptions of eleven zoonoses across twelve qualitative attributes of risk...

Climatic similarity and genomic background shape the extent of parallel adaptation in Timema stick insects

Samridhi Chaturvedi, Zachariah Gompert, Jefferey L. Feder, Owen G. Osborne, Moritz Muschick, Rudiger Riesch, Victor Soria-Carrasco & Patrik Nosil
Evolution can repeat itself, resulting in parallel adaptations in independent lineages occupying similar environments. Moreover, parallel evolution sometimes, but not always, uses the same genes. Two main hypotheses have been put forth to explain the probability and extent of parallel evolution. First, parallel evolution is more likely when shared ecologies result in similar patterns of natural selection in different taxa. Second, parallelism is more likely when genomes are similar, because of shared standing variation and...

Data from: Population connectivity and phylogeography of a coastal fish, Atractoscion aequidens (Sciaenidae), across the Benguela Current region: evidence of an ancient vicariant event.

Romina Henriques, Warren M. Potts, Carmen V. Santos, Warwick H. H. Sauer & Paul W. Shaw
Contemporary patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity within species can be influenced by both historical and contemporary barriers to gene flow. In the marine environment, present day oceanographic features such as currents, fronts and upwelling systems can influence dispersal of eggs/larvae and/juveniles/adults, shaping population substructuring. The Benguela Current system in the southeastern Atlantic is one of the oldest upwelling systems in the world, and provides a unique opportunity to investigate the relative influence of...

Data from: Investigating the impacts of field-realistic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide on bumblebee foraging, homing ability and colony growth

Dara A. Stanley, Avery L. Russell, Sarah J. Morrison, Catherine Rogers & Nigel E. Raine
The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services. We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5–43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying...

Data from: Extremophile Poeciliidae: multivariate insights into the complexity of speciation along replicated ecological gradients

Rüdiger Riesch, Michael Tobler, Hannes Lerp, Jonas Jourdan, Tess Doumas, Patrik Nosil, R. Brian Langerhans & Martin Plath
Background: Replicate population pairs that diverge in response to similar selective regimes allow for an investigation of (a) whether phenotypic traits diverge in a similar and predictable fashion, (b) whether there is gradual variation in phenotypic divergence reflecting variation in the strength of natural selection among populations, (c) whether the extent of this divergence is correlated between multiple character suites (i.e., concerted evolution), and (d) whether gradual variation in phenotypic divergence predicts the degree of...

Data from: Moose browsing alters tree diversity effects on birch growth and insect herbivory

Evalyne W. Muiruri, Harriet T. Milligan, Simon Morath & Julia Koricheva
Producer diversity is known to affect a wide range of ecosystem processes including plant growth and insect pest resistance. Consumers such as mammalian herbivores too have been shown to modify plant growth and insect herbivory by triggering changes in host plants. However, few studies have investigated whether consumer effects interact with plant species diversity effects on a focal plant. To unravel consumer-diversity interactions, we recorded both the presence and intensity of winter browsing by moose...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

Data from: Biological markets in cooperative breeders: quantifying outside options

Lena Grinsted & Jeremy Field
A major aim in evolutionary biology is to understand altruistic help and reproductive partitioning in cooperative societies, where subordinate helpers forego reproduction to rear dominant breeders' offspring. Traditional models of cooperation in these societies typically make a key assumption: that the only alternative to staying and helping is solitary breeding, an often unfeasible task. Using large-scale field experiments on paper wasps (Polistes dominula), we show that individuals have high-quality alternative nesting options available that offer...

Data from: The relative importance of plant intraspecific diversity in structuring arthropod communities: a meta-analysis

Julia Koricheva & Dexter Hayes
1. Understanding how plant diversity influences higher trophic levels is important for predicting the consequences of global biodiversity loss. While early studies have focused on the effects of plant species richness, more recently a growing number of experiments have explored the effects of plant intraspecific diversity by manipulating the genotypic richness of plant communities. 2. By combining 162 estimates of effect size from 60 experimental studies, we examined the effects of plant genotypic richness on...

Data from: US line-ups outperform UK line-ups

Travis M. Seale-Carlisle & Laura Mickes
In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are...

Tree diversity is key for promoting the diversity and abundance of forest‐associated taxa in Europe

Eric Allan, Evy Ampoorter, Luc Barbaro, Hervé Jactel, Lander Baeten, Johanna Boberg, Monique Carnol, Bastien Castagneyrol, Yohan Charbonnier, Seid Muhie Dawud, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Hans De Wandeler, Virginie Guyot, Stephan Hättenschwiler, François‐Xavier Joly, Julia Koricheva, Harriet Milligan, Bart Muys, Diem Nguyen, Sophia Ratcliffe, Karsten Raulund‐Rasmussen, Michael Scherer‐Lorenzen, Fons Plas, J. Van Keer … & Lars Vesterdal
Plant diversity is an important driver of diversity at other trophic levels, suggesting that cascading extinctions could reduce overall biodiversity. Most evidence for positive effects of plant diversity comes from grasslands. Despite the fact that forests are hotspots of biodiversity, the importance of tree diversity, in particular its relative importance compared to other management related factors, in affecting forest‐associated taxa is not well known. To address this, we used data from 183 plots, located in...

Learning strategies and long-term memory in Asian short-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus) data

Alexander Saliveros, Eleanor Blyth, Carrie Easter, Georgina Hume, Fraser McAusland, William Hoppitt & Neeltje Boogert
Data submitted here, are those used in the writing of our manuscript entitled "Learning strategies and long-term memory in Asian short-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus)" which has been submitted to Royal Society Open Science for publication. Abstract for that manuscript is below Social learning, namely learning from information acquired from others or their products, is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. There is growing evidence that animals selectively employ ‘social learning strategies’, which for example, determine when...

Data from: A regime shift from erosion to carbon accumulation in a temperate northern peatland

Alice Milner, Andy Baird, Sophie Green, Graeme Swindles, Dylan Young, Nicole Sanderson, Madeleine Timmins & Mariusz Gałka
Peatlands are globally important ecosystems but many are degraded and some are eroding. However, some degraded peatlands are undergoing apparently spontaneous recovery, with switches from erosion to renewed carbon accumulation—a type of ecological regime shift. We used a palaeoecological approach to investigate and help understand such a switch in a blanket peatland in North Wales, UK. Our data show: (a) a rapid accumulation of new peat after the switch from the eroding state, with between...

Does United Kingdom parliamentary attention follow social media posts?

John Bollenbacher, Niklas Loynes & John Bryden
Abstract News and social media play an important role in public political discourse. It is not clear what quantifiable relationships public discussions of politics have with official discourse within legislative bodies. In this study we present an analysis of how language used by Members of Parliament (MPs) in the United Kingdom (UK) changes after social media posts and online reactions to those posts. We consider three domains: news articles posted on Facebook in the UK,...

EEG of facial emotion judgment task including tactile probes

Bettina Forster & IRENA ARSLANOVA
EEG data recordings of 35 participants who gave informed written consent before taking part in a facial emotion judgement task. The study was approved by City, University of London, Psychology Research Ethics Committee. Participants were seated in an electromagnetically shielded, sound attenuated, dimly lit room, viewing a 60 Hz computer monitor at a distance of 80 cm. EEG was recorded from 64 Ag/AgCL active electrodes of which 60 were mounted equidistantly on an elastic cap...

EEG of facial emotion judgment task including tactile probes

Bettina Forster & IRENA ARSLANOVA
EEG data recordings of 35 participants who gave informed written consent before taking part in a facial emotion judgement task. The study was approved by City, University of London, Psychology Research Ethics Committee. Participants were seated in an electromagnetically shielded, sound attenuated, dimly lit room, viewing a 60 Hz computer monitor at a distance of 80 cm. EEG was recorded from 64 Ag/AgCL active electrodes of which 60 were mounted equidistantly on an elastic cap...

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