60 Works

Data from: Unique evolutionary trajectories in repeated adaptation to hydrogen sulphide-toxic habitats of a neotropical fish (Poecilia mexicana)

Markus Pfenninger, Simit Patel, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Barbara Feldmeyer, Rüdiger Riesch & Martin Plath
Replicated ecological gradients are prime systems to study processes of molecular evolution underlying ecological divergence. Here, we investigated the repeated adaptation of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to habitats containing toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and compared two population pairs of sulphide-adapted and ancestral fish by sequencing population pools of >200 individuals (Pool-Seq). We inferred the evolutionary processes shaping divergence and tested the hypothesis of increase of parallelism from SNPs to molecular pathways. Coalescence analyses showed...

Fine-scale changes in speed and altitude suggest protean movements in homing pigeon flights

Baptiste Garde, Rory Wilson, Emmanouil Lempidakis, Luca Börger, Steven Portugal, Anders Hedenström, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Michael Quetting, Martin Wikelski & Emily L. C. Shepard
The power curve provides a basis for predicting adjustments that animals make in flight speed, for example in relation to wind, distance, habitat foraging quality and objective. However, relatively few studies have examined how animals respond to the landscape below them, which could affect speed and power allocation through modifications in climb rate and perceived predation risk. We equipped homing pigeons (Columba livia) with high-frequency loggers to examine how flight speed, and hence effort, varies...

Raw data set of pigeon body mass measurements

Steven Portugal & Craig White
1. Animal-borne logging devices are now commonly used to record and monitor the movements, physiology and behaviours of free-living animals. It is imperative that the impacts these devices have on the animals themselves is minimised. 2. One important consideration is the interaction between the body mass of the animal, and the mass of the device. 3. Using captive homing pigeons, we demonstrate that birds lose the equivalent amount of body mass compared to that of...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Data from: Individual and combined impacts of sulfoxaflor and Nosema bombi on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) larval growth

Harry Siviter, Arran Folly, Mark Brown & Ellouise Leadbeater
Sulfoxaflor is a globally important novel insecticide that can have negative impacts on the reproductive output of bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies. However, it remains unclear as to which life-history stage is critically affected by exposure. One hypothesis is that sulfoxaflor exposure early in the colony’s life cycle can impair larval development, reducing the number of workers produced, and ultimately lowering colony reproductive output. Here we assess the influence of sulfoxaflor exposure on bumblebee larval mortality...

Data from: Sulfoxaflor exposure reduces egg laying in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)

Harry Siviter, Jacob Horner, Mark Brown & Elli Leadbeater
Sulfoximine-based insecticides, such as sulfoxaflor, are of increasing global importance and have been registered for use in 81 countries, offering a potential alternative to neonicotinoid insecticides. Previous studies have demonstrated that sulfoxaflor exposure can have a negative impact on the reproductive output of bumblebee colonies, but the specific life-history variables that underlie these effects remain unknown. Here, we used a microcolony-based protocol to assess the sub-lethal effects of chronic sulfoxaflor exposure on egg laying, larval...

Micro CT Images of Sellafield Borehole 13B

Ryan Payton, Brett Clark & Mark Fellgett
These images were acquired using micro computed tomographic imaging of 7 sandstone plugs taken at various depths in the Sellafield borehole 13B. SF696 (63.8 m), SF697 (76.1 m), SF698 (96.98 m), SF699 (126.27 m), SF700 (144.03 m), SF701 (172.16 m) and SF702 (181.39 m). These samples are further detailed and analysed in the following article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2020-092

Micro CT Images of Borehole GGC01

Ryan Payton, Brett Clark & Mark Fellgett
These images were acquired using micro computed tomographic imaging of 4 sandstone plugs taken at various depths in the Glasgow UKGEOS borehole GGC01. GG496 (170.07 m), GG497 (168.66 m), GG498 (73.37 m) and GG499 (135.06 m). These samples are further detailed and analysed in the following article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2020-092.

Data from: Detecting and quantifying social transmission using network-based diffusion analysis

Matthew Hasenjager, Ellouise Leadbeater & William Hoppitt
1. Although social learning capabilities are taxonomically widespread, demonstrating that freely interacting animals (whether wild or captive) rely on social learning has proved remarkably challenging. 2. Network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) offers a means for detecting social learning using observational data on freely interacting groups. Its core assumption is that if a target behaviour is socially transmitted, then its spread should follow the connections in a social network that reflects social learning opportunities. 3. Here, we...

Data from: Elevated virulence of an emerging viral genotype as a driver of honeybee loss

Dino P. McMahon, Myrsini E. Natsopoulou, Vincent Doublet, Matthias Fürst, Silvio Weging, Mark J. F. Brown, Andreas Gogol-Döring & Robert J. Paxton
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have contributed significantly to the current biodiversity crisis, leading to widespread epidemics and population loss. Owing to genetic variation in pathogen virulence, a complete understanding of species decline requires the accurate identification and characterization of EIDs. We explore this issue in the Western honeybee, where increasing mortality of populations in the Northern Hemisphere has caused major concern. Specifically, we investigate the importance of genetic identity of the main suspect in mortality,...

Data from: Fear of predation shapes social network structure and the acquisition of foraging information in guppy shoals

Matthew J. Hasenjager & Lee A. Dugatkin
Spatio-temporal variation in predation risk is predicted to select for plastic anti-predator responses, which may in turn impact the fine-scale social structure of prey groups and processes mediated by that structure. To test these predictions, we manipulated the ambient predation risk experienced by Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) groups before quantifying their social networks and recording individual latencies to approach and solve a novel foraging task. High-risk conditions drove the formation of social networks that were...

Data from: Transitions between phases of genomic differentiation during stick-insect speciation

Rüdiger Riesch, Moritz Muschick, Dorothea Lindtke, Romain Villoutreix, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Kay Lucek, Elizabeth Hellen, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Stuart R. Dennis, Clarissa F. De Carvalho, Rebecca J. Safran, Cristina P. Sandoval, Jeff Feder, Regine Gries, Bernard J. Crespi, Gerhard Gries, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Speciation can involve a transition from a few genetic loci that are resistant to gene flow to genome-wide differentiation. However, only limited data exist concerning this transition and the factors promoting it. Here, we study phases of speciation using data from >100 populations of 11 species of Timema stick insects. Consistent with early phases of genic speciation, adaptive colour-pattern loci reside in localized genetic regions of accentuated differentiation between populations experiencing gene flow. Transitions to...

Data from: Ecological and genetic determinants of plasmid distribution in Escherichia coli

Frances Medaney, Richard J. Ellis & Ben Raymond
Bacterial plasmids are important carriers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Nevertheless, little is known of the determinants of plasmid distribution in bacterial populations. Here the factors affecting the diversity and distribution of the large plasmids of Escherichia coli were explored in cattle grazing on semi-natural grassland, a set of populations with low frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes. Critically, the population genetic structure of bacterial hosts was chararacterized. This revealed structured E. coli populations with...

Data from: Revision of Icacinaceae from the Early Eocene London Clay flora based on X-ray micro-CT

Gregory W. Stull, Neil F. Adams, Steven R. Manchester, Dan Sykes & Margaret E. Collinson
The Early Eocene (Ypresian) London Clay Formation contains one of the most important fruit and seed assemblages from the Paleogene, including a large diversity of taxa (>350 spp.) preserved as pyrite permineralizations retaining 3D structure as well as anatomical detail. Despite the importance of the flora for understanding angiosperm biogeographic and evolutionary history, the majority of the fossil material has not been revisited since the original taxonomic treatments by E.M. Reid and M.E.J. Chandler. Given...

Data from: Avian pest control in vineyards is driven by interactions between bird functional diversity and landscape heterogeneity

Luc Barbaro, Adrien Rusch, Evalyne W. Muiruri, Bastien Gravellier, Denis Thiery & Bastien Castagneyrol
Insectivorous birds are increasingly recognized for the crucial pest control services they provide to agroecosystems. While both the foraging activity and functional diversity of birds are enhanced by multiscale habitat heterogeneity, little is known about how these relationships may influence avian top-down control of insects. Specifically, interactive effects of bird community structure and habitat heterogeneity on pest control across spatial scales have rarely been explored. We sampled bird communities and measured avian predation on plasticine...

Data from: Fine-scale appendage structure of the Cambrian trilobitomorph Naraoia spinosa and its ontogenetic and ecological implications

Dayou Zhai, Gregory Edgecombe, Andrew Bond, Huijuan Mai, Xianguang Hou & Yu Liu
Trilobitomorphs are a species-rich Palaeozoic arthropod assemblage that unites trilobites with several other lineages that share similar appendage structure. Post-embryonic development of the exoskeleton is well documented for some trilobitomorphs, especially trilobites, but little is known of the ontogeny of their soft parts, limiting understanding of their autecology. Here we document appendage structure of the Cambrian naraoiid trilobitomorph Naraoia spinosa by computed microtomography, resulting in three-dimensional reconstructions of appendages at both juvenile and adult stages....

Data from: Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy Leedale, Michelle Simeoni, Stuart Sharp, Jonathan Green, Jon Slate, Robert Lachlan, Ben Hatchwell & Elva Robinson
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a...

Data from: Social transmission in the wild reduces predation pressure on novel prey signals

Liisa Hämäläinen, William Hoppitt, Hannah Rowland, Johanna Mappes, Anthony Fulford, Sebastian Sosa & Rose Thorogood
Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Using artificial prey and a novel approach in statistical analyses of social networks, we find that blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) predators...

Data from: Early Pennsylvanian (Langsettian) fish assemblages from the Joggins Formation, Canada, and their implications for palaeoecology and palaeogeography

David K. Carpenter, Howard J. Falcon-Lang, Michael J. Benton & Melissa Grey
A review of all available specimens of fossil fishes from the classic Pennsylvanian Joggins locality of Nova Scotia, Canada, reveals the existence of a diverse community of chondrichthyans (xenacanthids, ctenacanthids and the enigmatic Ageleodus), acanthodians (gyracanthids), sarcopterygians (rhizodontids, megalichthyids, rhizodopsids and dipnoans) and actinopterygians (haplolepids). Reassessment of supposed endemic species (Ctenoptychius cristatus, Sagenodus plicatus, Gyracanthus duplicatus) indicates they are invalid, and overall, the assemblage comprises cosmopolitan taxa that were widespread around the coasts of tropical...

Data from: Helping decisions and kin recognition in long-tailed tits: is call similarity used to direct help towards kin?

Amy Leedale, Robert Lachlan, Elva Robinson & Ben Hatchwell
Most cooperative breeders live in discrete family groups, but in a minority, breeding populations comprise extended social networks of conspecifics that vary in relatedness. Selection for effective kin recognition may be expected for individuals in such kin neighbourhoods to maximise indirect fitness. Using a long-term social pedigree, molecular genetics, field observations and acoustic analyses, we examine how vocal similarity affects helping decisions in the long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus. Long-tailed tits are cooperative breeders in which...

Multiple traits and multifarious environments: integrated divergence of morphology and life history

Rüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin & R. Brian Langerhans
Understanding complex responses of multiple character suites (e.g., behaviour, life history, morphology) to multifarious environments is a challenging task. Here we use a multivariate approach (partial least squares structural equation modelling) to disentangle drivers (i.e., predation, resource availability, and population demographics) of phenotypic divergence among populations of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes. We further employ a two-block partial least squares analysis in a novel approach to uncovering integrated and independent aspects of divergence...

Data from: Dynamic transmission, host quality and population structure in a multi-host parasite of bumble bees

Mario Xavier Ruiz-González, John Bryden, Yannick Moret, Christine Reber-Funk, Paul Schmid-Hempel & Mark J. F. Brown
The evolutionary ecology of multi-host parasites is predicted to depend upon patterns of host quality and the dynamics of transmission networks. Depending upon the differences in host quality and transmission asymmetries, as well as the balance between intra- and inter-specific transmission, the evolution of specialist or generalist strategies is predicted. Using a trypanosome parasite of bumble bees we ask how host quality and transmission networks relate to parasite population structure across host species, and thus...

Data from: Homing pigeons (Columba livia) modulate wingbeat characteristics as a function of route familiarity

Lucy A. Taylor, Steven J. Portugal & Dora Biro
Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival, therefore understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons (Columba livia) as they learned...

Data from: Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure

Richard J. Gill & Nigel E. Raine
1. Insect pollination is a vital ecosystem service that maintains biodiversity and sustains agricultural crop yields. Social bees are essential insect pollinators so it is concerning that their populations are in global decline. 2. Although pesticide exposure has been implicated as a possible cause for bee declines, we currently have a limited understanding of the risk these chemicals pose. Whilst environmental exposure to pesticides typically has non-lethal effects on individual bees, recent reports suggest that...

Data from: Multiple mating, paternity and complex fertilisation patterns in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudi

Marie-Jose Naud, Warwick H. H. Sauer, Niall J. McKeown, Paul W. Shaw & Marie-Jose Naud
Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods...

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