64 Works

Data from: Dynamic transmission, host quality and population structure in a multi-host parasite of bumble bees

Mario Xavier Ruiz-González, John Bryden, Yannick Moret, Christine Reber-Funk, Paul Schmid-Hempel & Mark J. F. Brown
The evolutionary ecology of multi-host parasites is predicted to depend upon patterns of host quality and the dynamics of transmission networks. Depending upon the differences in host quality and transmission asymmetries, as well as the balance between intra- and inter-specific transmission, the evolution of specialist or generalist strategies is predicted. Using a trypanosome parasite of bumble bees we ask how host quality and transmission networks relate to parasite population structure across host species, and thus...

Data from: Homing pigeons (Columba livia) modulate wingbeat characteristics as a function of route familiarity

Lucy A. Taylor, Steven J. Portugal & Dora Biro
Mechanisms of avian navigation have received considerable attention, but whether different navigational strategies are accompanied by different flight characteristics is unknown. Managing energy expenditure is critical for survival, therefore understanding how flight characteristics, and hence energy allocation, potentially change with birds familiarity with a navigational task could provide key insights into the costs of orientation. We addressed this question by examining changes in wingbeat characteristics and airspeed of homing pigeons (Columba livia) as they learned...

Data from: Chronic impairment of bumblebee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure

Richard J. Gill & Nigel E. Raine
1. Insect pollination is a vital ecosystem service that maintains biodiversity and sustains agricultural crop yields. Social bees are essential insect pollinators so it is concerning that their populations are in global decline. 2. Although pesticide exposure has been implicated as a possible cause for bee declines, we currently have a limited understanding of the risk these chemicals pose. Whilst environmental exposure to pesticides typically has non-lethal effects on individual bees, recent reports suggest that...

Data from: Multiple mating, paternity and complex fertilisation patterns in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudi

Marie-Jose Naud, Warwick H. H. Sauer, Niall J. McKeown, Paul W. Shaw & Marie-Jose Naud
Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods...

Data from: A Tournaisian (earliest Carboniferous) conglomerate-preserved non-marine faunal assemblage and its environmental and sedimentological context

Jennifer A. Clack, Carys E. Bennett, Sarah J. Davies, Andrew C. Scott, Janet E. Sherwin & Timothy R. Smithson
A conglomerate bed from the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland preserves a rich array of vertebrate and other non-marine fossils providing an insight into the wider ecosystem and palaeoenvironment that existed during this pivotal stage of Earth history. It challenges hypotheses of a long-lasting post-extinction trough following the end-Devonian extinction event. The fauna recovered includes a wide size range of tetrapods, rhizodonts and dipnoans, from tiny juveniles or small-bodied taxa up to large adults, and...

Data from: Biotic predictors complement models of bat and bird responses to climate and tree diversity in European forests

Luc Barbaro, Eric Allan, Evy Ampoorter, Bastien Castagneyrol, Yohan Charbonnier, Hans De Wandeler, Christian Kerbiriou, Harriet Milligan, Aude Vialatte, Monique Carnol, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Herve Jactel, Julia Koricheva, Isabelle Le Viol, Bart Muys, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Kris Verheyen & Fons Van Der Plas
Bats and birds are key providers of ecosystem services in forests. How climate and habitat jointly shape their communities is well studied, but whether biotic predictors from other trophic levels may improve bird and bat diversity models is less known, especially across large bioclimatic gradients. Here, we achieved multi-taxa surveys in 209 mature forests replicated in six European countries from Spain to Finland, to investigate the importance of biotic predictors (i.e., the abundance or activity...

Data from: A sting in the spit: widespread cross-infection of multiple RNA viruses across wild and managed bees

Dino P. McMahon, Matthias A. Fürst, Jesicca Caspar, Panagiotis Theodorou, Mark J. F. Brown & Robert J. Paxton
1.Declining populations of bee pollinators are a cause of concern, with major repercussions for biodiversity loss and food security. RNA viruses associated with honeybees represent a potential threat to other insect pollinators, but the extent of this threat is poorly understood. 2.This study aims to attain a detailed understanding of the current and on going risk of emerging infectious disease (EID) transmission between managed and wild pollinator species across a wide range of RNA viruses....

Data from: Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi's iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Laurent A. F. Frantz, Anna Rudzinski, Abang Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, Allowen Evin, James Burton, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Anna Linderholm, Ross Barnett, Rodrigo Vega, Evan K. Irving-Pease, James Haile, Richard Allen, Kristin Leus, Jill Shephard, Mia Hillyer, Sarah Gillemot, Jeroen Van Den Hurk, Sharron Ogle, Cristina Atofanei, Mark G. Thomas, Friederike Johansson, Abdul Haris Mustari, John Williams, Kusdiantoro Mohamad, Chandramaya Siska Damayanti … & Greger Larson
The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions...

Data from: X-rays and virtual taphonomy resolve the first Cissus (Vitaceae) macrofossils from Africa as early diverging members of the genus

Neil F. Adams, Margaret E. Collinson, Selena Y. Smith, Marion K. Bamford, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Federica Marone & Dan Sykes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Miocene of Kenya, though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertook a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. METHODS: Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy....

Data from: Phylogenetic response of naraoiid arthropods to early - middle Cambrian environmental change

Andrew Bond & Greg Edgecombe
The Cambrian Period, primarily known for animal life diversifying, experienced global extinctions. Pulses of extinction in Cambrian Series 2 are exemplified by the disappearance of archaeocyath sponges and olenelline and redlichiid trilobites. However, the effect of such extinctions on outer shelf organisms, as typify Burgess Shale-type (BST) deposits, remains relatively unknown. The phylogeny of naraoiid arthropods, represented in BST deposits globally, has consequently been reconstructed from either side of the Series 2–Miaolingian extinction event to...

Personality composition determines social learning pathways within shoaling fish

Matthew Hasenjager, William Hoppitt & Lee Dugatkin
In shaping how individuals explore their environment and interact with others, personality may mediate both individual and social learning. Yet increasing evidence indicates that personality expression is contingent on social context, suggesting that group personality composition may be key in determining how individuals learn about their environment. Here, we used recovery latency following simulated predator attacks to identify Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that acted in a consistently bold or shy manner. We then employed network-based...

Compensatory growth and costs of molluscivory in Gambusia holbrooki

Brian Langerhans, Taylor Goins, Kenzi Stemp & Rüdiger Riesch
Some prey are exceptionally difficult to digest, and yet even non-specialized animals may consume them—why? Durophagy, the consumption of hard-shelled prey, is thought to require special adaptations for crushing or digesting the hard shells to avoid the many potential costs of this prey type. But many animals lacking specializations nevertheless include hard-bodied prey in their diets. We describe several non-mutually exclusive adaptive mechanisms that could explain such a pattern, and point to optimal foraging and...

Dancing bees evaluate central urban forage resources as superior to agricultural land

Ellouise Leadbeater, Ash Samuelson & Roger Schuerch
Recent evidence suggests that flower-rich areas within cities could play an important role in pollinator conservation, but direct comparison of floral resources within agricultural and urban areas has proved challenging to perform over large scales. Here we use the waggle dances of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to perform large-scale landscape surveys at heavily urban or agricultural sites for a key pollinator of wild and crop plants. We analyzed 2827 dances that were performed by 20...

Geographical and temporal variation of multiple paternity in invasive mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, Gambusia affinis)

Jiancao Gao, Francesco Santi, Linjun Zhou, Xiaoqin Wang, Rüdiger Riesch & Martin Plath
Multiple paternity (MP) increases offspring’s genetic variability, which could be linked to invasive species’ evolvability in novel distribution ranges. Shifts in MP can be adaptive, with greater MP in harsher/colder environments or towards the end of the reproductive season, but climate could also affect MP indirectly via its effect on reproductive life histories. We tested these hypotheses by genotyping N = 2,903 offspring from N = 306 broods of two closely related livebearing fishes, Gambusia...

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