118 Works

Data from: Biotic predictors complement models of bat and bird responses to climate and tree diversity in European forests

Luc Barbaro, Eric Allan, Evy Ampoorter, Bastien Castagneyrol, Yohan Charbonnier, Hans De Wandeler, Christian Kerbiriou, Harriet Milligan, Aude Vialatte, Monique Carnol, Marc Deconchat, Pallieter De Smedt, Herve Jactel, Julia Koricheva, Isabelle Le Viol, Bart Muys, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Kris Verheyen & Fons Van Der Plas
Bats and birds are key providers of ecosystem services in forests. How climate and habitat jointly shape their communities is well studied, but whether biotic predictors from other trophic levels may improve bird and bat diversity models is less known, especially across large bioclimatic gradients. Here, we achieved multi-taxa surveys in 209 mature forests replicated in six European countries from Spain to Finland, to investigate the importance of biotic predictors (i.e., the abundance or activity...

Data from: A Tournaisian (earliest Carboniferous) conglomerate-preserved non-marine faunal assemblage and its environmental and sedimentological context

Jennifer A. Clack, Carys E. Bennett, Sarah J. Davies, Andrew C. Scott, Janet E. Sherwin & Timothy R. Smithson
A conglomerate bed from the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland preserves a rich array of vertebrate and other non-marine fossils providing an insight into the wider ecosystem and palaeoenvironment that existed during this pivotal stage of Earth history. It challenges hypotheses of a long-lasting post-extinction trough following the end-Devonian extinction event. The fauna recovered includes a wide size range of tetrapods, rhizodonts and dipnoans, from tiny juveniles or small-bodied taxa up to large adults, and...

Dancing bees evaluate central urban forage resources as superior to agricultural land

Ellouise Leadbeater, Ash Samuelson & Roger Schuerch
Recent evidence suggests that flower-rich areas within cities could play an important role in pollinator conservation, but direct comparison of floral resources within agricultural and urban areas has proved challenging to perform over large scales. Here we use the waggle dances of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to perform large-scale landscape surveys at heavily urban or agricultural sites for a key pollinator of wild and crop plants. We analyzed 2827 dances that were performed by 20...

LIFE Database.xlsx

Cathy Smith & Jay Mistry
The full Livelihood Fire Database (LIFE), a global database of contemporary subsistence-oriented and smallholder fire use and mitigation practices in over 580 case study locations described in the literature.

Does United Kingdom parliamentary attention follow social media posts?

John Bollenbacher, Niklas Loynes & John Bryden
Abstract News and social media play an important role in public political discourse. It is not clear what quantifiable relationships public discussions of politics have with official discourse within legislative bodies. In this study we present an analysis of how language used by Members of Parliament (MPs) in the United Kingdom (UK) changes after social media posts and online reactions to those posts. We consider three domains: news articles posted on Facebook in the UK,...

Challenges, rewards, and psychological distress among conservationists: Key findings and ideas for employers

Thomas Pienkowski, Aidan Keane, Sofia Castelló y Tickell, Emiel de Lange, Mirjam Hazenbosch, Munib Khanyari, William N.S. Arlidge, Gergő Baranyi, Stephanie Brittain, Vena Kapoor, Vik Mohan, Sarah Papworth, Roshni Ravi, Izak Smit & E.J. Milner-Gulland
This document summarises key findings of the project and shares ideas for practical steps that employers might find useful for supporting the mental health and wellbeing of staff. The document also contains links to external resources that might be useful.

Challenges, rewards, and psychological distress among conservationists: Key findings and ideas for employers

Thomas Pienkowski, Aidan Keane, Sofia Castelló y Tickell, Emiel de Lange, Mirjam Hazenbosch, Munib Khanyari, William N.S. Arlidge, Gergő Baranyi, Stephanie Brittain, Vena Kapoor, Vik Mohan, Sarah Papworth, Roshni Ravi, Izak Smit & E.J. Milner-Gulland
This document summarises key findings of the project and shares ideas for practical steps that employers might find useful for supporting the mental health and wellbeing of staff. The document also contains links to external resources that might be useful.

Additional file 1 of Disentangling change across the time and true stability of employees’ resilience using latent state model

Lucie Ollis, Mark Cropley, David Plans & Hugo Cogo-Moreira
Additional file 1: CD-RISC modelling syntaxes for Mplus.

Evolution of female song and duetting in the chaffinch (Fringilla) species complex

Joseph Cooper & Robert Lachlan
Female song is ancestral to songbirds and shows considerable phylogenetic signal, but its presence also appears to be labile and correlated with life-history and ecology. While previous studies have examined the evolution of female song across species-rich families, here we studied female song in island populations of a recently diverged species-complex, the chaffinches (genus Fringilla). We show this behaviour has recently evolved in these populations, and probably on two independent occasions. In F. teydea, female...

LIFE Database.xlsx

Cathy Smith & Jay Mistry
The full Livelihood Fire Database (LIFE), a global database of contemporary subsistence-oriented and smallholder fire use and mitigation practices in over 580 case study locations described in the literature.

A How-to Guide on Designing Assessment

Lucy Gill-Simmen & Chahna Gonsalves
The resource provides educators with a short but comprehensive guide to designing assessments.

Protecting wellbeing and resilience in BAME families and communities during a public health emergency (Urdu)

Iyiola Solanke, florence ayisi, Claudia Bernard, Gargi Bhattacharyya, Anna Gupta, Raminder Kaur, Monica Lakhanpaul, Sabu Padmadas, Shirin Rai & Maria Stokes

Protecting wellbeing and resilience in BAME families and communities during a public health emergency (Welsh)

Iyiola Solanke, florence ayisi, Claudia Bernard, Gargi Bhattacharyya, Anna Gupta, Raminder Kaur, Monica Lakhanpaul, Sabu Padmadas, Shirin Rai & Maria Stokes

Protecting wellbeing and resilience in BAME families and communities during a public health emergency (Bangla)

Iyiola Solanke, florence ayisi, Claudia Bernard, Gargi Bhattacharyya, Anna Gupta, Raminder Kaur, Monica Lakhanpaul, Sabu Padmadas, Shirin Rai & Maria Stokes

Protecting wellbeing and resilience in BAME families and communities during a public health emergency (Gujurati)

Iyiola Solanke, florence ayisi, Claudia Bernard, Gargi Bhattacharyya, Anna Gupta, Raminder Kaur, Monica Lakhanpaul, Sabu Padmadas, Shirin Rai & Maria Stokes
Ignoring race, gender and class when tackling a pandemic can undermine not only wellbeing across Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic families and communities (BAME FC) but also their levels of trust in government. A framework to protect wellbeing and resilience in BAME FC during public health emergencies was developed by Co-POWeR to ensure that laws and guidance adopted are culturally competent.

Data from: Revision of Icacinaceae from the Early Eocene London Clay flora based on X-ray micro-CT

Gregory W. Stull, Neil F. Adams, Steven R. Manchester, Dan Sykes & Margaret E. Collinson
The Early Eocene (Ypresian) London Clay Formation contains one of the most important fruit and seed assemblages from the Paleogene, including a large diversity of taxa (>350 spp.) preserved as pyrite permineralizations retaining 3D structure as well as anatomical detail. Despite the importance of the flora for understanding angiosperm biogeographic and evolutionary history, the majority of the fossil material has not been revisited since the original taxonomic treatments by E.M. Reid and M.E.J. Chandler. Given...

Data from: Elevated virulence of an emerging viral genotype as a driver of honeybee loss

Dino P. McMahon, Myrsini E. Natsopoulou, Vincent Doublet, Matthias Fürst, Silvio Weging, Mark J. F. Brown, Andreas Gogol-Döring & Robert J. Paxton
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have contributed significantly to the current biodiversity crisis, leading to widespread epidemics and population loss. Owing to genetic variation in pathogen virulence, a complete understanding of species decline requires the accurate identification and characterization of EIDs. We explore this issue in the Western honeybee, where increasing mortality of populations in the Northern Hemisphere has caused major concern. Specifically, we investigate the importance of genetic identity of the main suspect in mortality,...

Data from: Avian pest control in vineyards is driven by interactions between bird functional diversity and landscape heterogeneity

Luc Barbaro, Adrien Rusch, Evalyne W. Muiruri, Bastien Gravellier, Denis Thiery & Bastien Castagneyrol
Insectivorous birds are increasingly recognized for the crucial pest control services they provide to agroecosystems. While both the foraging activity and functional diversity of birds are enhanced by multiscale habitat heterogeneity, little is known about how these relationships may influence avian top-down control of insects. Specifically, interactive effects of bird community structure and habitat heterogeneity on pest control across spatial scales have rarely been explored. We sampled bird communities and measured avian predation on plasticine...

Data from: Early Pennsylvanian (Langsettian) fish assemblages from the Joggins Formation, Canada, and their implications for palaeoecology and palaeogeography

David K. Carpenter, Howard J. Falcon-Lang, Michael J. Benton & Melissa Grey
A review of all available specimens of fossil fishes from the classic Pennsylvanian Joggins locality of Nova Scotia, Canada, reveals the existence of a diverse community of chondrichthyans (xenacanthids, ctenacanthids and the enigmatic Ageleodus), acanthodians (gyracanthids), sarcopterygians (rhizodontids, megalichthyids, rhizodopsids and dipnoans) and actinopterygians (haplolepids). Reassessment of supposed endemic species (Ctenoptychius cristatus, Sagenodus plicatus, Gyracanthus duplicatus) indicates they are invalid, and overall, the assemblage comprises cosmopolitan taxa that were widespread around the coasts of tropical...

Data from: Helping decisions and kin recognition in long-tailed tits: is call similarity used to direct help towards kin?

Amy Leedale, Robert Lachlan, Elva Robinson & Ben Hatchwell
Most cooperative breeders live in discrete family groups, but in a minority, breeding populations comprise extended social networks of conspecifics that vary in relatedness. Selection for effective kin recognition may be expected for individuals in such kin neighbourhoods to maximise indirect fitness. Using a long-term social pedigree, molecular genetics, field observations and acoustic analyses, we examine how vocal similarity affects helping decisions in the long-tailed tit Aegithalos caudatus. Long-tailed tits are cooperative breeders in which...

Data from: Fine-scale appendage structure of the Cambrian trilobitomorph Naraoia spinosa and its ontogenetic and ecological implications

Dayou Zhai, Gregory Edgecombe, Andrew Bond, Huijuan Mai, Xianguang Hou & Yu Liu
Trilobitomorphs are a species-rich Palaeozoic arthropod assemblage that unites trilobites with several other lineages that share similar appendage structure. Post-embryonic development of the exoskeleton is well documented for some trilobitomorphs, especially trilobites, but little is known of the ontogeny of their soft parts, limiting understanding of their autecology. Here we document appendage structure of the Cambrian naraoiid trilobitomorph Naraoia spinosa by computed microtomography, resulting in three-dimensional reconstructions of appendages at both juvenile and adult stages....

Data from: Transitions between phases of genomic differentiation during stick-insect speciation

Rüdiger Riesch, Moritz Muschick, Dorothea Lindtke, Romain Villoutreix, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Kay Lucek, Elizabeth Hellen, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Stuart R. Dennis, Clarissa F. De Carvalho, Rebecca J. Safran, Cristina P. Sandoval, Jeff Feder, Regine Gries, Bernard J. Crespi, Gerhard Gries, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Speciation can involve a transition from a few genetic loci that are resistant to gene flow to genome-wide differentiation. However, only limited data exist concerning this transition and the factors promoting it. Here, we study phases of speciation using data from >100 populations of 11 species of Timema stick insects. Consistent with early phases of genic speciation, adaptive colour-pattern loci reside in localized genetic regions of accentuated differentiation between populations experiencing gene flow. Transitions to...

Multiple traits and multifarious environments: integrated divergence of morphology and life history

Rüdiger Riesch, Ryan A. Martin & R. Brian Langerhans
Understanding complex responses of multiple character suites (e.g., behaviour, life history, morphology) to multifarious environments is a challenging task. Here we use a multivariate approach (partial least squares structural equation modelling) to disentangle drivers (i.e., predation, resource availability, and population demographics) of phenotypic divergence among populations of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes. We further employ a two-block partial least squares analysis in a novel approach to uncovering integrated and independent aspects of divergence...

Data from: Ecological and genetic determinants of plasmid distribution in Escherichia coli

Frances Medaney, Richard J. Ellis & Ben Raymond
Bacterial plasmids are important carriers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Nevertheless, little is known of the determinants of plasmid distribution in bacterial populations. Here the factors affecting the diversity and distribution of the large plasmids of Escherichia coli were explored in cattle grazing on semi-natural grassland, a set of populations with low frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes. Critically, the population genetic structure of bacterial hosts was chararacterized. This revealed structured E. coli populations with...

Data from: Cost, risk, and avoidance of inbreeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amy Leedale, Michelle Simeoni, Stuart Sharp, Jonathan Green, Jon Slate, Robert Lachlan, Ben Hatchwell & Elva Robinson
Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a...

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