In the USA and the UK, many thousands of police suspects are identified by eyewitnesses every year. Unfortunately, many of those suspects are innocent, which becomes evident when they are exonerated by DNA testing, often after having been imprisoned for years. It is, therefore, imperative to use identification procedures that best enable eyewitnesses to discriminate innocent from guilty suspects. Although police investigators in both countries often administer line-up procedures, the details of how line-ups are...
Data from: Investigating the impacts of field-realistic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide on bumblebee foraging, homing ability and colony growthDara A. Stanley, Avery L. Russell, Sarah J. Morrison, Catherine Rogers & Nigel E. Raine
The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services. We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5–43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying...
Data from: Extremophile Poeciliidae: multivariate insights into the complexity of speciation along replicated ecological gradientsRüdiger Riesch, Michael Tobler, Hannes Lerp, Jonas Jourdan, Tess Doumas, Patrik Nosil, R. Brian Langerhans & Martin Plath
Background: Replicate population pairs that diverge in response to similar selective regimes allow for an investigation of (a) whether phenotypic traits diverge in a similar and predictable fashion, (b) whether there is gradual variation in phenotypic divergence reflecting variation in the strength of natural selection among populations, (c) whether the extent of this divergence is correlated between multiple character suites (i.e., concerted evolution), and (d) whether gradual variation in phenotypic divergence predicts the degree of...
Data from: Going undercover: increasing canopy cover around a host tree drives associational resistance to an insect pestEvalyne W. Muiruri & Julia Koricheva
Neighbouring heterospecific plants are often observed to reduce the probability of herbivore attack on a given focal plant. While this pattern of associational resistance is frequently reported, experimental evidence for underlying mechanisms is rare particularly for potential plant species diversity effects on focal host plants and their physical environment. Here, we used an established forest diversity experiment to determine whether tree diversity effects on an important insect pest are driven by concomitant changes in host...
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have contributed significantly to the current biodiversity crisis, leading to widespread epidemics and population loss. Owing to genetic variation in pathogen virulence, a complete understanding of species decline requires the accurate identification and characterization of EIDs. We explore this issue in the Western honeybee, where increasing mortality of populations in the Northern Hemisphere has caused major concern. Specifically, we investigate the importance of genetic identity of the main suspect in mortality,...
Bacterial plasmids are important carriers of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Nevertheless, little is known of the determinants of plasmid distribution in bacterial populations. Here the factors affecting the diversity and distribution of the large plasmids of Escherichia coli were explored in cattle grazing on semi-natural grassland, a set of populations with low frequencies of antibiotic resistance genes. Critically, the population genetic structure of bacterial hosts was chararacterized. This revealed structured E. coli populations with...
The Early Eocene (Ypresian) London Clay Formation contains one of the most important fruit and seed assemblages from the Paleogene, including a large diversity of taxa (>350 spp.) preserved as pyrite permineralizations retaining 3D structure as well as anatomical detail. Despite the importance of the flora for understanding angiosperm biogeographic and evolutionary history, the majority of the fossil material has not been revisited since the original taxonomic treatments by E.M. Reid and M.E.J. Chandler. Given...
Data from: Avian pest control in vineyards is driven by interactions between bird functional diversity and landscape heterogeneityLuc Barbaro, Adrien Rusch, Evalyne W. Muiruri, Bastien Gravellier, Denis Thiery & Bastien Castagneyrol
Insectivorous birds are increasingly recognized for the crucial pest control services they provide to agroecosystems. While both the foraging activity and functional diversity of birds are enhanced by multiscale habitat heterogeneity, little is known about how these relationships may influence avian top-down control of insects. Specifically, interactive effects of bird community structure and habitat heterogeneity on pest control across spatial scales have rarely been explored. We sampled bird communities and measured avian predation on plasticine...
Data from: Multiple mating, paternity and complex fertilisation patterns in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudiMarie-Jose Naud, Warwick H. H. Sauer, Niall J. McKeown, Paul W. Shaw & Marie-Jose Naud
Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods...
Data from: X-rays and virtual taphonomy resolve the first Cissus (Vitaceae) macrofossils from Africa as early diverging members of the genusNeil F. Adams, Margaret E. Collinson, Selena Y. Smith, Marion K. Bamford, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Federica Marone & Dan Sykes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fossilized seeds similar to Cissus (Vitaceae) have been recognized from the Miocene of Kenya, though some were previously assigned to the Menispermaceae. We undertook a comparative survey of extant African Cissus seeds to identify the fossils and consider their implications for the evolution and biogeography of Cissus and for African early Miocene paleoenvironments. METHODS: Micro-computed tomography (µCT) and synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) were used to study seed morphology and anatomy....
Royal Holloway University of London10
North West Agriculture and Forestry University1
Queen's University Belfast1
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor1
National University of Ireland1
Santé et Agroécologie du Vignoble1
Royal Botanic Gardens1
German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research1