44 Works

Pore scale in situ imaging of multiphase flow at steady-state for an altered mixed-wet Bentheimer sandstone

Shuangemei Zou, Yang Liu, Jianchao Cai & Ryan Armstrong
The data sets contains in situ imaged fluid distribitions for two-phase drainage at four fractional flows under steady state condition for a water-wet Bentheimer sandstone and an altered mixed-wet Bentheimer sandstone. These multiphase images are used for curvature measurement and relative permeability measurement for two wettability conditions while dry images are used for porosity and absolute permeability measurements. Further details on experimental protocols can be found in Zou (2018,2019). Data was acquired at the University...

The Influence Law of Eccentric Load on the Performance of Yielding Bolt

Yang Tai, Hongchun Xia, Shaopin Huang, Jie Meng & Wei Li
In order to adapt high stress and large deformation of roadways, the prestressed yielding bolt has been developed. However, borehole deviation makes the boreholes out of perpendicular to the roadway surface, and the prestressed yielding bolt will be under eccentric load. In order to reveal the influence laws of eccentric load on the performance of the prestressed yielding bolt, the numerical simulation was carried out in this paper. Then, the influence of eccentric load on...

Portable smartphone integrated paper sensors for fluorescence detection of As(III) in groundwater

Yong Li
Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a supreme environmental problem, and levels of this toxic metalloid must be strictly monitored by a portable, sensitive and selective analytical device. Herein, a new system of smartphone integrated paper sensors with Cu nanoclusters was established for the effective detection of As(III) in groundwater. For the integration system, the fluorescence emissive peak of Cu nanoclusters at 600 nm decreased gradually with increasing As(III) addition. Meanwhile, the fluorescence color also changed...

The impact of transition metal cations and absorbed water on color transformation of turquoise

Xueding Wang & Ying Guo
Thirty-five gem-quality turquoise samples with continuous hue were investigated using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical and spectra analyses indicate that Fe3+ primarily controls green hue of turquoise, where the absorption band performs bathochromic shift from 426 nm to 428 nm with increasing V content in the solid-solution series turquoise-chalcosiderite. Zn2+ suppress blue and V3+ and Cr3+ enhance the absorption on blue,...

Data from: Recent northward range expansion promotes song evolution in a passerine bird, the Light-vented Bulbul

Xiaoying Xing, Per Alström, Xiaojing Yang, Fumin Lei, F. M. Lei & X. J. Yang
In common with human speech, song is culturally inherited in oscine passerine birds (‘songbirds’). Intraspecific divergence in birdsong, such as development of local dialects, might be an important early step in the speciation process. It is therefore vital to understand how songs diverge, especially in founding populations. The northward expansion of the Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) into north China in the last 30 years provides an excellent opportunity to study birdsong...

Original data of warming and atmospheric deposition drive recent reorganization of diatom community in alpine lakes of the eastern monsoonal region of China

Xu Chen, Jia Peng, Linghan Zeng & Xianyu Huang
This study explored ecological responses of Erye and Sanye lakes to climate change and atmospheric deposition based on multi-proxy sedimentary records in the Taibai Mountain (eastern China). Diatom communities of the two study lakes shifted from large-sized benthic taxa to small fragilariod species after the mid-20th century, synchronous with an increase in diatom production and a decrease in mean length of diatom valves. Changes in diatom communities were significantly correlated with nitrogen deposition in both...

Deciphering linkages between microbial communities and priming effects in lake sediments with different salinity

Jian Yang, Yao Chen, Weiyu She, Haiyi Xiao, Zheng Wang, Huanye Wang, Weiguo Liu & Hongchen Jiang
Priming effects (PEs) and their associated microbial drivers are not well studied in lake sediments. Here, we investigated PEs and underlying potential microbial drivers in the sediments of lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Sediments were collected from three QTP lakes with different salinity, followed by microcosm construction and subsequent incubation at in-situ temperature. The sediment microcosms were amended with 13C-labeled glucose, on which PE intensities were evaluated in the incubations on the 7th and...

Supplementary data from: Decoupling of morphological disparity and taxonomic diversity during the end-Permian mass extinction

Junyu Wan, William Foster, Li Tian, Thomas Stubbs, Michael Benton, Xincheng Qiu & Aihua Yuan
An increasing number of unexpectedly diverse benthic communities are being reported from microbially-precipitated carbonate facies in shallow-marine platform settings after the end-Permian mass extinction. Ostracoda, which was one of the most diverse and abundant metazoan groups during this interval, recorded their greatest diversity and abundance associated with these facies. Previous studies, however, focused mainly on their taxonomic diversity and, therefore, left room for discussion of paleoecological significance. Here, we apply a morphometric method (semi-landmarks) to...

Estimating leaf nitrogen concentration based on the combination with fluorescence spectrum and first-derivative

Jian Yang, Lin Du, Wei Gong, Shuo Shi & Jia Sun
Leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) is a major indicator in the estimation of the crop growth status which has been diffusely applied in remote sensing. Thus, it is important to accurately obtain LNC by using passive or active technology. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) can be applied to monitor LNC in crops through analyzing the changing of fluorescence spectral information. Thus, the performance of fluorescence spectrum (FS) and first-derivative fluorescence spectrum (FDFS) for paddy rice (Yangliangyou 6 and...

Carbon fixation by photosynthetic mats along a temperature gradient in a Tengchong hot spring

Yidi Zhang
Geothermal hot springs, widely distributed on Earth, are important geological green-house gas sources which contribute large amounts of CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Exploring microbial carbon fixation in these springs is vital to fully understand the carbon budget in these terrestrial aquatic systems. In this study, carbon fixation rate by photosynthetic mats was determined with a 13C labeling approach along a gradient of temperature (~69 - ~75 oC) in a geothermal pool at Rehai Park...

Orbital forcing of Triassic megamonsoon activity documented in lacustrinesediments from Ordos Basin, China

Runjian Chu, Huaichun Wu, Rukai Zhu & Qiang Fang
China University of Geosciences (Beijing), China (1); Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration Development, PetroChina, Beijing, China (2)

The “hothouse” Triassic climate provides a key window to study megamonsoon systems. However, high-quality paleoclimate proxy records are rarely reported from the Tethys realm, where the seasonal meridional migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) should be the most remarkable. Here, continuous and well-dated proxy records are used to study monsoon activity in the northeastern Tethys from the...

A new Changhsingian (Lopingian) brachiopod fauna of the shallow-water clastic-shelf facies from Fujian Province, southeastern China

Huiting Wu, Yang Zhang, Thomas Stubbs, Jingqi Liu & Yuanlin Sun
Although much attention has been paid to Changhsingian brachiopods in South China, there are only two Chinese studies, published in 1979 and 1990, on Changhsingian brachiopods from the southeastern part of South China. Based on systematically collected fossil material, this paper describes and quantitatively analyses a Changhsingian brachiopod fauna from the Luokeng Formation at the Hongtian section, Fujian Province, southeastern China, for the first time. Among the brachiopods (30 species in 18 genera) described and...

Wide sensitive area of small foreshocks

Chieh-Hung Chen
Scientists demystify stress changes within tens of days before a mainshock and often utilize its foreshock as an indicator. Typically, foreshocks are detected near fault zones, which may be due to the distribution of seismometers. This study investigates changes in seismicity far from mainshocks by examining tens of thousands of M >= 2 quakes that were monitored by dense seismic arrays for more than 10 years in Taiwan and Japan. The quakes occurred within epicentral...

Verifiability of genus-level classification under quantification and parsimony theories: a case study of follicucullid radiolarians

Yifan Xiao, Noritoshi Suzuki, Weihong He, Michael Benton, Tinglu Yang & Chenyang Cai
The classical taxonomy of fossil invertebrates is based on subjective judgments of morphology, which can cause confusion since there are no codified standards for the classification of genera. Here, we explore the validity of the genus taxonomy of 75 species and morphospecies of the Follicucullidae, a Late Paleozoic family of radiolarians, using a new method, Hayashi’s quantification theory II (HQT-II), a general multivariate statistical method for categorical datasets relevant to discriminant analysis. We identify a...

Towards an understanding of cosmopolitanism in deep time: a case study of ammonoids from the middle Permian to the Middle Triassic

Xu Dai & Haijun Song
Cosmopolitanism occurred recurrently during the geological past, especially after mass extinctions, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly known. Three theoretical models, not mutually exclusive, can lead to cosmopolitanism: (1) selective extinction in endemic taxa, (2) endemic taxa becoming cosmopolitan after the extinction and (3) an increase in the number of newly originated cosmopolitan taxa after extinction. We analyzed an updated occurrence dataset including 831 middle Permian to Middle Triassic ammonoid genera and used two network...

Phylogenetic and ecomorphologic diversifications of spiriferinid brachiopods after the end-Permian extinction

Zhen Guo, Zhong-Qiang Chen & David Harper
The Order Spiriferinida spanning the latest Ordovician to Early Jurassic is a small group of brachiopods overshadowed by other taxa-rich clades during the Paleozoic. It diversified significantly after the end-Permian extinction and became one of the four major clades of Triassic brachiopods. However, the phylogeny and recovery dynamics of this clade during the Triassic still remain unknown. Here, we present a higher-level parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis of Mesozoic spiriferinids to reveal their evolutionary relationships. Ecologically related...

Major compositions and mode of Kohistan lower crustal cumulates

Jingbo Zhang
Arc magmas, a major contributor to continental crust growth, are thought to be more oxidized than mid-ocean ridge basalts, but how arc magmas become oxidized is debated. In particular, fractionation of Fe-rich phases may change the Fe valence and thus the oxidation state of the derivative melt. Here we evaluate the redox effect of Fe-rich amphibole fractionation during arc magma differentiation. We present high precision Fe valence data determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and whole-rock Fe3+/∑Fe...

A new bohaiornithid-like bird from the Lower Cretaceous of China fills a gap in enantiornithine disparity

Xuri Wang, Andrea Cau, Xiaoling Luo, Martin Kundrát, Wensheng Wu, Shubin Ju, Zhen Guo, Yichuan Liu & Qiang Ji
A new enantiornithine – Musivavis amabilis n. gen. n. sp. – is reported from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Biota in western Liaoning, China. The new taxon is similar to the bohaiornithids in the robust subconical teeth, bluntly expanded omal ends of the furcula, caudolaterally oriented lateral trabeculae with triangular distal ends of the sternum, and a robust second pedal digit, yet it differs from members of Bohaiornithidae in several features recalling other enantiornithine lineages, such...

Experimental data in steeply inclined multiseam mining

Yan Qin
Ground surface damage caused by steeply inclined coal seam mining is widely distributed in China, but there is little research on the failure process and movement mechanism of strata induced by steeply inclined multi-seam mining. In this paper, a physical model test is carried out to study the failure process and movement mechanism of overburden in steeply inclined multi-seam stepwise mining. The results show that at the initial stage, the main failure of the rock...

Data from: Ice-VII inclusions in diamonds: evidence for aqueous fluid in Earth’s deep mantle

Oliver Tschauner, Shichun Huang, Eran Greenberg, Vitali B. Prakapenka, Chi Ma, George R. Rossman, Andy H. Shen, Dongzhou Zhang, Matthew Newville, Antonio Lanzirotti & Kimberly Tait
Water-rich regions in Earth’s deeper mantle are suspected to play a key role in the global water budget and the mobility of heat-generating elements. We show that ice-VII occurs as inclusions in natural diamond and serves as an indicator for such water-rich regions. Ice-VII, the residue of aqueous fluid present during growth of diamond, crystallizes upon ascent of the host diamonds but remains at pressures as high as 24 gigapascals; it is now recognized as...

Data from: Palaeobiogeographical distribution of Orbiculoidea (Brachiopoda, Discinoidea) responding to global climatic and geographical changes during the Palaeozoic

Yang Zhang, Sangmin Lee, Hui-Ting Wu & Wei-Hong He
The Palaeozoic Era is a particularly interesting period of Earth history, as it includes the formation and northward movement of a supercontinent (Pangea), dramatic climatic changes and global biotic catastrophes. Here, we analyse the palaeobiogeographical distribution of the discinid brachiopod genus Orbiculoidea and discuss its distributional patterns in light of the environmental changes that occurred throughout the Palaeozoic and the Triassic. Our results indicate that the distribution of the genus seems to have been controlled...

Data from: A new Griesbachian-Dienerian (Induan, Early Triassic) ammonoid fauna from Gujiao, South China

Xu Dai, Haijun Song, Arnaud Brayard & David Ware
Bed-by-bed sampling of the lower portion of the Daye Formation at Gujiao, Guizhou Province, South China, yielded new Griesbachian–Dienerian (Induan, Early Triassic) ammonoid faunas showing a new regional Induan ammonoid succession. This biostratigraphic scheme includes in chronological order the late Griesbachian Ophiceras medium and Jieshaniceras guizhouense beds, and the middle Dienerian Ambites radiatus bed. The latter is recognized for the first time as a separate biozone in South China. Eight genera and 13 species are...

Source Apportionment of Fine Organic Carbon

Xuefang Wu & Roy M. Harrison
Organic aerosol is known to be a major component of fine aerosols in China. This study was designed to investigate the seasonal characteristics and source apportionment of organic aerosols during both clean days and haze events. Time-resolved concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and organic molecular tracers were measured at Pinggu, a rural site of Beijing during the winter of 2016 and summer 2017 within an intensive sampling campaign. The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was...

Large air pressure changes in a cave in northern Taiwan

Chieh-Hung Chen
Air pressure data and seismic data

Data from: A Changhsingian (late Permian) nautiloid assemblage from Gujiao, South China

Luyi Miao, Xu Dai, Korn Dieter, Arnaud Brayard, Jing Chen, Xiaokang Liu & Haijun Song
A c. 0.30 m thick cherty limestone bed in the Dalong Formation at Gujiao (Guizhou) yielded a highly diverse Changhsingian nautiloid assemblage. Its age is late Changhsingian, indicated by the co-occurring ammonoid Pseudotirolites sp. This assemblage is composed of nine species and five taxa in open nomenclature in nine genera, including one new genus and three new species: Neotainoceras zhaoi sp. nov., Nodopleuroceras gujiaoense sp. nov. and Gujiaonautilus longliensis gen. nov., sp. nov. Sholakoceras is...

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