563 Works

Data from: Ecological outsourcing: a pitcher plant benefits from transferring pre-digestion of prey to a bat mutualist

Caroline R. Schöner, Michael G. Schöner, T. Ulmar Grafe, Charles M. Clarke, Linda Dombrowski, Moi Chan Tan & Gerald Kerth
Mutualisms are interspecific interactions where each of the species involved gains net benefits from the other(s). The exchange of resources and/or services between mutualistic partners often involves tasks that species originally accomplished themselves but which have been taken over by or transferred to the more efficient partner during the evolution of the mutualism. Such ‘ecological outsourcing’ can be seen, for example, in several carnivorous plants that have transferred prey capture and digestion to animal partners....

Data from: High intra-ocean, but limited inter-ocean genetic connectivity in populations of the deep-water oblique-banded snapper Pristipomoides zonatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae)

W. Jason Kennington, Peter W. Keron, Euan S. Harvey, Corey B. Wakefield, Ashley J. Williams, Tuikolongahau Halafihi & Stephen J. Newman
While many studies have investigated connectivity and subdivision in marine fish occupying tropical, shallow water reef habitats, relatively few have been conducted on commercially important deep-water species in the Indo-Pacific region. Here, we examine spatial and temporal genetic variation in the deep-water oblique-banded snapper Pristipomoides zonatus, collected from eight locations across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A total of 292 individuals were screened for genetic variation at six nuclear microsatellite loci and the cytochrome c...

Data from: Sperm dispersal distances estimated by parentage analysis in a brooding scleractinian coral

Patricia Warner, Bette Willis, Madeleine Van Oppen, Madeleine J. H. Van Oppen, Patricia A. Warner & Bette L. Willis
Within populations of brooding sessile corals, sperm dispersal constitutes the mechanism by which gametes interact and mating occurs, and forms the first link in the network of processes that determine species-wide connectivity patterns. However, almost nothing is known about sperm dispersal for any internally fertilizing coral. In this study, we conducted a parentage analysis on coral larvae collected from an area of mapped colonies, in order to measure the distance sperm disperses for the first...

Data from: Harvesting changes mating behavior in European lobster

Tonje K. Sørdalen, Kim T. Halvorsen, Hugo B. Harrison, Charlie D. Ellis, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Halvor Knutsen, Even Moland & Esben M. Olsen
Removing individuals from a wild population can affect the availability of prospective mates and the outcome of competitive interactions, with subsequent effects on mating patterns and sexual selection. Consequently, the rate of harvest-induced evolution is predicted to be strongly dependent on the strength and dynamics of sexual selection yet, there is limited empirical knowledge on the interplay between selective harvesting and the mating systems of exploited species. In this study, we used genetic parentage assignment...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: NetView P: a network visualization tool to unravel complex population structure using genome-wide SNPs

Eike J. Steinig, Markus Neuditschko, Mehar S. Khatkar, Herman W. Raadsma & Kyall R. Zenger
Network-based approaches are emerging as valuable tools for the analysis of complex genetic structure in both wild and captive populations. NetView P combines data quality control with the construction of population networks based on mutual k-nearest-neighbours thresholds applied to genome-wide SNPs. The program is cross-platform compatible, open-source and efficiently operates on data ranging from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of SNPs through multiprocessing in Python. We used the pipeline for the analysis of pedigree data...

Data from: Strong trans-Pacific break and local conservation units in the Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis) revealed by genome-wide cytonuclear markers

Diana A. Pazmiño, Gregory E. Maes, Madeline E. Green, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton J.A. Duffy, Carl G. Meyer, Sven E. Kerwath, Pelayo Salinas-De-León & Lynne Van Herwerden
The application of genome-wide cytonuclear molecular data to identify management and adaptive units at various spatio-temporal levels is particularly important for overharvested large predatory organisms, often characterized by smaller, localized populations. Despite being “near threatened”, current understanding of habitat use and population structure of Carcharhinus galapagensis is limited to specific areas within its distribution. We evaluated population structure and connectivity across the Pacific Ocean using genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (~7200 SNPs) and mitochondrial Control Region...

Data from: The coral immune response facilitates protection against microbes during tissue regeneration

Jeroen A. J. M. Van De Water, Tracy D. Ainsworth, William Leggat, David G. Bourne, Mikhail V. Matz, Bette L. Willis & Madeleine J. H. Van Oppen
Increasing physical damage on coral reefs from predation, storms and anthropogenic disturbances highlights the need to understand the impact of injury on the coral immune system. In this study, we examined the regulation of the coral immune response over 10 days following physical trauma artificially inflicted on in situ colonies of the coral Acropora aspera, simultaneously with bacterial colonization of the lesions. Corals responded to injury by increasing the expression of immune system-related genes involved...

Data from: Patterns and persistence of larval retention and connectivity in a marine fish metapopulation

Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Geoffrey P. Jones, Simon R. Thorrold & Serge Planes
Connectivity, the demographic linking of local populations through the dispersal of individuals, is one of the most poorly understood processes in population dynamics, yet has profound implications for conservation and harvest strategies. For marine species with pelagic larvae, direct estimation of connectivity remains logistically challenging and has mostly been limited to single snapshots in time. Here, we document seasonal and interannual patterns of larval dispersal in a metapopulation of the coral reef fish Amphiprion polymnus....

Data from: Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages

Rafael P. Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, Sebastien Villeger, Stephen E. Williams, Christopher Baraloto, Claire Fortunel, Fernando P. Mendonça & David Mouillot
There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to go extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here we investigated the consequences of local and...

Data from: Cell size, photosynthesis and the package effect: an artificial selection approach

Martino E. Malerba, Maria M. Palacios, Yussi M. Palacios Delgado, John Beardall & Dustin J. Marshall
Cell size correlates with most traits among phytoplankton species. Theory predicts that larger cells should show poorer photosynthetic performance, perhaps due to reduced intracellular self‐shading (i.e. package effect). Yet current theory relies heavily on interspecific correlational approaches and causal relationships between size and photosynthetic machinery have remained untested. As a more direct test, we applied 250 generations of artificial selection (c. 20 months) to evolve the green microalga Dunaliella teriolecta (Chlorophyta) toward different mean cell...

Data from: Strong population structure deduced from genetics, otolith chemistry and parasite abundances explains vulnerability to localised fishery collapse in a large Sciaenid fish, Protonibea diacanthus

Laura Taillebois, Diane P. Barton, David A. Crook, Thor Saunders, Jonathan Taylor, Mark Hearnden, Richard J. Saunders, Stephen J. Newman, Michael J. Travers, David J. Welch, Alan Greig, Christine Dudgeon, Safia Maher & Jennifer R. Ovenden
As pressure on coastal marine resources is increasing globally, the need to quantitatively assess vulnerable fish stocks is crucial in order to avoid the ecological consequences of stock depletions. Species of Sciaenidae (croakers, drums) are important components of tropical and temperate fisheries and are especially vulnerable to exploitation. The black-spotted croaker, Protonibea diacanthus, is the only large sciaenid in coastal waters of northern Australia where it is targeted by commercial, recreational and indigenous fishers due...

Data from: Benefits and challenges of scaling up expansion of marine protected area networks in the Verde Island Passage, Central Philippines

Vera Horigue, Robert L. Pressey, Morena Mills, Jana Brotanková, Reniel Cabral & Serge Andrefouet
Locally-established marine protected areas (MPAs) have been proven to achieve local-scale fisheries and conservation objectives. However, since many of these MPAs were not designed to form ecologically-connected networks, their contributions to broader-scale goals such as complementarity and connectivity can be limited. In contrast, integrated networks of MPAs designed with systematic conservation planning are assumed to be more effective—ecologically, socially, and economically—than collections of locally-established MPAs. There is, however, little empirical evidence that clearly demonstrates the...

Data from: Oceanographic currents and local ecological knowledge indicate, and genetics does not refute, a contemporary pattern of larval dispersal for the ornate spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian archipelago

Hoc Tan Dao, Carolyn Smith-Keune, Eric Wolanski, Clive M. Jones & Dean R. Jerry
Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST...

Data from: Ontogenetic development of intestinal length and relationships to diet in an Australasian fish family (Terapontidae)

Aaron M. Davis, Peter J. Unmack, Bradley J. Pusey, Richard G. Pearson & David L. Morgan
Background: One of the most widely accepted ecomorphological relationships in vertebrates is the negative correlation between intestinal length and proportion of animal prey in diet. While many fish groups exhibit this general pattern, other clades demonstrate minimal, and in some cases contrasting, associations between diet and intestinal length. Moreover, this relationship and its evolutionary derivation have received little attention from a phylogenetic perspective. This study documents the phylogenetic development of intestinal length variability, and resultant...

Data from: Optimized fishing through periodically harvested closures

Paul G. Carvalho, Stacy D. Jupiter, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Jordan Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Rebecca Weeks, Austin Humphries & Crow White
1. Periodically harvested closures are a widespread, centuries-old form of fisheries management that protects fish between pulse harvests and can generate high harvest efficiency by reducing fish wariness of fishing gear. However, the ability for periodic closures to also support high fisheries yields and healthy marine ecosystems is uncertain, despite increased promotion of periodic closures for managing fisheries and conserving ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific. 2. We developed a bioeconomic fisheries model that considers changes in...

Data from: High-frequency sampling and piecewise models reshape dispersal kernels of a common reef coral

Joanne Moneghetti, Joana Figueiredo, Andrew H. Baird & Sean R. Connolly
Models of dispersal potential are required to predict connectivity between populations of sessile organisms. However, to date, such models do not allow for time‐varying rates of acquisition and loss of competence to settle and metamorphose, and permit only a limited range of possible survivorship curves. We collect high‐resolution observations of coral larval survival and metamorphosis, and apply a piecewise modeling approach that incorporates a broad range of temporally‐varying rates of mortality and loss of competence....

Data from: The return of the frogs: the importance of habitat refugia in maintaining diversity during a disease outbreak

Donald T. McKnight, Monal M. Lal, Deborah S. Bower, Lin Schwarzkopf, Ross A. Alford & Kyall R. Zenger
Recent decades have seen the emergence and spread of numerous infectious diseases, often with severe negative consequences for wildlife populations. Nevertheless, many populations survive the initial outbreaks, and even undergo recoveries. Unfortunately, the long-term effects of these outbreaks on host population genetics are poorly understood; to increase this understanding, we examined the population genetics of two species of rainforest frogs (Litoria nannotis and Litoria serrata) that have largely recovered from a chytridiomycosis outbreak at two...

Data from: Transcriptomic differences between day and night in Acropora millepora provide new insights into metabolite exchange and light-enhanced calcification in corals

Anthony Bertucci, Sylvain Forêt, Eldon E. Ball & David J. Miller
The evolutionary success of reef-building corals is often attributed to their symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, but metabolic interactions between the partners and the molecular bases of light-enhanced calcification (LEC) are not well understood. Here, the metabolic bases of the interaction between the coral Acropora millepora and its dinoflagellate symbiont were investigated by comparing gene expression levels under light and dark conditions at the whole transcriptome level. Among the 497 differentially...

Data from: Functional genomic analysis of corals from natural CO2-seeps reveals core molecular responses involved in acclimatization to ocean acidification

Carly D. Kenkel, Aurelie Moya, Julia Strahl, Craig Humphrey & Line K. Bay
Little is known about the potential for acclimatization or adaptation of corals to ocean acidification and even less about the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes. Here we examine global gene expression patterns in corals and their intracellular algal symbionts from two replicate population pairs in Papua New Guinea that have undergone long-term acclimatization to natural variation in pCO2. In the coral host, only 61 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2 environment, but the...

Coral restoration – a systematic review of current methods, successes, failures and future directions

Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Russell C. Babcock, Elisa Bayraktarov, Daniela Ceccarelli, Nathan Cook, Sebastian C. A. Ferse, Boze Hancock, Peter Harrison, Margaux Hein, Elizabeth Shaver, Adam Smith, David Suggett, Phoebe J. Stewart-Sinclair, Tali Vardi & Ian M. McLeod
Coral reef ecosystems have suffered an unprecedented loss of habitat-forming hard corals in recent decades. While marine conservation has historically focused on passive habitat protection, demand for and interest in active restoration has been growing in recent decades. However, a disconnect between coral restoration practitioners, coral reef managers and scientists has resulted in a disjointed field where it is difficult to gain an overview of existing knowledge. To address this, we aimed to synthesise the...

Male reproductive effort might be evolving in the face of devastating disease in a threatened amphibian

Laura Brannelly, Rebecca J Webb, Zhixuan Jiang, Lee Berger, Lee F Skerratt & Laura F Grogan
The devastating infectious disease chytridiomycosis has caused declines of amphibians across the globe, yet some populations are persisting and even recovering. One understudied effect of wildlife disease is changes in reproductive effort. Here we aimed to understand if disease has plastic effects on reproduction and if reproductive effort could evolve with disease endemism. We compared the effects of experimental pathogen exposure (trait plasticity) and population-level disease history (evolution in trait baseline) on reproductive effort using...

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