334 Works

Combining metabolomics and experimental evolution reveals key mechanisms underlying longevity differences in laboratory evolved Drosophila melanogaster populations

Mark Phillips, Kenneth R. Arnold, Zer Vue, Heather K. Beasley, Edgar Garza-Lopez, Andrea G. Marshall, Derrick J. Morton, Melanie R. McReynolds, Thomas T. Barter & Antentor Hinton
Experimental evolution with Drosophila melanogaster has been used extensively for decades to study aging and longevity. In recent years, the addition of DNA and RNA sequencing to this framework has allowed researchers to leverage the statistical power inherent to experimental evolution to study the genetic basis of longevity itself. Here, we incorporated metabolomic data into to this framework to generate even deeper insights into the physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying longevity differences in three groups...

Non-adaptive molecular evolution of seminal fluid proteins in drosophila

Alberto Civetta, Bahar Patlar, Vivek Jayaswal & Jose Ranz
Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are a group of reproductive proteins that are amongst the most evolutionarily divergent known. As SFPs can impact male and female fitness, these proteins have been proposed to evolve under post-copulatory sexual selection (PCSS). However, the fast change of the SFPs can also result from non-adaptive evolution, and the extent to which selective constraints prevent SFPs rapid evolution remains unknown. Using intra- and interspecific sequence information, along with genomics and functional...

Data from: Genetic and spatial variation in vegetative and floral traits across a hybrid zone

Diane Campbell, Robert Raguso, Maya Midzik, Mascha Bischoff & Geoffrey Broadhead
Premise: Genetic variation influences potential for evolution to rescue populations from impacts of environmental change. Most studies of genetic variation in fitness-related traits focus on either vegetative or floral traits, with few on floral scent. How vegetative and floral traits compare in potential for adaptive evolution is poorly understood. Results: Vegetative traits SLA and WUE varied greatly among planting sites, while showing weak or no genetic variation among source populations. SLA and trichomes responded plastically...

Deepfakes: A Digital Transformation Leads to Misinformation

Nika Nour & Julia Gelfand
Deepfakes are a product of artificial intelligence (AI) and software applications used to create convincing falsified audiovisual content. Linguistically, a portmanteau combines deep learning aspects of AI with the doctored or falsified enhancements that deem the content fake and now deepfake or misinformation results. A variety of sophisticated software programs’ exacting algorithms create high-quality videos and manipulated audio of people who may not exist, twisting others who do exist, creating the potential for leading to...

Data from: Tritrophic interactions at a community level: effects of host-plant species quality on bird predation of caterpillars

Michael S. Singer, Timothy E. Farkas, Christian M. Skorik & Kailen A. Mooney
Effects of plant traits on herbivore-carnivore interactions are well documented in component communities, but are not well understood at the level of large, complex communities. We report on a two-year field experiment testing mechanisms by which variation in food quality among eight temperate forest tree species alters avian suppression of an assemblage of dietary generalist caterpillars. Plant quality and bird effects varied dramatically among tree species; high quality plants yielded herbivores of 50% greater mass...

Data from: Does phenotypic plasticity for adult size versus food level in Drosophila melanogaster evolve in response to adaptation to different rearing densities?

Laurence D. Mueller & Larry G. Cabral
Recent studies using inbred lines of Drosophila have suggested that there is extensive genetic variability for phenotypic plasticity of body size versus food level. If true, we expect that the outcome of evolution at very different food levels should yield genotypes whose adult sizes show different patterns of phenotypic plasticity. We have tested this prediction with six independent populations of Drosophila melanogaster kept at extreme (low vs. high) densities for 125 generations. We found that...

Data from: Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history

Tim Coulson, Daniel R. MacNulty, Daniel R. Stahler, Bridgett VonHoldt, Robert K. Wayne & Douglas W. Smith
Environmental change has been observed to generate simultaneous responses in population dynamics, life history, gene frequencies, and morphology in a number of species. But how common are such eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change likely to be? Are they inevitable, or do they require a specific type of change? Can we accurately predict eco-evolutionary responses? We address these questions using theory and data from the study of Yellowstone wolves. We show that environmental change is expected...

Data from: Minimal ProtoHox cluster inferred from bilaterian and cnidarian Hox complements

Daniel Chourrout, Frédéric Delsuc, Pascal Chourrout, Rolph B Edvardsen, Fabian Rentzsch, Eduard Renfer, Marit F. Jensen, Baoli Zhu, Pieter De Jong, Robert E. Steele & Ulrich Technau
Bilaterian animals have a Hox gene cluster essential for patterning the main body axis, and a ParaHox gene cluster. Comparison of Hox and ParaHox genes has led workers to postulate that both clusters originated from the duplication of an ancient cluster named ProtoHox, which contained up to four genes with at least the precursors of anterior and posterior Hox/ParaHox genes. However, the way in which genes diversified within the ProtoHox, Hox and ParaHox clusters remains...

Data from: UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication

Seth M. Bybee, Furong Yuan, Monica D. Ramstetter, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Robert D. Reed, Daniel Osorio & Adriana D. Briscoe
Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated UV opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed using reflectance and mass...

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