338 Works

Model code for reconstructing biomass burning emissions from ice core records of acetylene, ethane, and methane

Melinda Nicewonger, Murat Aydin & Eric Saltzman
Biomass burning emissions of trace gases are inferred from ice core levels of acetylene, ethane, methane and its stable isotopes over the last 1,000 years (Nicewonger et al., 2018, 2020). In Nicewonger et al. 2020 JGR-A, we attempt to reconcile the individual biomass burning records from each trace gas into a single fire history of dry matter burned over the last 1,000 years. We find that temporal trends in fire inferred from the three trace...

Permeability of H2 in ice Ih

John Patterson & Eric Saltazman
Reconstructions of paleoatmospheric H2 using polar firn air and ice cores would lead to a better understanding of the H2 biogeochemical cycle and how it is influenced by climate change and human activity. H2 is a small, highly diffusive molecule, and its mobility in the ice matrix must be accounted for when intepreting polar firn air and ice core measurements. Previous work on the mobility of H2 in ice has focused on warm (272-273 K),...

Data from: Selection of floral traits by pollinators and seed predators during sequential life history stages

Diane Campbell, Mascha Bischoff, Robert Raguso, Heather Briggs & Paula Sosenski
Organismal traits often influence fitness via interactions with multiple species. That selection is not necessarily predictable from pairwise interactions, such as when interactions occur during different lifecycle stages. Theoretically, directional selection during two sequential episodes, e.g., pollination and seed survival, can generate quadratic or correlational selection for a set of traits that passes both selective filters. We compared strength of selection during pollination versus seed predation in the field and tested whether interactions with multiple...

Proposed managed aquifer recharge projects in California groundwater sustainability plans

Nicola Ulibarri & Nataly Escobedo Garcia
This dataset contains the text description of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) projects proposed by Groundwater Sustainability Agencies in California to comply with the requirements of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA). The dataset includes projects proposed in the Groundwater Sustainability Plans submitted in 2020 for critically-overdrafted basins.

Data from: Accounting for variation in temperature and oxygen availability when quantifying marine ecosystem metabolism

Matthew Bracken, Luke Miller, Sarah Mastroni, Stephany Lira & Cascade Sorte
Given human modification of Earth’s ecosystems, it is essential to understand how these changes are influencing ecosystem functioning, including net and gross community production and community respiration. These responses are often estimated by measuring oxygen production in the light (net community production) and consumption in the dark (community respiration). These values can then be combined to estimate gross community production. However, the method used to create “dark” conditions – either experimental darkening during the day...

Data from: True UV color vision in a female butterfly with two UV opsins

Adriana D. Briscoe & Susan D. Finkbeiner
In true color vision animals discriminate between light wavelengths, regardless of intensity, using at least two photoreceptors with different spectral sensitivity peaks. Heliconius butterflies have duplicate UV opsin genes, which encode ultraviolet and violet photoreceptors, respectively. In H. erato, only females express the ultraviolet photoreceptor, suggesting females (but not males) can discriminate between UV wavelengths. We tested the ability of H. erato, and two species lacking the violet receptor, H. melpomene and Eueides isabella, to...

Spatiotemporal analysis of wildfires in California from 2000 to 2019

Shu Li & Tirtha Banerjee
The environmental pollution, property losses and casualties caused by wildfires in California are getting worse by the year. To minimize the interference of wildfires on economic and social development, and formulate targeted mitigation strategies, it is imperative to understand the scale and extent of previous wildfire occurrences. In this study, we first investigated the temporal distributions of past wildfires in California divided by size and causes and analyzed the changes observed in the past two...

Data from: Unraveling the ecological and evolutionary impacts of a plant invader on the pollination of a native plant

Wilnelia Recart & Diane Campbell
Interactions between a native plant species and its pollinators, herbivores, or microbiome can be affected by the presence of non-native plant species. Non-native plant species are altering plant-pollinator interactions, yet we know little about how these non-native species influence natural selection. In addition, year-to-year variation in flowering could influence the impacts of non-native species on reproductive success in native plants and the strength and direction of pollinator-mediated selection. We examined whether the presence of the...

Antagonistic effects of temperature and dissolved organic carbon on fish growth in California mountain lakes

Celia C. Symons, Marika A. Schulhof, Hamanda B. Cavalheri & Jonathan B. Shurin
Resources and temperature play major roles in determining biological production in lake ecosystems. Lakes have been warming and ‘browning’ over recent decades due to climate change and increased loading of terrestrial organic matter. Conflicting hypotheses and evidence have been presented about whether these changes will increase or decrease fish growth within lakes. Most studies have been conducted in low-elevation lakes where terrestrially derived carbon tends to dominate over carbon produced within lakes. Understanding how fish...

H2 in firn air from Megadunes, Antarctica

Eric Saltzman
This dataset contains two items: 1) firn air measurements of H2 from Megadunes, Antarctica. 2) atmospheric surface flask air measurements of H2 from NOAA GML, CSIRO, and AGAGE from 1991-2003 adjusted to a common calibration scale. Firn air was sampled at the Megadunes site in central Antarctica (80.78 °S, 124.49 °E, Alt: 2,283 m) Antarctica during January of 2004. A 3” diameter hole was bored to a depth of 70 m using an ice core...

A hierarchy of global ocean models coupled to CESM1

Tien-Yiao Hsu, Francois Primeau & Gudrun Magnusdottir
Data associated with the following publication: Hsu, T. Y., Primeau, F. W., & Magnusdottir, G. (2022). A Hierarchy of Global Ocean Models Coupled to CESM1. Paper Abstract: We develop a hierarchy of simplified ocean models for coupled ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice climate simulations using the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). The hierarchy has four members: a slab ocean model, a mixed-layer model with entrainment and detrainment, an Ekman mixed-layer model, and an...

Impact assessment of coastal marine range shifts to support proactive management

Amy Henry & Cascade Sorte
Climate change is reshuffling Earth’s biota as species ranges shift to track increasing habitat temperatures. While redistribution may be necessary for species persistence, there can also be impacts on existing communities upon arrival of novel, range-shifting species. Anticipating the beneficial versus deleterious impacts of range-shifting species is essential for determining whether active management is needed, which could include employing strategies from facilitation (eg managed relocation) to suppression (eg prevention/control). We employ an impact assessment protocol...

Climate-driven limits to future carbon storage in California's wildland ecosystems

Shane Coffield, Kyle Hemes, Charles Koven, Michael Goulden & James Randerson
Enhanced ecosystem carbon storage is a key component of many climate mitigation pathways. The State of California has set an ambitious goal of carbon neutrality by 2045, relying in part on enhanced carbon sequestration in natural and working lands. We used statistical modeling, including random forests and climate analogues, to explore the climate-driven challenges and uncertainties associated with the goal of long-term carbon sequestration in forests and shrublands. We found that seasonal patterns of temperature...

Data from: A computational model of flow between the microscale respiratory structures of fish gills

James A. Strother
The gills of most teleost fishes are covered by plate-like structures, the secondary lamellae, that provide the bulk of the respiratory surface area. Water passing over the secondary lamellae exchanges gases with blood passing through the secondary lamellae, forming a system that has served as a classic model of counter-current exchange. In this study, a computational model of flow around the secondary lamellae is used to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of changes to the lamellar...

Data from: Unravelling the immune signature of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-reducing immunity

Will J. R. Stone, Joseph J. Campo, André Lin Ouédraogo, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Isabelle Morlais, Dari Da, Anna Cohuet, Sandrine Nsango, Colin J. Sutherland, Marga Van De Vegte-Bolmer, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Geert-Jan Van Gemert, Wouter Graumans, Kjerstin Lanke, Adam D. Shandling, Jozelyn V. Pablo, Andy A. Teng, Sophie Jones, Roos M. De Jong, Amanda Fabra-García, John Bradley, Will Roeffen, Edwin Lasonder, Giuliana Gremo, Evelin Schwarzer … & Matthijs M. Jore
Infection with Plasmodium can elicit antibodies that inhibit parasite survival in the mosquito, when they are ingested in an infectious blood meal. Here, we determine the transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of naturally acquired antibodies from 648 malaria-exposed individuals using lab-based mosquito-feeding assays. Transmission inhibition is significantly associated with antibody responses to Pfs48/45, Pfs230, and to 43 novel gametocyte proteins assessed by protein microarray. In field-based mosquito-feeding assays the likelihood and rate of mosquito infection are significantly...

Data from: The role of inbreeding depression and mating system in the evolution of heterostyly

Jennifer J. Weber, Stephen G. Weller, Ann K. Sakai, Olga V. Tsyusko, Travis C. Glenn, Cesar A. Dominguez, Francisco E. Molina-Freaner, Juan Fornoni, Mike Tran, Nhu Nguyen, Karen Nguyen, Lien-Khuong Tran, Greg Joice & Ellen Harding
We investigated the role of morph-based differences in the expression of inbreeding depression in loss of the mid-styled morph from populations of tristylous Oxalis alpina as proposed by theoretical analyses. The extent of self-compatibility of reproductive morphs, the degree of self-fertilization, and the magnitude of inbreeding depression were investigated in three populations of O. alpina differing in their tristylous incompatibility relationships. All three populations exhibited significant inbreeding depression. In two populations with highly modified tristylous...

Data from: The scale-of-choice effect and how estimates of assortative mating in the wild can be biased due to heterogeneous samples

Emilio Rolan-Alvarez, Antonio Carvajal-Rodriguez, Alicia De Coo, Beatriz Cortés, Daniel Estévez-Barcia, Mar Ferreira, Rubén González & Adriana D. Briscoe
The mode in which sexual organisms choose mates is a key evolutionary process, as it can have a profound impact on fitness and speciation. One way to study mate choice in the wild is by measuring trait correlation between mates. Positive assortative mating is inferred when individuals of a mating pair display traits that are more similar than those expected under random mating while negative assortative mating is the opposite. A recent review of 1134...

Data from: Phenotypic constraints and community structure: linking trade-offs within and among species

Amy L. Angert, Sarah Kimball, Megan Peterson, Travis E. Huxman & D. Lawrence Venable
Trade-offs are central to many topics in biology, from the evolution of life histories to ecological mechanisms of species coexistence. Trade-offs observed among species may reflect pervasive constraints on phenotypes that are achievable given biophysical and resource limitations. If so, then among-species trade-offs should be consistent with trade-offs within species. Alternatively, trait variation among co-occurring species may reflect historical contingencies during community assembly rather than within-species constraints. Here, we test whether a key trade-off between...

Data from: Elevational cline in herbivore abundance driven by a monotonic increase in trophic level sensitivity to aridity

Annika S. Nelson, Cole T. Symanski, Matthew J. Hecking & Kailen A. Mooney
1. The abiotic environment drives species abundances and distributions both directly and indirectly through effects on multi-trophic species interactions. However, few studies have documented the individual and combined consequences of these direct and indirect effects. 2. We studied an ant-tended aphid along an elevational gradient, where lower elevations were more arid. Hypotheses of stronger species interactions at lower elevations and a greater sensitivity of higher trophic levels to climate led us to predict increased top-down...

Research Life Cycle: Exploring Credibility of Metrics and Value in a New Era of eScholarship that Supports Grey Literature

Julia Gelfand & Anthony Lin
The fundamental components of the research process are defined by academic tradition, discipline and its participants. Traditional scholarship has now evolved into eScholarship with emerging technologies providing new methods of innovation and new ways of handling classical research processes. This revised research life cycle not only incorporates the established parts of the research chain, from discovery, gathering, and creating, but now has added phases of citing, sharing, preserving and archiving. There are quantifiable elements that...

Data: Is it Grey, Maligned or Malignant?

Julia Gelfand & Daniel Tsang
Cancers, growths, past events, social issues, conditions, and trends are each proverbially described as on a spectrum from maligned to malignant and scientists, physicians, journalists, commentators, politicians and other specialists offer opinions and commentary on what frames the answer to this question of the title. This paper explores not just the color and tone of data, but attempts to resolve what characterizes whether data is maligned or malignant. Hues of greyness distinguish the perils of...

When Classifying Arguments, BERT Doesn't Care About Word Order... Except When It Matters

Isabel Papadimitriou, Richard Futrell & Kyle Mahowald

Learning Constrainst on Wh-Dependencies by Learning How to Efficiently Represent Wh-Dependencies: A Developmental Modeling Investigation With Fragment Grammars

Niels Dickson, Lisa Pearl & Richard Futrell

Understanding muscle function during perturbed in vivo locomotion using a muscle avatar approach

Kiisa Nishikawa, Monica DAley, Nicole Rice & Caitlin Bemis
To investigate in vivo mechanics of the guinea fowl lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle during obstacle negotiation while running on a treadmill, we used mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles in ex vivo experiments with in vivo strain inputs from perturbed and steady strides obtained in a previous study. In vivo strain trajectories from a stride down from obstacle to treadmill, two strides up from treadmill to obstacle, and a level stride with no obstacle, as...

Data from: The rise of biting during the cenozoic fueled reef fish body shape diversification

Katherine Corn, Sarah Friedman, Edward Burress, Christopher Martinez, Olivier Larouche, Samantha Price & Peter Wainwright
Diversity of feeding mechanisms is a hallmark of reef fishes, but the history of this variation is not fully understood. Here, we explore the emergence and proliferation of a biting mode of feeding, which enables fishes to feed on attached benthic prey. We find that feeding modes other than suction, including biting, ram biting, and an intermediate group that uses both biting and suction, were nearly absent among the lineages of teleost fishes inhabiting reefs...

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