1,010 Works

Data from: Bay-scale patterns in the distribution, aggregation and spatial variability of larvae of benthic invertebrates

Remi M. Daigle, Anna Metaxas, Brad DeYoung & RM Daigle
This study aimed to investigate mechanisms of pattern formation in the larval distributions of benthic invertebrates by relating the spatial and temporal variability in the larval distributions to that in physical and biological variables, such as temperature, salinity, fluorescence and current velocity. Larvae were sampled at 11 sites on 7-8, and 11-12 Aug 2008 and at 16 sites on Aug 2-4, 2009, with a 200-μm plankton ring net (0.75-m diameter) towed for 5 min at...

Data from: The diet of Myotis lucifugus across Canada: assessing foraging quality and diet variability

Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Hugh Broders, François Fabianek, Erin E. Frazer, Alistair MacKenzie, Andrew Boughen, Rachel Hamilton, Craig K. R. Willis, Felix Martinez-Nuñez, Allyson K. Menzies, Kaleigh J. O. Norquay, Mark Brigham, Joseph Poissant, Jody Rintoul, Robert M. R. Barclay, Jesika P. Reimer & Erin E. Fraser
Variation in prey resources influences the diet and behaviour of predators. When prey become limiting, predators may travel farther to find preferred food or adjust to existing local resources. When predators are habitat limited, local resource abundance impacts foraging success. We analysed the diet of Myotis lucifugus (little brown bats) from Nova Scotia (eastern Canada) to the Northwest Territories (north-western Canada). This distribution includes extremes of season length and temperature and encompasses colonies on rural...

Data from: Physical and biological factors affect the vertical distribution of larvae of benthic gastropods in a shallow embayment

Michelle J. Lloyd, Anna Metaxas, Brad DeYoung & MJ Lloyd
Marine gastropods form a diverse taxonomic group, yet little is known about the factors that affect their larval distribution and abundance. We investigated the larval vertical distribution and abundance of 9 meroplanktonic gastropod taxa (Margarites spp., Crepidula spp., Astyris lunata, Diaphana minuta, Littorinimorpha, Arrhoges occidentalis, Ilyanassa spp., Bittiolum alternatum and Nudibranchia), with similar morphology and swimming abilities, but different adult habitats and life-history strategies. We explored the role of physical (temperature, salinity, density, current velocities)...

Data from: Lifespan and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction

Emeline Mourocq, Pierre Bize, Sandra Bouwhuis, Russell Bradley, Anne Charmantier, Carlos De La Cruz, Szymon Marian Obniak, Richard H. M. Espie, Márton Herenyi, Hermann Hötker, Oliver Kruger, John Marzluff, Anders P. Møller, Shinichi Nakagawa, Richard A. Phillips, Andrew N. Radford, Alexandre Roulin, János Török, Juliana Valencia, Martijn Van De Pol, Ian G. Warkentin, Isabel S. Winney, Andrew G. Wood, Michael Griesser & Szymon M. Drobniak
Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life-history as well as social and...

The BenBioDen database, a global database for meio-, macro- and megabenthic biomass and densities

Tanja Stratmann, Dick Van Oevelen, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, Chih-Lin Wei, Jian-Xiang Liao, Mathieu Cusson, Ricardo A. Scrosati, Philippe Archambault, Paul V. R. Snelgrove, Patricia A. Ramey-Balci, Brenda J. Burd, Ellen Kenchington, Kent Gilkinson, Rénald Belley & Karline Soetaert
Benthic fauna refers to all fauna that live in or on the seafloor, which researchers typically divide into size classes meiobenthos (32/ 64 µm – 0.5/ 1 mm), macrobenthos (250 µm – 1 cm), and megabenthos (> 1 cm). Benthic fauna play important roles in bioturbation activity, mineralization of organic matter, and in marine food webs. Evaluating their role in these ecosystem functions requires knowledge of their global distribution and biomass. We therefore established the...

Scientific shortcomings in environmental impact statements internationally

Gerald Singh, Jackie Lerner, Megan Mach, Cathryn Clarke Murray, Bernardo Ranieri, Guillaume Peterson St-Laurent, Janson Wong, Alice Guimaraes, Gustavo Yunda-Guarin, Terre Satterfield & Kai Chan
1. Governments around the world rely on environmental impact assessment to understand the environmental risks of proposed developments. 2. To examine the basis for these appraisals, we examine the output of environmental impact assessment processes in jurisdictions within seven countries, focusing on scope (spatial and temporal), mitigation actions, and whether impacts were identified as ‘significant’. 3. We find that the number of impacts characterized as significant is generally low. While this finding may indicate that...

Territory acquisition mediates the influence of predators and climate on juvenile red squirrel survival

Jack G Hendrix, David Fisher, April Martinig, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane & Andrew McAdam
1) Juvenile survival to first breeding is a key life history stage for all taxa. Survival through this period can be particularly challenging when it can coincide with harsh environmental conditions such as a winter climate or food scarcity, leading to highly variable cohort survival. However, the small size and dispersive nature of juveniles generally makes studying their survival more difficult. 2) In territorial species, a key life history event is the acquisition of a...

Data from: Metabolic scaling of individuals vs. populations: evidence for variation in scaling exponents at different hierarchical levels

Tommy Norin & A. Kurt Gamperl
1. The power scaling of metabolic rate with body mass is fundamental to animal biology, due to the profound influence that animal size has on ecology and physiolatically with cell size or metabolic intensity between the boundaries of 0.67 and 1. Despite this tremendous interest in the value of scaling exponents, little is known about metabolic scaling within individual animals and how this relates to population-level scaling. 2. Here, we conducted a long-term study that...

Data from: Anatomy of the Ediacaran rangeomorph Charnia masoni

Frances S. Dunn, Philip R. Wilby, Charlotte G. Kenchington, Dmitry V. Grazhdankin, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Alexander G. Liu & Dmitriy V. Grazhdankin
The Ediacaran macrofossil Charnia masoni Ford is perhaps the most iconic member of the Rangeomorpha: a group of seemingly sessile, frondose organisms that dominates late Ediacaran benthic, deep‐marine fossil assemblages. Despite C. masoni exhibiting broad palaeogeographical and stratigraphical ranges, there have been few morphological studies that consider the variation observed among populations of specimens derived from multiple global localities. We present an analysis of C. masoni that evaluates specimens from the UK, Canada and Russia,...

Data from: Chromosome polymorphisms track trans‐Atlantic divergence and secondary contact in Atlantic salmon

Sarah J. Lehnert, Paul Bentzen, Tony Kess, Sigbjorn Lien, John B. Horne, Marie Clément & Ian R. Bradbury
Pleistocene glaciations drove repeated range contractions and expansions shaping contemporary intraspecific diversity. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the western and eastern Atlantic diverged >600,000 YBP, with the two lineages isolated in different southern refugia during glacial maxima, driving trans-Atlantic genomic and karyotypic divergence. Here, we investigate genomic consequences of glacial isolation and trans-Atlantic secondary contact using 108,870 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 80 North American and European populations. Throughout North America, we identified extensive...

Data from: Space use and social association in a gregarious ungulate: testing the conspecific attraction and resource dispersion hypotheses

Mélissa Peignier, Quinn M. R. Webber, Erin L. Koen, Michel P. Laforge, Alec L. Robitaille & Eric Vander Wal
Animals use a variety of proximate cues to assess habitat quality when resources vary spatiotemporally. Two nonmutually exclusive strategies to assess habitat quality involve either direct assessment of landscape features or observation of social cues from conspecifics as a form of information transfer about forage resources. The conspecific attraction hypothesis proposes that individual space use is dependent on the distribution of conspecifics rather than the location of resource patches, whereas the resource dispersion hypothesis proposes...

Data from: Active buoyancy adjustment increases dispersal potential in benthic marine animals

Jean-Francois Hamel, Jiamin Sun, Bruno L. Gianasi, Emaline M. Montgomery, Ellen L. Kenchington, Benoit Burel, Sherrylynn Rowe, Paul D. Winger & Annie Mercier
1. While the study of dispersal and connectivity in the ocean typically centers on pelagic species and planktonic larval stages of benthic species, the present work explores an overlooked locomotor means in post-settlement benthic stages that redefines their dispersal potential. 2. Members of the echinoderm class Holothuroidea colonize a diversity of marine environments worldwide, where they play key ecological and economical roles, making their conservation a priority. Holothuroids are commonly called sea cucumbers or sea...

Data from: Dynamically prognosticating patients with hepatocellular carcinoma through survival paths mapping based on time-series data

Lujun Shen, Qi Zeng, Pi Guo, Jingjun Huang, Chaofeng Li, Tao Pan, Boyang Chang, Nan Wu, Lewei Yang, Qifeng Chen, Tao Huang, Wang Li & Peihong Wu
Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) always require routine surveillance and repeated treatment, which leads to accumulation of huge amount of clinical data. A predictive model utilizes the time-series data to facilitate dynamic prognosis prediction and treatment planning is warranted. Here we introduced an analytical approach, which converts the time-series data into a cascading survival map, in which each survival path bifurcates at fixed time interval depending on selected prognostic features by the Cox-based feature selection....

Drawing the line: advance requests for medical assistance in dying: broad considerations with a special focus on dementia

Julia
This thesis considers the issue of whether to expand Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) legislation to include advance requests (ARs) broadly, with particular consideration for the dementia condition. The goal is to provide a deeper understanding of the value tensions involved in a decision of if and how ARs for MAiD should be extended to the Canadian population. To date, much of the discussion of the ethics of advance requests for MAiD focuses on those...

Developing a fundamental understanding of how oil impacts diagenesis and the effect in transport properties by investigating rock samples from close to the oil-water contact, Ben Nevis formation, Hebron field

There is ongoing debate as to whether or not oil emplacement in a reservoir rock impedes or stops diagenetic process. The Ben Nevis reservoir in the Hebron Field, offshore Newfoundland has a short transition zone and a clearly identified oil-water contact (OWC). Rock samples from above and below the OWC were used to analyse the role of oil emplacement in the diagenetic processes, with the main focus on quartz overgrowth and its impact on transport...

Attribute lattice: a graph-based conceptual modeling grammar for heterogeneous data

One key characteristic of big data is variety. With massive and growing amounts of data existing in independent and heterogeneous (structured and unstructured) sources, assigning consistent and interoperable data semantics, which is essential for meaningful use of data, is an increasingly important challenge. I argue, conceptual models, in contrast to their traditional roles in the Information System development, can be used to represent data semantics as perceived by the user of data. In this thesis,...

An integrated approach to studying the relationship between anadromy and iteroparity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species capable of spawning more than once during its lifecycle, being iteroparous. Increasing conservation concern has led to increased attention being paid to the potential short-term mitigating effects that iteroparous individuals may serve to populations suffering from low juvenile to adult recruitment. Despite the current research focus on repeat spawning Atlantic salmon, little is still known about how the iteroparous life cycle affects intrapopulation variation in marine movements and potential...

Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Withycombe Farm Borehole, Oxfordshire, England

The pre-trilobitic lower Cambrian of the Withycombe Formation is a 194 m thick siliciclastic succession dominated by interbedded offshore red to purple and green pyritic mudstone with minor sandstone. The mudstone contains a hyolith-dominated small shelly fauna including: orthothecid hyoliths, hyolithid hyoliths, the rostroconch Watsonella crosbyi, early brachiopods, the foraminiferan Platysolenites antiquissimus, the coiled gastropod-like Aldanella attleborensis, halkieriids, gastropods and a low diversity ichnofauna including evidence of predation by a vagile infaunal predator. The assemblage...

Biological traits of seabirds predict extinction risk and vulnerability to anthropogenic threats

Cerren Richards, Robert Cooke & Amanda Bates
Aim Seabirds are heavily threatened by anthropogenic activities and their conservation status is deteriorating rapidly. Yet, these pressures are unlikely to uniformly impact all species. It remains an open question if seabirds with similar ecological roles are responding similarly to human pressures. Here we aim to: 1) test whether threatened vs non-threatened seabirds are separated in trait space; 2) quantify the similarity of species’ roles (redundancy) per IUCN Red List Category; and 3) identify traits...

Narrating Waegook identity: building transitory foreign-teacher community through folklore in the Republic of Korea

With increasing global mobility, itinerant expatriate groups – whether of teachers, retirees, students, or backpackers – constitute transitory folk groups easily overlooked by folklore studies. This thesis is an ethnographic study of a transient folk group of foreign teachers in Suncheon, Republic of Korea, and of how narratives about their experiences inform their sense of identity within that community. My observations of such groups in the Republic of Korea include working as a foreign English...

The effects of chronic hypoxia and nitric oxide on myocardial contractility in steelhead trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss)

Environmental hypoxia has been intensifying and spreading in recent years due to climate change, and there is accumulating evidence that the cardiac function of hypoxia-intolerant fish is negatively affected by long-term exposure to low oxygen conditions. However, the cause of this reduced heart performance has not been conclusively identified, and it is unknown whether nitric oxide (NO)-mediated effects are involved. This thesis examined how chronic hypoxia (> 8 weeks at ~8 kPa O₂) influenced the...

Iceberg drift ensemble forecasting

The goal of this thesis is to investigate whether ensemble modeling in iceberg drift forecasting improves predictions of an iceberg's trajectory. To do this, we have used a dynamic iceberg drift model and created an ensemble of realizations by applying stochastic perturbations to ocean current and wind reanalysis data, drawing from distributions of the ocean current and wind measured with ship-based instruments. In this study, we focus on simulating trajectories for two icebergs observed during...

A slator or two: exploring the 17th-century slate industry at Ferryland

While the use of slate as a building material was not unheard of in the New World, the early 17th-century English colony at Ferryland, Newfoundland was unique among contemporaneous North American settlements in its large-scale use of local slate. First governed by a Welshman, the colony’s historical documents and previously undertaken archaeological investigations point to the presence of a substantial slate industry, complete with at least one quarry and a number of skilled tradesmen. Slate...

Effect of ship motions on propeller-hull interaction

It is important to consider the detailed hydrodynamics of the propeller, the associated flow conditions and the hull interaction with effective wake distribution for developing the best ship propulsion system design. Model experiments are conventionally used to assess propeller flow and performance but are subject to scale effect and difficulties in flow measurement. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), using a viscous flow solver, provides an alternate way to simulate propeller flow conditions. Although simplified propeller flow...

Optical properties and acoustic phonon dynamics of Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂O₈₊δ crystals

In this work, the optical properties and acoustic phonon behaviour of several Bi₂Sr₂CaCu₂O₈₊δ0 (Bi-2212) superconducting crystals were investigated. Reflectance imaging on Bi-2212 crystals was first performed and along with Kramers-Kronig analysis, allowed for the extraction of the refractive index, extinction coefficient and both parts of the complex dielectric function. With these measured reflectances, a newly refined optical contrast method was presented and used in an attempt to obtain a secondary estimate of the refractive index...

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