83 Works

Lesser Yellowlegs location data describing the occurrence of birds within harvest zones in the Caribbean and South America

Laura A. McDuffie, Katherine S. Christie, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Audrey R. Taylor, Brad A. Andres, Benoit Laliberte & James A. Johnson
Shorebirds have experienced a precipitous reduction in abundance over the past four decades. While some threats to shorebirds are widespread (e.g. habitat alteration), others are regional and may affect specific populations. Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) are long-distance migrants that breed across the North American boreal biome and have declined in abundance by 60-80% since the 1970s. The documented harvest of Lesser Yellowlegs in the Caribbean and northeastern South America during southward migration is a possible...

“Chancing on a spectacle:” co-occurring animal migrations and interspecific interactions

Emily Cohen & Dara Satterfield
Migrations of diverse wildlife species often converge in space and time, with their journeys shaped by similar forces (i.e., geographic barriers and seasonal resources and conditions); we term this “co-migration.” Supporting this, recent studies have elucidated co-migrations and seasonal patterns that govern the location and timing of multiple species’ journeys. Beyond their significance as natural wonders, species with overlapping migrations may interact ecologically, with potential effects on population and community dynamics. Direct and indirect ecological...

Common field data limitations can substantially bias sexual selection metrics

Emily Cramer, Sara Ann Kaiser, Mike S Webster & T Brandt Ryder
Sexual selection studies widely estimate several metrics, but values may be inaccurate because standard field methods for studying wild populations produce limited data (e.g., incomplete sampling, inability to observe copulations directly). We compared four selection metrics (Bateman gradient, opportunity for sexual selection, opportunity for selection, and s’max) estimated with simulated complete and simulated limited data for 15 socially monogamous songbird species with extra-pair paternity (4-54% extra-pair offspring). Inferring copulation success from offspring parentage creates non-independence...

Data from: Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird population

Helen R. Sofaer, T Sillett, Kathryn M. Langin, Scott A. Morrison, Cameron K. Ghalambor & T. Scott Sillett
Ecological factors often shape demography through multiple mechanisms, making it difficult to identify the sources of demographic variation. In particular, conspecific density can influence both the strength of competition and the predation rate, but density-dependent competition has received more attention, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates and in island populations. A better understanding of how both competition and predation contribute to density-dependent variation in fecundity can be gained by partitioning the effects of density on offspring number...

Data from: Offspring growth and mobility in response to variation in parental care: a comparison between populations

Helen R. Sofaer, T. Scott Sillett, Jongmin Yoon, Michael L. Power, Scott A. Morrison & Cameron K. Ghalambor
Life history theory emphasizes the importance of trade-offs in how time and energy are allocated to the competing demands of growth, fecundity, and survival. However, avian studies have historically emphasized the importance of resource acquisition over resource allocation to explain geographic variation in fecundity, parental care, and offspring development. We compared the brood sizes and nestling mass and feather growth trajectories between orange-crowned warblers (Oreothlypis celata) breeding in Alaska versus California, and used 24-hour video...

Data from: Tracking dragons: stable isotopes reveal the annual cycle of a long-distance migratory insect

Michael T. Hallworth, Peter P. Marra, Kent P. McFarland, Sara Zahendra & Colin E. Studds
Insect migration is globally ubiquitous and can involve continental-scale movements and complex life-histories. Apart from select species of migratory moths and butterflies, little is known about the structure of the annual cycle for migratory insects. Using stable-hydrogen isotope analysis of 852 wing samples from eight countries spanning 140 years, combined with 21 years of citizen science data, we determined the full annual cycle of a large migratory dragonfly, the common green darner (Anax junius). We...

Data from: Arboreal camera trapping: taking a proven method to new heights

Tremaine Gregory, Farah Carrasco Rueda, Jessica Deichmann, Joseph Kolowski & Alfonso Alonso
1. Although camera trapping has been shown to be a highly effective non-invasive tool for wildlife monitoring, the technique has not yet been widely applied to studies of arboreal species. Despite the unique challenges that camera trapping in the canopy poses, its versatility and relatively non-invasive nature, combined with recent technological improvements on the cameras themselves, make camera trapping a highly useful tool for arboreal research. 2. We present data on the methodology and effectiveness...

Data from: Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

Sara A. Kaiser, Thomas E. Martin, Juan C. Oteyza, Connor Armstad & Robert C. Fleischer
Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of non-relatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that non-breeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the...

Data from: Evidence of reduced individual heterogeneity in adult survival of long-lived species

Guillaume Peron, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Christophe Barbraud, Christophe Bonenfant, Anne Charmantier, Rémi Choquet, Tim Coulson, Vladimir Grosbois, Anne Loison, GIlbert Marzolin, Norman Owen-Smtih, Déborah Pardo, Floriane Plard, Roger Pradel, Carole Toïgo, Olivier Gimenez & Norman Owen-Smith
The canalization hypothesis postulates that the rate at which trait variation generates variation in the average individual fitness in a population determines how buffered traits are against environmental and genetic factors. The ranking of a species on the slow-fast continuum – the covariation among life-history traits describing species-specific life cycles along a gradient going from a long life, slow maturity, and low annual reproductive output, to a short life, fast maturity, and high annual reproductive...

Data from: Body size shifts influence effects of increasing temperatures on ectotherm metabolism

Kristina Riemer, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Felisa A. Smith, David J. Harris, S.K. Morgan Ernest & S. K. Morgan Ernest
Aim: Warmer temperatures directly increase metabolic rates of ectotherms, but temperature also indirectly affects metabolic rates. Higher temperatures result in smaller body sizes and associated decreases in metabolic rates, and it remains unknown whether this indirect effect of temperature increase could mitigate the direct positive effect of temperature on metabolic rate. Here, we assess whether temperature‐induced shifts in body size are likely to offset the direct influence of temperature on metabolic rate. Location: Global. Time...

Data from: The large-scale drivers of population declines in a long-distance migratory shorebird

Nicholas J. Murray, Peter P. Marra, Richard A. Fuller, Robert S. Clemens, Kiran Dhanjal-Adams, Ken B. Gosbell, Chris J. Hassell, Takuya Iwamura, David Melville, Clive D. T. Minton, Adrian C. Riegen, Danny I. Rogers, Eric J. Woehler & Colin E. Studds
Migratory species can travel tens of thousands of kilometers each year, spending different parts of their annual cycle in geographically distinct locations. Understanding the drivers of population change is vital for conserving migratory species, yet the challenge of collecting data over entire geographic ranges has hindered attempts to identify the processes leading to observed population changes. Here, we use remotely sensed environmental data and count data to investigate the factors driving variability in abundance in...

Data from: Serum amyloid A protein concentration in blood is influenced by genetic differences in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

Ashley D. Franklin, Anne Schmidt-Küntzel, Karen A. Terio, Laurie L. Marker & Adrienne E. Crosier
Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel...

Chromosomal-level genome assembly of the scimitar‐horned oryx: insights into diversity and demography of a species extinct in the wild

Emily Humble, Pavel Dobrynin, Helen Senn, Justin Chuven, Alan F. Scott, David W. Mohr, Olga Dudchenko, Arina D. Omer, Zane Colaric, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Shaikha Salem Al Dhaheri, David Wildt, Shireen Oliaji, Gaik Tamazian, Budhan Pukazhenthi, Rob Ogden & Klaus‐Peter Koepfli
Captive populations provide a valuable insurance against extinctions in the wild. However, they are also vulnerable to the negative impacts of inbreeding, selection and drift. Genetic information is therefore considered a critical aspect of conservation management. Recent developments in sequencing technologies have the potential to improve the outcomes of management programmes; however, the transfer of these approaches to applied conservation has been slow. The scimitar‐horned oryx (Oryx dammah) is a North African antelope that has...

Data from: Microfluidic PCR-based target enrichment: a case study in two rapid radiations of Commiphora (Burseraceae) from Madagascar

Morgan R. Gostel, Kiera A. Coy & Andrea Weeks
Developing effective and cost-efficient multilocus nuclear datasets for angiosperm species is a continuing challenge to the systematics community. Here we describe the development and validation of a novel set of 91 nuclear markers for PCR-based target enrichment. Using microfluidic PCR and Illumina MiSeq, we generated nuclear, subgenomic libraries for 96 species simultaneously and sequenced them for a total cost of ca. $6000 USD. Approximately half of these costs include reusable reagents (primers, barcodes, and custom...

Data from: Extra-pair offspring are less heterozygous than within-pair offspring in American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla)

Adrianne Hajdasz, Ann E. McKellar, Laurene M. Ratcliffe, Peter T. Boag, Peter P. Marra & Matthew W. Reudink
The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous; however, extra-pair paternity is nearly ubiquitous and a number of theories have been proposed to explain the prevalence of this mixed mating strategy. Here, we test the genetic compatibility hypothesis—the idea that females that are genetically similar to their social partners will mate with extra-pair males that are genetically dissimilar to produce offspring that are more heterozygous. For this study, we examined eight years of paternity...

Seasonality affects specialisation of a temperate forest herbivore community

Carlo Lutz Seifert, Vojtěch Novotny, Leonardo R. Jorge, Martin Volf, David L. Wagner, Scott E. Miller, Erika Gonzalez‐Akre & Kristina J. Anderson‐Teixeira
Understanding spatiotemporal trends on insect-plant interaction networks is essential to unveil the ecological and evolutionary processes driving herbivore specialisation. However, community studies accounting for temporal dynamics in host-plant specialisation of herbivorous insects are surprisingly scarce. Here, we provide the background data which were used to investigate how seasonality affects specialisation of a temperate forest herbivore community. This dataset results from a comprehensive sampling of more than 4,700 folivorous caterpillars associated with 16 deciduous tree species...

Data from: Context-dependent seed dispersal by a scatter-hoarding corvid

Mario B. Pesendorfer, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison & Alan C. Kamil
1. Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. 2. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays...

Data from: Cryptic diversity in black rats Rattus rattus of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

Sandi Willows-Munro, Robert C. Dowler, Michael R. Jarcho, Reese B. Phillips, Howard L. Snell, Tammy R. Wilbert & Cody W. Edwards
Human activity has facilitated the introduction of a number of alien mammal species to the Galápagos Archipelago. Understanding the phylogeographic history and population genetics of invasive species on the Archipelago is an important step in predicting future spread and designing effective management strategies. In this study, we describe the invasion pathway of Rattus rattus across the Galápagos using microsatellite data, coupled with historical knowledge. Microsatellite genotypes were generated for 581 R. rattus sampled from 15...

Data from: Winter food limits timing of pre-alternate molt in a short-distance migratory bird

Raymond M. Danner, Russell S. Greenberg, Julie E. Danner & Jeffrey R. Walters
1. Molt is critical for fitness for many organisms for several reasons: it allows growth and maintains the function of the integument for protection, thermoregulation and communication. 2. Feather molt in birds is costly and therefore typically does not overlap with migration or reproduction. In spring, the rapid succession of pre-alternate molt, migration (if a migrant), and breeding suggests that timing of molt could constrain the initiation of breeding. A tradeoff between time spent molting...

Data from: Variation in nest characteristics and brooding patterns of female Black-throated Blue Warblers is associated with thermal cues

Maria G. Smith, Sara A. Kaiser, T. Scott Sillett & Michael S. Webster
Thermal variation poses a problem for nesting birds and can result in reduced offspring growth rates and survival. To increase the thermal stability of the nest, females can adjust nest characteristics and nest attendance in response to changes in environmental conditions. However, it is unclear how and to what extent females modify parental behaviors during various stages of offspring development. We tested the hypothesis that females adjust nest characteristics and brooding patterns in response to...

Data from: Habitat features and long-distance dispersal modify the use of social information by a long-distance migratory bird

Clark S. Rushing, Michele R. Dudash & Peter P. Marra
1. The processes by which individuals select breeding sites have important consequences for individual tness as well as population- and community-dynamics. Although there is increasing evidence that many animal species use information acquired from conspecics to assess the suitability of potential breeding sites, little is known about how the use of this social information is modified by biotic and abiotic conditions. 2. We used an automated playback experiment to simulate two types of social information,...

A genome-wide investigation of adaptations related to tool use behaviour in New Caledonian and Hawaiian crows

Nicolas Dussex, Verena E. Kutschera, R. Axel W. Wiberg, Darren Parker, Gavin Hunt, Russell D. Gray, Kim Rutherford, Abe Hideaki, Robert Fleischer, Christian Rutz, Michael G. Ritchie, Jochen B.W. Wolf & Neil J. Gemmell
GFF3 file with protein-coding gne predictions for the C. moneduloides de novo genome assembly (available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); assembly accession number: VRTO00000000), generated using the MAKER2 pipeline.

Data from: Variance in within-pair reproductive success influences the opportunity for selection annually and over the lifetimes of males in a multi-brooded songbird

Ryan Germain, Michael Hallworth, Sara Kaiser, Scott Sillett & Michael Webster
In socially monogamous species, male reproductive success consists of ‘within-pair’ offspring produced with their socially-paired mate(s), and ‘extra-pair’ offspring produced with additional females throughout the population. Both reproductive pathways offer distinct opportunities for selection in wild populations, as each is composed of separate components of mate attraction, female fecundity, and paternity allocation. Identifying key sources of variance and covariance among these components is a crucial step towards understanding the reproductive strategies that males use to...

Data from: Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

W. Chris Funk, Robert E. Lovich, Paul A. Hohenlohe, Courtney A. Hofman, Scott A. Morrison, T. Scott Sillett, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesús E. Maldonado, Torben C. Rick, Mitch D. Day, Nicholas R. Polato, Sarah W. Fizpatrick, Timothy J. Coonan, Kevin R. Crooks, Adam Dillon, David K. Garcelon, Julie L. King, Christina L. Boser, Nicholas Gould, William F. Andelt & Sarah W. Fitzpatrick
The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each...

Data from: Hypothesis-driven and field-validated method to prioritize fragmentation mitigation efforts in road projects

Hadrien Vanthomme, Joseph Kolowski, Brave S. Nzamba & Alfonso Alonso
The active field of connectivity conservation has provided numerous methods to identify wildlife corridors with the aim of reducing the ecological effect of fragmentation. Nevertheless, these methods often rely on untested hypotheses of animal movements, usually fail to generate fine-scale predictions of road crossing sites, and do not allow managers to prioritize crossing sites for implementing road fragmentation mitigation measures. We propose a new method that addresses these limitations. We illustrate this method with data...

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  • Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
  • University of Maryland, College Park
  • North Carolina State University
  • United States Geological Survey
  • North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
  • University of Montana
  • George Mason University
  • Colorado State University