11 Works

Assessing changes in genomic divergence following a century of human mediated secondary contact among wild and captive-bred ducks

Philip Lavretsky, Nancy Rotzel McInerney, Jonathon Mohl, Joshua Brown, Helen James, Kevin McCracken & Robert Fleischer
Along with manipulating habitat, the direct release of domesticated individuals into the wild is a practice used world-wide to augment wildlife populations. We test between possible outcomes of human-mediated secondary contact using genomic techniques at both historical and contemporary time scales for two iconic duck species. First, we sequence several thousand ddRAD-seq loci for contemporary mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) throughout North America, and two domestic mallard-types (i.e., known game-farm mallards and feral Khaki Campbell’s). We show...

Chromosomal-level genome assembly of the scimitar‐horned oryx: insights into diversity and demography of a species extinct in the wild

Emily Humble, Pavel Dobrynin, Helen Senn, Justin Chuven, Alan F. Scott, David W. Mohr, Olga Dudchenko, Arina D. Omer, Zane Colaric, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Shaikha Salem Al Dhaheri, David Wildt, Shireen Oliaji, Gaik Tamazian, Budhan Pukazhenthi, Rob Ogden & Klaus‐Peter Koepfli
Captive populations provide a valuable insurance against extinctions in the wild. However, they are also vulnerable to the negative impacts of inbreeding, selection and drift. Genetic information is therefore considered a critical aspect of conservation management. Recent developments in sequencing technologies have the potential to improve the outcomes of management programmes; however, the transfer of these approaches to applied conservation has been slow. The scimitar‐horned oryx (Oryx dammah) is a North African antelope that has...

Common field data limitations can substantially bias sexual selection metrics

Emily Cramer, Sara Ann Kaiser, Mike S Webster & T Brandt Ryder
Sexual selection studies widely estimate several metrics, but values may be inaccurate because standard field methods for studying wild populations produce limited data (e.g., incomplete sampling, inability to observe copulations directly). We compared four selection metrics (Bateman gradient, opportunity for sexual selection, opportunity for selection, and s’max) estimated with simulated complete and simulated limited data for 15 socially monogamous songbird species with extra-pair paternity (4-54% extra-pair offspring). Inferring copulation success from offspring parentage creates non-independence...

“Chancing on a spectacle:” co-occurring animal migrations and interspecific interactions

Emily Cohen & Dara Satterfield
Migrations of diverse wildlife species often converge in space and time, with their journeys shaped by similar forces (i.e., geographic barriers and seasonal resources and conditions); we term this “co-migration.” Supporting this, recent studies have elucidated co-migrations and seasonal patterns that govern the location and timing of multiple species’ journeys. Beyond their significance as natural wonders, species with overlapping migrations may interact ecologically, with potential effects on population and community dynamics. Direct and indirect ecological...

Plant-caterpillar interaction matrices of temperate broadleaf forests

Carlo Lutz Seifert, Martin Volf, Leonardo R. Jorge, Tomokazu Abe, Grace Carscallen, Pavel Drozd, Rajesh Kumar, Greg P. A. Lamarre, Martin Libra, Maria E. Losada, Scott E. Miller, Masashi Murakami, Geoffrey Nichols, Petr Pyszko, Martin Šigut, David L. Wagner & Vojtěch Novotny
1. Assemblages of insect herbivores are structured by plant traits such as nutrient content, secondary metabolites, physical traits, and phenology. Many of these traits are phylogenetically conserved, implying a decrease in trait similarity with increasing phylogenetic distance of the host plant taxa. Thus, a metric of phylogenetic distances and relationships can be considered a proxy for phylogenetically conserved plant traits and used to predict variation in herbivorous insect assemblages among co-occurring plant species. 2. Using...

Data from: Translocation with targeted vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect an island endemic bird threatened by West Nile virus

Victoria Bakker, T. Sillett, Walter Boyce, Daniel Doak, T. Winston Vickers, William Reisen, Brian Cohen, Michael Hallworth & Scott Morrison
Aim Invasive pathogens are a growing conservation challenge and often occur in tandem with rapid environmental transformation, such as climate change, drought, and habitat loss. Climate change appears to have facilitated the spread of West Nile virus (WNV), a cause of widespread avian mortality. WNV is considered the primary threat to island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), endemic to Santa Cruz Island, California. Two approaches have been proposed to safeguard island scrub-jays: (1) vaccination and (2) conservation...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Data from: Variance in within-pair reproductive success influences the opportunity for selection annually and over the lifetimes of males in a multi-brooded songbird

Ryan Germain, Michael Hallworth, Sara Kaiser, Scott Sillett & Michael Webster
In socially monogamous species, male reproductive success consists of ‘within-pair’ offspring produced with their socially-paired mate(s), and ‘extra-pair’ offspring produced with additional females throughout the population. Both reproductive pathways offer distinct opportunities for selection in wild populations, as each is composed of separate components of mate attraction, female fecundity, and paternity allocation. Identifying key sources of variance and covariance among these components is a crucial step towards understanding the reproductive strategies that males use to...

Data from: Ectothermy and the macroecology of home range scaling in snakes

Brian Todd & Aaron Nowakowski
Aim: A central question in ecology has been that of why animal home ranges scale more steeply with body size than do metabolic rates. Yet, the generality of this notion has scarcely been tested in non-model species like ectotherms, which have lower metabolic requirements than endotherms and which may therefore have different home range area requirements. Our aim was to examine how home range area scales with body size in snakes and to shed light...

Data from: Vertical sexual habitat segregation in a wintering migratory songbird

Nathan Cooper, Mark Thomas & Peter Marra
Sexual habitat segregation during the wintering period is a widespread phenomenon and has important implications for the ecology and conservation of migratory birds. We studied Black-and-white Warblers (Mniotilta varia) wintering in second-growth scrub and old-growth mangrove forest in Jamaica to quantify sexual habitat segregation and explore whether patterns of habitat occupation have consequences on physical condition. We then used this information along with a body size analysis and simulated territorial intrusions to assess whether behavioral...

Data from: Barrier Behavior Analysis (BaBA) reveals extensive effects of fencing on wide-ranging ungulates

Wenjing Xu, Nandintsetseg Dejid, Valentine Herrmann, Hall Sawyer & Arthur Middleton
1. As human activities expand globally, there is a growing need to identify and mitigate barriers to animal movements. Fencing is a pervasive human modification of the landscape that can impede the movements of wide-ranging animals. Previous research has largely focused on whether fences block movements altogether, but a more nuanced understanding of animals’ behavioral responses to fences may be critical for examining the ecological consequences and prioritizing conservation interventions. 2. We developed a spatial-...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • Cornell University
  • Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí
  • University of Montana
  • Zhejiang University
  • Environment Agency Abu Dhabi
  • Francis Marion University
  • Duke University
  • University of Ostrava