23 Works

Data from: Within-host competition and drug resistance in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

Mary Bushman, Lindsay Morton, Nancy Duah, Neils Quashie, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo Koram, Pedro Dimbu, Mateusz Plucinski, Julie Gutman, Peter Lyaruu, Steven Kachur, Jacobus De Roode, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Jacobus C. De Roode, S. Patrick Kachur & Kwadwo A. Koram
Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum typically comprise multiple strains, especially in high-transmission areas where infectious mosquito bites occur frequently. However, little is known about the dynamics of mixed-strain infections, particularly whether strains sharing a host compete or grow independently. Competition between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains, if it occurs, could be a crucial determinant of the spread of resistance. We analyzed 1,341 P. falciparum infections in children from Angola, Ghana, and Tanzania and found...

Research and implementation interactions in a social accountability study: utilizing guidance for conducting process evaluations of complex interventions

Joanna Paula Cordero, Vernon Mochache, Victoria Boydell, Mary Awelana Addah, Heather McMullen, Alice Monyo, Sigilbert Mrema, Dela Nai, Donat Shamba & Petrus S. Steyn
Abstract Background In recent years, researchers and evaluators have made efforts to identify and use appropriate and innovative research designs that account for the complexity in studying social accountability. The relationship between the researchers and those implementing the activities and how this impacts the study have received little attention. In this paper, we reflect on how we managed the relationship between researchers and implementers using the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance on process...

Common predators and factors influencing their abundance in Anopheles funestus aquatic habitats in rural south-eastern Tanzania

Herieth H Mahenge, Letus L Muyaga, Joel D Nkya, Khamis S Kifungo, Najat F Kahamba, Halfan S Ngowo & Emmanuel W Kaindoa
Background: The role of larval predators in regulating the malaria vectors population remains relatively unknown. This study aimed to investigate the common predators that co-exist with Anopheles funestus group larvae and evaluate factors that influence their abundance in rural south-eastern Tanzania. Methods: Mosquito larvae and predators were sampled concurrently using standard dipper (350 ml) or 10 L bucket in previously identified aquatic habitats in selected villages in southern Tanzania. Predators were identified using standard identification...

Additional file 1 of Research and implementation interactions in a social accountability study: utilizing guidance for conducting process evaluations of complex interventions

Joanna Paula Cordero, Vernon Mochache, Victoria Boydell, Mary Awelana Addah, Heather McMullen, Alice Monyo, Sigilbert Mrema, Dela Nai, Donat Shamba & Petrus S. Steyn
Additional file 1. CaPSAI Project - Standard Operating Procedures. figshare. Online resource. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.14363336 . Guidelines for interactions between the research and implementing teams (Interactions SoP), 2018. Social Harms Standard Operating Procedures Ghana (Social Harm SoP), 2018. Social Harms Standard Operating Procedures Tanzania (Social Harm SoP), 2018. Guidelines for authorship, external publication and use of data for higher degrees (Publications SoP) 2021.

Additional file 1 of Research and implementation interactions in a social accountability study: utilizing guidance for conducting process evaluations of complex interventions

Joanna Paula Cordero, Vernon Mochache, Victoria Boydell, Mary Awelana Addah, Heather McMullen, Alice Monyo, Sigilbert Mrema, Dela Nai, Donat Shamba & Petrus S. Steyn
Additional file 1. CaPSAI Project - Standard Operating Procedures. figshare. Online resource. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.14363336 . Guidelines for interactions between the research and implementing teams (Interactions SoP), 2018. Social Harms Standard Operating Procedures Ghana (Social Harm SoP), 2018. Social Harms Standard Operating Procedures Tanzania (Social Harm SoP), 2018. Guidelines for authorship, external publication and use of data for higher degrees (Publications SoP) 2021.

Additional file 1 of Comparative evaluation of different versions of exposure-free mosquito electrocuting traps and barrier screen trap for monitoring outdoor densities and biting time phenotypes by malaria and filariasis vectors in Tanzania

Victoria Githu, Maneno E. Baravuga, Asiya Mbarawa, Hajirani M. Msuya, Yeromin P. Mlacha, Prosper P. Chaki, Samson Kiware, Nosrat Mirzai, Heather M. Ferguson & Nicodem J. Govella
Additional file 1: Fig. S1. Schematic representation of the experimental design; 3 x 3 Latin square for one complete experimental rotation (round). Blue is the caged Mosquito Electrocuting trap (METc), Orange is the early Mosquito Electrocuting Trap (METe) and the green is the Barrier Screen Trap (BST).

Participatory development of practical, affordable, insecticide-treated mosquito proofing for a range of housing designs in rural southern Tanzania

Rogath Msoffe, Matilda Hewitt, John P. Masalu, Marcelina Finda, Deogratius R. Kavishe, Fredros O. Okumu, Emmanuel A. Mpolya, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa & Gerry F. Killeen
Abstract Background Insecticidal mosquito-proof netting screens could combine the best features of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), the two most important front line vector control interventions in Africa today, and also overcome the most important limitations of these methods. This study engaged members of a rural Tanzanian community in developing and evaluating simple, affordable and scalable procedures for installing readily available screening materials on eave gaps and windows of their own houses,...

Vector bionomics and vectorial capacity as emergent properties of mosquito behaviors and ecology

Sean Wu, Penny Hancock, Arnaud Le Menach, Tanya Russell, Thomas Burkot, , Derek Cummings, Kelly Compton, Daniel Citron, John Marshall, Biyonka Liang, Catherine Moyes, Qian Zhang, David Smith, Samson Kiware, Anne Wilson, Thomas Scott, John Henry, Steven Lindsay, Amit Verma & Hector Sanchez C.
Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed...

Reservoir dynamics of rabies in Southeast Tanzania and the roles of cross-species transmission and domestic dog vaccination

Kennedy Lushasi, Sarah Hayes, Elaine A Ferguson, Joel Changalucha, Sarah Cleaveland, Nicodem J Govella, Daniel T Haydon, Sambo Maganga, Geofrey J Mchau, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Zacharia Mtema, Hesron E Nonga, Rachel Steenson, Pierre Nouvellet, Christl A Donnelly & Katie Hampson
Understanding the role of different species in the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as rabies virus, is vital for effective control strategies. Across most of sub-Saharan Africa domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered the reservoir for rabies, but the role of wildlife has been long debated. Here we explore the multi-host transmission dynamics of rabies across southeast Tanzania. Between January 2011 and July 2019 data on probable rabies cases were collected in the regions of...

Loading rate effect on tradeoff of fractures from pelvis to lumbar spine under axial impact loading

Narayan Yoganandan, Jason Moore, John Humm, Frank Pintar, Jamie Baisden, David Barnes & Kathryn Loftis
Objectives: The transmission of impact loading from the seat-to-pelvis-to-lumbar spine in a seated occupant in automotive and military events is a mechanism for fractures to these body regions. While postmortem human subject (PMHS) studies have replicated fractures to the pelvis or lumbar spine using isolated/component models, the role of the time factor that manifests as a loading rate issue on injuries has not been fully investigated in literature. The objective of this study was to...

Additional file 1 of Comparative evaluation of different versions of exposure-free mosquito electrocuting traps and barrier screen trap for monitoring outdoor densities and biting time phenotypes by malaria and filariasis vectors in Tanzania

Victoria Githu, Maneno E. Baravuga, Asiya Mbarawa, Hajirani M. Msuya, Yeromin P. Mlacha, Prosper P. Chaki, Samson Kiware, Nosrat Mirzai, Heather M. Ferguson & Nicodem J. Govella
Additional file 1: Fig. S1. Schematic representation of the experimental design; 3 x 3 Latin square for one complete experimental rotation (round). Blue is the caged Mosquito Electrocuting trap (METc), Orange is the early Mosquito Electrocuting Trap (METe) and the green is the Barrier Screen Trap (BST).

Additional file 1 of Participatory development of practical, affordable, insecticide-treated mosquito proofing for a range of housing designs in rural southern Tanzania

Rogath Msoffe, Matilda Hewitt, John P. Masalu, Marcelina Finda, Deogratius R. Kavishe, Fredros O. Okumu, Emmanuel A. Mpolya, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa & Gerry F. Killeen
Additional file 1. An Excel® spreadsheet file containing all three data tables that were collected and analysed in this study, anonymized by removing all variables containing information that could be used to identify individuals, households or their houses.

Data from: Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ Lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Klaus Reither, Lynn Katsoulis, Trevor Beattie, Nicolene Gardiner, Nicole Lenz, Khadija Said, Elirehema Mfinanga, Christian Pohl, Katherine L. Fielding, Hannah Jeffery, Benjamin M. Kagina, Elisabeth J. Hughes, Thomas J. Scriba, Willem A. Hanekom, Søren T. Hoff, Peter Bang, Ingrid Kromann, Claudia Daubenberger, Peter Andersen & Gavin J. Churchyard
Background: Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods: HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or...

Data from: Topographic mapping of the interfaces between human and aquatic mosquito habitats to enable barrier-targeting of interventions against malaria vectors

Victoria M. Mwakalinga, Benn K.D. Sartorius, Alex J. Limwagu, Yeromin P. Mlacha, Daniel F. Msellemu, Prosper P. Chaki, Nicoderm J. Govella, Maureen Coetzee, Stefan Dongus, Gerry F. Killeen, Nicodem J. Govella & Benn K. D. Sartorius
Geophysical topographic metrics of local water-accumulation potential are freely available and have long been known as high resolution predictors of where aquatic habitats for immature Anopheles mosquitoes are most abundant, resulting in elevated densities of adult malaria vectors and human infection burden. Using existing entomological and epidemiological survey data, here we illustrate how topography can also be used to map out the interfaces between wet, unoccupied valleys and dry, densely populated uplands, where malaria vector...

Factors influencing the sustainability of homestead vegetable production intervention in Rufiji, Tanzania: A cross-sectional mixed methods study

Killian Mlalama
Background There is growing evidence that home vegetable gardening interventions improve food security and nutrition outcomes at the family level. This study assessed factors influencing the sustainability of homestead vegetable production intervention, one year after the cessation of external support. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. A total of 247 randomly selected households that participated in the homestead vegetable intervention were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The...

Additional file 1 of Participatory development of practical, affordable, insecticide-treated mosquito proofing for a range of housing designs in rural southern Tanzania

Rogath Msoffe, Matilda Hewitt, John P. Masalu, Marcelina Finda, Deogratius R. Kavishe, Fredros O. Okumu, Emmanuel A. Mpolya, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa & Gerry F. Killeen
Additional file 1. An Excel® spreadsheet file containing all three data tables that were collected and analysed in this study, anonymized by removing all variables containing information that could be used to identify individuals, households or their houses.

Comparative evaluation of different versions of exposure-free mosquito electrocuting traps and barrier screen trap for monitoring outdoor densities and biting time phenotypes by malaria and filariasis vectors in Tanzania

Victoria Githu, Maneno E. Baravuga, Asiya Mbarawa, Hajirani M. Msuya, Yeromin P. Mlacha, Prosper P. Chaki, Samson Kiware, Nosrat Mirzai, Heather M. Ferguson & Nicodem J. Govella
Abstract Background Estimating human exposure to mosquito vectors is crucial for the prediction of malaria transmission and intervention impact. The human landing catch method is frequently used to directly measure estimate exposure rates; however, there has been an increasing shift from this method to exposure-free alternatives, such as the mosquito electrocuting traps (MET) and other approaches. While these latter methods can provide robust and representative values of human exposure and mosquito density, they often still...

Data from: A low technology emanator treated with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin confers long term protection against outdoor biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria

Sheila B. Ogoma, Arnold S. Mmbando, Johnson K. Swai, Sebastian Horstmann, David Malone, Gerry F. Killeen & Arnold S. Mmando
Background. The vapor phase of the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin incapacitates mosquitoes and prevents them from feeding. Although existing emanator products for delivering volatile pyrethroids protect against outdoor mosquito bites, they are too short-lived to be practical or affordable for routine use in low-income settings. New transfluthrin emanators, comprised simply of treated hessian fabric strips, have recently proven highly protective against outdoor-biting vectors of lymphatic filariasis, arboviruses and malaria, but their full protective lifespan, minimum dose...

Data from: Mesocosm experiments reveal the impact of mosquito control measures on malaria vector life history and population dynamics

Kija Ng’habi, Mafalda Viana, Jason Matthiopoulos, Issa Lyimo, Gerry Killen & Heather M. Feguson
The impact of control measures on mosquito vector fitness and demography is usually estimated from bioassays or indirect variables in the field. Whilst indicative, neither approach is sufficient to quantify the potentially complex response of mosquito populations to combined interventions. Here, large replicated mesocosms were used to measure the population-level response of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) when used in isolation, or combined with insecticidal eave louvers (EL), or treatment...

Loading rate effect on tradeoff of fractures from pelvis to lumbar spine under axial impact loading

Narayan Yoganandan, Jason Moore, John Humm, Frank Pintar, Jamie Baisden, David Barnes & Kathryn Loftis
Objectives: The transmission of impact loading from the seat-to-pelvis-to-lumbar spine in a seated occupant in automotive and military events is a mechanism for fractures to these body regions. While postmortem human subject (PMHS) studies have replicated fractures to the pelvis or lumbar spine using isolated/component models, the role of the time factor that manifests as a loading rate issue on injuries has not been fully investigated in literature. The objective of this study was to...

Research and implementation interactions in a social accountability study: utilizing guidance for conducting process evaluations of complex interventions

Joanna Paula Cordero, Vernon Mochache, Victoria Boydell, Mary Awelana Addah, Heather McMullen, Alice Monyo, Sigilbert Mrema, Dela Nai, Donat Shamba & Petrus S. Steyn
Abstract Background In recent years, researchers and evaluators have made efforts to identify and use appropriate and innovative research designs that account for the complexity in studying social accountability. The relationship between the researchers and those implementing the activities and how this impacts the study have received little attention. In this paper, we reflect on how we managed the relationship between researchers and implementers using the United Kingdom Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance on process...

Comparative evaluation of different versions of exposure-free mosquito electrocuting traps and barrier screen trap for monitoring outdoor densities and biting time phenotypes by malaria and filariasis vectors in Tanzania

Victoria Githu, Maneno E. Baravuga, Asiya Mbarawa, Hajirani M. Msuya, Yeromin P. Mlacha, Prosper P. Chaki, Samson Kiware, Nosrat Mirzai, Heather M. Ferguson & Nicodem J. Govella
Abstract Background Estimating human exposure to mosquito vectors is crucial for the prediction of malaria transmission and intervention impact. The human landing catch method is frequently used to directly measure estimate exposure rates; however, there has been an increasing shift from this method to exposure-free alternatives, such as the mosquito electrocuting traps (MET) and other approaches. While these latter methods can provide robust and representative values of human exposure and mosquito density, they often still...

Participatory development of practical, affordable, insecticide-treated mosquito proofing for a range of housing designs in rural southern Tanzania

Rogath Msoffe, Matilda Hewitt, John P. Masalu, Marcelina Finda, Deogratius R. Kavishe, Fredros O. Okumu, Emmanuel A. Mpolya, Emmanuel W. Kaindoa & Gerry F. Killeen
Abstract Background Insecticidal mosquito-proof netting screens could combine the best features of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), the two most important front line vector control interventions in Africa today, and also overcome the most important limitations of these methods. This study engaged members of a rural Tanzanian community in developing and evaluating simple, affordable and scalable procedures for installing readily available screening materials on eave gaps and windows of their own houses,...

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