125 Works

Data from: An isolated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population on St. John, US Virgin Islands shows low inbreeding and comparable heterozygosity to other larger populations

Scott Taylor, Suzanne Nelson & Jon Reuter
This is the first study to document the genetic diversity of the white-tailed deer population on St. John, US Virgin Islands. The island population was founded by a small number of animals, has very limited hunting or predation, and recently experienced a reduction in size following an extended drought in 2015. DNA samples were collected from hair from 23 anesthetized adult deer (13 males, 10 females) ranging in age from 1-8 years (3.36+ 1.9 yr)...

Diurnal timing of nonmigratory movement by birds: the importance of foraging spatial scales

Julie Mallon, Marlee Tucker, Annalea Beard, , Keith Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, John Brzorad, Evan Buechley, Javier Bustamante, Carlos Carrapato, José Castillo-Guerrero, Elizabeth Clingham, Mark Desholm, Christopher DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Hayley Douglas, Olivier Duriez, Peter Enggist, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Anna Gagliardo, Clara García-Ripollés, Juan Antonio Gil, Morgan Gilmour, Roi Harel … & Bill Fagan
Timing of activity can reveal an organism’s efforts to optimize foraging either by minimizing energy loss through passive movement or by maximizing energetic gain through foraging. Here, we assess whether signals of either of these strategies are detectable in the timing of activity of daily, local movements by birds. We compare the similarities of timing of movement activity among species using six temporal variables: start of activity relative to sunrise, end of activity relative to...

Data from: Modeling spatiotemporal abundance and movement dynamics using an integrated spatial capture-recapture movement model

Eric Regehr, Ryan Wilson & Nathan Hostetter
Animal movement is a fundamental ecological process affecting the survival and reproduction of individuals, the structure of populations, and the dynamics of communities. Methods to quantify animal movement and spatiotemporal abundances, however, are generally separate and thus omit linkages between individual-level and population-level processes. We describe an integrated spatial capture-recapture (SCR) movement model to jointly estimate (1) the number and distribution of individuals in a defined spatial region and (2) movement of those individuals through...

Refuge data for projections of avian assemblage change at U.S. National Wildlife Refuges

Joanna Wu, Brooke Bateman, Patricia Heglund, Lotem Taylor, Andrew Allstadt, Diane Granfors, Henrik Westerkam, Nicole Michel & Chad Wilsey
The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) provides one of the United States’ greatest protected area networks for wildlife conservation. As climate changes beyond historical ranges of variability, refuge managers are confronted with assessing the utility of refuges, including how to best manage refuges both individually and as a system to help species cope with rapid change. Using published species distribution models, we projected species-specific changes in environmental suitability for 590 native North American bird species...

A taxonomic revision of the Lathberry Clade of Eugenia (Myrtaceae)

Jonathan A. Flickinger, Eugenio Santiago-Valentín, José A. Sustache-Sustache & Omar A. Monsegur-Rivera
The Lathberry Clade includes seven species of Eugenia sect. Umbellatae (Myrtaceae) distributed from Puerto Rico through the Lesser Antilles. Members of the Lathberry Clade are trees and shrubs distinguished from other Antillean species by a combination of dull twigs, glabrous leaves with a raised midvein, glomerate or fasciculate inflorescences predominantly borne below the leaves on old wood, closely spaced and ascending inflorescence bracts, spheroidal fruits turning red or purple at maturity, the calyx lobes erect...

Differential seasonal avoidance of anthropogenic features and woody vegetation by Lesser Prairie-chickens

Andrew Lawrence, Matthew Boggie, William Gould, Scott Carleton & Clay Nichols
The influence of seasonal variation in animal behavior and the corresponding response in habitat selection is a critical component of habitat selection analyses. To examine this relationship, we conducted multi-scale analyses of Lesser Prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) habitat selection in relation to anthropogenic infrastructure associated with oil and gas development, mesquite, and trees during the spring and summer at home range and lek area scales. We tracked 159 Lesser Prairie-chickens using VHF radiotelemetry or PTT-GPS transmitters...

Data from: The contribution of road-based citizen science efforts to the conservation of pond-breeding amphibians

Sean C. Sterrett, Rachel A. Katz, William R. Fields, Evan H.C. Grant & Evan H. Campbell Grant
1. Road-side amphibian citizen science programs bring together volunteers focused on collecting scientific data while working to mitigate population declines by directly reducing road mortality of pond-breeding amphibians. Despite the international popularity of these movement-based road-side conservation efforts (i.e., ‘big nights’, ‘bucket brigades’ and ‘toad patrols’), direct benefits to conservation have rarely been quantified or evaluated. 2. As a case study, we used a population simulation approach to evaluate how volunteer intensity, frequency and distribution...

Data from: Intercontinental genetic structure and gene flow in Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a potential vector of avian influenza

Mark P. Miller, Susan M. Haig, Thomas D. Mullins, Luzhang Ruan, Bruce Casler, Alexei Dondua, H. River Gates, J. Matthew Johnson, Steve Kendall, Pavel S. Tomkovich, Diane Tracy, Olga P. Valchuk & Richard B. Lanctot
Waterfowl (Anseriformes) and shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are the most common wild vectors of influenza A viruses. Due to their migratory behavior, some may transmit disease over long distances. Migratory connectivity studies can link breeding and nonbreeding grounds while illustrating potential interactions among populations that may spread diseases. We investigated Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a shorebird with a subspecies (C. a. arcticola) that migrates from nonbreeding areas endemic to avian influenza in eastern Asia to breeding grounds in...

Data from: Phylogenetics support an ancient common origin of two scientific icons: Devils Hole and Devils Hole pupfish

İsmail K. Sağlam, Jason Baumsteiger, Matt J. Smith, Javier Linares-Casenave, Andrew L. Nichols, Sean M. O'Rourke & Michael R. Miller
The Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis; DHP) is an icon of conservation biology. Isolated in a 50 m2 pool (Devils Hole), DHP is one of the rarest vertebrate species known and an evolutionary anomaly, having survived in complete isolation for thousands of years. However, recent findings suggest DHP might be younger than commonly thought, potentially introduced to Devils Hole by humans in the past thousand years. As a result, the significance of DHP from an...

Data from: Seasonal change in trophic niche of adfluvial arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and coexisting fishes in a high-elevation lake system

Kyle A. Cutting, Wyatt F. Cross, Michelle L. Anderson & Elizabeth G. Reese
Introduction of non-native species is a leading threat to global aquatic biodiversity. Competition between native and non-native species is often influenced by changes in food availability or suitable habitat conditions. We investigated diet breadth and degree of trophic niche overlap for a fish assemblage of native and non-native species inhabiting a shallow, high elevation lake system. This assemblage includes one of the last remaining post-glacial endemic populations of adfluvial Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in the...

Data from: Variation in age ratio of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during fall migration

Wade G. Schock, Julian B. Fischer, Craig R. Ely, Robert A. Stehn, Jeffrey M. Welker & Douglas Causey
Annual productivity is an important parameter for the management of waterfowl populations. Fall age ratio (juveniles:total birds) is an index of productivity of the preceding breeding season. However, differences in the timing of migration between family groups and nonbreeding birds may bias age-ratio estimates. We examined temporal variation in age ratios of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons frontalis from interior and northwestern Alaska at a northern autumn staging area near Delta Junction, Alaska. Photographic...

Data from: Localized hotspots drive continental geography of abnormal amphibians on U.S. wildlife refuges

Mari K. Reeves, Kimberly A. Medley, Alfred E. Pinkney, Marcel Holyoak, Pieter T. J. Johnson & Michael J. Lannoo
Amphibians with missing, misshapen, and extra limbs have garnered public and scientific attention for two decades, yet the extent of the phenomenon remains poorly understood. Despite progress in identifying the causes of abnormalities in some regions, a lack of knowledge about their broader spatial distribution and temporal dynamics has hindered efforts to understand their implications for amphibian population declines and environmental quality. To address this data gap, we conducted a nationwide, 10-year assessment of 62,947...

Data from: Fire and non-native grass invasion interact to suppress tree regeneration in temperate deciduous forests

S. Luke Flory, Keith Clay, Sarah M. Emery, Joseph R. Robb & Brian Winters
1. While many ecosystems depend on fire to maintain biodiversity, non-native plant invasions can enhance fire intensity, suppressing native species and generating a fire–invasion feedback. These dynamics have been observed in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but fire–invasion interactions in temperate deciduous forests, where prescribed fires are often used as management tools to enhance native diversity, have rarely been investigated. 2. Here we evaluated the effects of a widespread invasive grass on fire behaviour in eastern...

Data from: Hydric conditions during incubation influence phenotypes of neonatal reptiles in the field

Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeramie T. Strickland & Fredric J. Janzen
Phenotypic variation is strongly impacted by environmental conditions experienced during development. Substantial laboratory research has shown that reptiles with flexible-shelled eggs are particularly sensitive to hydric conditions, yet research on nests in the wild is sparse. In this two-year field experiment, we explore the influence of hydric conditions during incubation on phenotypic traits of hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). Using a split-clutch design, we created two artificial nests adjacent to each maternally-selected nest site. Half...

Data from: Divergent immunity and energetic programs in the gills of migratory and resident Oncorhynchus mykiss

Ben J. Sutherland, Kyle C. Hanson, Johanna R. Jantzen, Ben F. Koop, Christian T. Smith & Ben J. G. Sutherland
Divergent life history strategies occur in steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and many populations produce both migrant (anadromous fish that move to the ocean after rearing) and resident (do not migrate and remain in fresh water) individuals. Mechanisms leading to each type are only partially understood; while the general tendency of a population is heritable, individual tendency may be plastic, influenced by local environment. Steelhead hatchery programmes aim to mitigate losses in wild stocks...

Data from: Linkage disequilibrium and effective population size when generations overlap

John D. Robinson & Gregory R. Moyer
Estimates of effective population size are critical for species of conservation concern. Genetic datasets can be used to provide robust estimates of this important parameter. However, the methods used to obtain these estimates assume that generations are discrete. We used simulated data to assess the influences of overlapping generations on estimates of effective size provided by the linkage disequilibrium method. Our simulations focus on two factors: the degree of reproductive skew exhibited by the focal...

Data from: Incomplete host immunity favors the evolution of virulence in an emergent pathogen

Arietta E. Fleming-Davies, Paul D. Williams, André A. Dhondt, Andrew P. Dobson, Wesley A. Hochachka, Ariel E. Leon, David H. Ley, Erik E. Osnas & Dana M. Hawley
Immune memory evolved to protect hosts from reinfection, but incomplete responses that allow future reinfection might inadvertently select for more harmful pathogens. We present empirical and modeling evidence that incomplete immunity promotes the evolution of higher virulence in a natural host-pathogen system. We performed sequential infections of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains of varying virulence. Virulent bacterial strains generated stronger host protection against reinfection than less virulent strains, and thus excluded less virulent strains...

Data from: Limited hatchery introgression into wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations despite reoccurring stocking

Shannon L. White, William L. Miller, Stephanie A. Dowell, Meredith L. Bartron & Tyler Wagner
Due to increased anthropogenic pressures on many fish populations, supplementing wild populations with captive-raised individuals has become an increasingly common management practice. Stocking programs can be controversial due to uncertainty about the long-term fitness effects of genetic introgression on wild populations. In particular, introgression between hatchery and wild individuals can cause declines in wild population fitness, resiliency, and adaptive potential, and contribute to local population extirpation. However, low survival and fitness of captive-raised individuals can...

Data from: Novel, continuous monitoring of fine-scale movement using fixed-position radiotelemetry arrays and random forest location fingerprinting

Andrew B. Harbicht, Theodore Castro-Santos, William R. Ardren, Dimitry Gorsky & Dylan J. Fraser
1. Radio-tag signals from fixed-position antennas are most often used to indicate presence/absence of individuals, or to estimate individual activity levels from signal strength variation within an antenna’s detection zone. The potential of such systems to provide more precise information on tag location and movement has not been explored in great detail in an ecological setting. 2. By reversing the roles that transmitters and receivers play in localization methods common to the telecommunications industry, we...

Preliminary Results of Patterns of 2019 Thermal Stress and Coral Bleaching Across the Hawaiian Archipelago

Morgan Winston, Courtney S. Couch, Brittany Huntington, Bernardo Vargas-Ángel, Rhonda R. Suka, Thomas Oliver, Ariel Halperin, Andrew Elisha Gray, Kaylyn McCoy, Mollie Asbury, Hannah Barkley, Jamison M. Gove, Nikki Smith, Lindsey Kramer, Julia Rose, Eric Conklin, Nadeira Sukhraj & James Morioka
Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center administrative report H ; 20-04

Individual-Based-Model used in \"Population context matters: predicting effects of metabolic stress mediated by food availability and predation with an agent- and energy budget-based model\"

Maxime Vaugeois, Valery E Forbes, Paul A Venturelli, Chiara Accolla & Stephanie L Hummel
This is the programming software code of the model developed to investigate the population-level impacts of a hypothetical, sublethal stressor that can affect an individual’s metabolism (growth, reproduction, maintenance, or assimilation) in systems in which population size is controlled by different combinations of food availability and predation pressure. The life cycle of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is describe through their metabolism, using the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) and we represent the populations through an...

Data from: Monarch butterfly population decline in North America: identifying the threatening processes

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Ruscena Wiederholt, Karen Oberhauser, Ryan G. Drum, Jay E. Diffendorfer, Sonia Altizer, Orley R. Taylor, John Pleasants, Darius Semmens, Brice Semmens, Richard Erickson, Kaitlin Libby & Laura Lopez-Hoffman
The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population in North America has sharply declined over the last two decades. Despite rising concern over the monarch butterfly's status, no comprehensive study of the factors driving this decline has been conducted. Using partial least-squares regressions and time-series analysis, we investigated climatic and habitat-related factors influencing monarch population size from 1993 to 2014. Potential threats included climatic factors, habitat loss (milkweed and overwinter forest), disease and agricultural insecticide use (neonicotinoids)....

Data from: Data-driven discovery of the spatial scales of habitat choice by elephants

Andrew F. Mashintonio, Stuart L. Pimm, Grant M. Harris, Rudi J. Van Aarde & Gareth J. Russell
Setting conservation goals and management objectives relies on understanding animal habitat preferences. Models that predict preferences combine location data from tracked animals with environmental information, usually at a spatial resolution determined by the available data. This resolution may be biologically irrelevant for the species in question. Individuals likely integrate environmental characteristics over varying distances when evaluating their surroundings; we call this the scale of selection. Even a single characteristic might be viewed differently at different...

Data from: Genetic diversity and divergence in the fountain darter (Etheostoma fonticola): implications for conservation of an endangered species

Jeffrey B. Olsen, Andrew P. Kinziger, John K. Wenburg, Cara J. Lewis, Catherine T. Phillips & Kenneth G. Ostrand
The endangered fountain darter Etheostoma fonticola is found only in the Comal and San Marcos rivers in the Guadalupe River basin in central Texas, USA. Comal River fountain darters were believed to be extir- pated following a severe drought in the 1950s and were reintroduced in the early 1970s using 457 darters from the San Marcos River. In this study we used 23 microsatellite loci to describe and evaluate the genetic diversity, population structure and...

Data from: Experimental evidence of long-term reproductive costs in a colonial nesting seabird

Aly McKnight, Erik J. Blomberg, Gregory H. Golet, David B. Irons, Cynthia S. Loftin & Shawn T. McKInney
Trade-offs between current and future reproduction are central to the evolution of life histories. Experiments that manipulate brood size provide an effective approach to investigating future costs of current reproduction. Most manipulative studies to date, however, have addressed only the short-term effects of brood size manipulation. Our goal was to determine whether survival or breeding costs of reproduction in a long-lived species manifest beyond the subsequent breeding season. To this end, we investigated long-term survival...

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  • United States Fish and Wildlife Service
  • United States Geological Survey
  • University of Washington
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Maine
  • University of Nevada Reno
  • University of New Hampshire
  • Colorado State University
  • US Forest Service
  • National Park Service