125 Works

Data from: Dynamic occupancy modeling reveals a hierarchy of competition among fishers, grey foxes, and ringtails

David S. Green, Sean M. Matthews, Robert C. Swiers, Richard L. Callas, J. Scott Yaeger, Stuart L. Farber, Michael K. Schwartz & Roger A. Powell
1. Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence are particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. 2. We studied the effects of removing 9 fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and ringtails (Bassariscus...

Quantifying phenology and migratory behaviours of hummingbirds using single-site dynamics and mark-detection analyses

Simon English, Scott Wilson, Ruta Bandivadekar, Emily Graves, Marcel Holyoak, Jennifer Brown & Lisa Tell
Nuanced understanding of overwintering movements of partially migratory birds is paramount to species and habitat conservation. Using nascent statistical methods, we identified migratory strategies of birds outfitted with radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags detected at RFID feeders in two sites in California, USA. We quantified proportions of migrants and residents and the seasonal movement phenology of two species: Allen’s and Anna’s hummingbirds. We found species-specific differences in proportions of migrants and residents. Both Allen's and Anna's...

Data from: Changes in waterfowl migration phenologies in central North America: implications for future waterfowl conservation

Kent Andersson, Craig Davis, Grant Harris & David Haukos
Globally, migration phenologies of numerous avian species have shifted over the past half-century. Despite North American waterfowl being well researched, published data on shifts in waterfowl migration phenologies remain scarce. Understanding shifts in waterfowl migration phenologies along with potential drivers is critical for guiding future conservation efforts. Therefore, we utilized historical (1955–2008) nonbreeding waterfowl survey data collected at 21 National Wildlife Refuges in the mid- to lower portion of the Central Flyway to summarize changes...

Efficacy of cover crops for pollinator habitat provision and weed suppression

Karla Gage, Casey Bryan, Sedonia Sipes, Mike Arduser, Leila Kassim, David Gibson & Drew Scott
Pollinator declines have been documented globally, but little information is available about native bee ecology in Midwestern US agriculture. This project seeks to optimize pollinator support and weed suppression in a 3-year crop rotation with a fallow growing season. During fallow, one of five cover crop treatments (T1: crimson, red, and ladino clover and Bob oats [Trifolium incarnatum, T. pratense, T. repens, Avena sativa]; T2: crimson clover and oats; T3: red clover and oats; T4:...

Data from: Quantifying spatiotemporal occupancy dynamics and multi-year core-use areas at a species range boundary

Nathan Hostetter, Daniel Ryan, David Grosshuesch, Timothy Catton, Sarah Malick-Wahls, Tamara Smith & Beth Gardner
Aim Many species face large-scale range contractions and predicted distributional shifts in response to climate change, shifting forest characteristics, and anthropogenic disturbances. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and were recently recommended for delisting. Predicted climate-driven losses in habitat quality and quantity may negatively affect the northeastern Minnesota lynx population, one of six remaining resident populations in the contiguous United States. We develop a large-scale monitoring protocol...

Seasonal survival and reversible state effects in a long-distance migratory shorebird

Rose Swift, Amanda D. Rodewald, James Johnson, Brad Andres & Nathan Senner
1. Events during one stage of the annual cycle can reversibly affect an individual’s condition and performance not only within that stage, but also in subsequent stages (i.e., reversible state effects). Despite strong conceptual links, however, few studies have been able to empirically link individual-level reversible state effects with larger-scale demographic processes. 2. We studied both survival and potential reversible state effects in a long-distance migratory shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica). Specifically, we estimated...

Lake food webs: Species invasion progressively disrupts the trophic structure of native food webs

Charles Wainright, Clint Muhlfeld, James Elser, Samuel Bourret & Shawn Devlin
Species invasions can have substantial impacts on native species and ecosystems, with important consequences for biodiversity. How these disturbances drive changes in the trophic structure of native food webs through time is poorly understood. Here, we quantify trophic disruption in freshwater food webs to invasion by an apex fish predator, lake trout, using an extensive stable isotope dataset across a natural gradient of uninvaded and invaded lakes in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Lake trout...

Genetic divergence and diversity reflect a predominant freshwater resident life history in Rainbow Trout from southwestern Alaska

Jeffrey Olsen
Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in southwestern Alaska occupy coastal watersheds near the northern boundary of the species native range and support a world class wild trout sport fishery. Although low freshwater temperatures and a short growing season in this region may favor anadromy, these populations appear to exhibit a freshwater resident life history strategy. In this study we used genetic data to evaluate two hypotheses regarding the influence of the presumed migratory behavior of these...

Do early-successional weeds facilitate or compete with seedlings in forest restoration? Disentangling abiotic vs. biotic factors

Mylen Arias, Rupesh Kariyat, Kimberly Wahl, Stephany Mendez, Jesus Chavana & Bradley Christoffersen
Census data for seedlings part of a weed exclusion experiment at Sal del Rey, Texas within a larger field where ~100,000 seedlings were planted in October-November 2018. Records seedling height, vigor (0 - dead, > 0 - alive), branching, and animal damage for 158 individuals of eight species classified by growth habit (fast/slow) and distributed in control and exclusion (mowed) plots across seven censuses.

Geographic patterns of genomic variation in the threatened Salado salamander, Eurycea chisholmensis

Chris Nice, James Fordyce, V. Alex Sotola, Justin Crow & Peter Diaz
Aquatic, karst and spring endemic organisms have become a focus of conservation efforts as human population densities and demand for groundwater increase. This is especially true of Texas salamanders in the genus Eurycea that have been the subject of investigations of patterns of genetic differentiation in order to understand their systematics and to inform conservation planning. Here we quantify patterns of population differentiation in the northern most species, Eurycea chisholmensis, the Salado salamander, which is...

Unnatural selection of salmon life histories in a modified riverscape

Anna M. Sturrock, Stephanie M. Carlson, John D. Wikert, Tim Heyne, Sébastien Nusslé, Joseph E. Merz, Hugh J. W. Sturrock & Rachel C. Johnson
Altered river flows and fragmented habitats often simplify riverine communities and favor non‐native fishes, but their influence on life‐history expression and survival is less clear. Here, we quantify the expression and ultimate success of diverse salmon emigration behaviors in an anthropogenically altered California river system. We analyzed two decades of Chinook salmon monitoring data to explore the influence of regulated flows on juvenile emigration phenology, abundance, and recruitment. We then followed seven cohorts into adulthood...

Evidence of absence regression: a binomial N-mixture model for estimating fatalities at wind power facilities

Trent McDonald, Kimberly Bay, Jared Studyvin, Jesse Leckband, Amber Schorg & Jennifer McIvor
Estimating bird and bat fatalities caused by wind-turbine facilities is challenging when carcass counts are rare and produce counts that are either exactly zero or very near zero. The rarity of found carcasses is exacerbated when live members of a particular species are rare and when carcasses degrade quickly, are removed by scavengers, or are not detected by observers. With few observed carcass counts, common statistical methods like logistic, Poisson, or negative binomial regression are...

Data from: A spatially explicit hierarchical model to characterize population viability

Steven P. Campbell, Erin R. Zylstra, Catherine R. Darst, Roy C. Averill-Murray & Robert J. Steidl
Many of the processes that govern the viability of animal populations vary spatially, yet population viability analyses (PVAs) that account explicitly for spatial variation are rare. We develop a PVA model that incorporates autocorrelation into the analysis of local demographic information to produce spatially explicit estimates of demography and viability at relatively fine spatial scales across a large spatial extent. We use a hierarchical, spatial autoregressive model for capture-recapture data from multiple locations to obtain...

Data from: Comparative landscape genetic analysis of three Pacific salmon species from subarctic North America

Jeffrey B. Olsen, Penelope A. Crane, Blair G. Flannery, Karen Dunmall, William D. Templin & John K. Wenburg
We examined the assumption that landscape heterogeneity similarly influences the spatial distribution of genetic diversity in closely related and geographically overlapping species. Accordingly, we evaluated the influence of watershed affiliation and nine habitat variables from four categories (spatial isolation, habitat size, climate, and ecology) on population divergence in three species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, O. kisutch, and O. keta) from three contiguous watersheds in subarctic North America. By incorporating spatial data we found that...

Data from: Extreme precipitation variability, forage quality and large herbivore diet selection in arid environments

, Jay V. Gedir, Jason P. Marshal, Paul R. Krausman, Jamison D. Allen, Glenn C. Duff, Brian D. Jansen, John R. Morgart & James W. Cain
Nutritional ecology forms the interface between environmental variability and large herbivore behaviour, life history characteristics, and population dynamics. Forage conditions in arid and semi-arid regions are driven by unpredictable spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall. Diet selection by herbivores should be directed towards overcoming the most pressing nutritional limitation (i.e. energy, protein [nitrogen, N], moisture) within the constraints imposed by temporal and spatial variability in forage conditions. We investigated the influence of precipitation-induced shifts in...

Data from: Spatio-temporal variation in parasite communities maintains diversity at the major histocompatibility complex class IIβ in the endangered Rio Grande Silvery Minnow

Megan J. Osborne, Tyler J. Pilger, Joel D. Lusk & Thomas F. Turner
Climate change will strongly impact aquatic ecosystems particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Fish-parasite interactions will also be affected by predicted altered flow and temperature regimes, and other environmental stressors. Hence, identifying environmental and genetic factors associated with maintaining diversity at immune genes is critical for understanding species’ adaptive capacity. Here we combine genetic (MHC Class IIβ and microsatellites), parasitological and ecological data to explore the relationship between these factors in the remnant wild Rio...

Data from: Ecological release lead to novel otogenetic diet shift in kokanee (Oncoryhnchus nerka)

Kyle R. Shedd, Frank A. Von Hippel, James J. Willacker, Troy R. Hamon, Ora L. Schlei, John K. Wenburg, Joe L. Miller, Scott Pavey & Scott A. Pavey
We investigate adaptive resource polymorphism in kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Jo-Jo Lake, Alaska by determining whether previously observed niche expansion occurs at the population or individual level. Utilizing morphological, genetic, and stable isotope techniques, we found no evidence of discrete trophic morphotypes as previously described, but instead found evidence for an ontogenetic diet shift. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate a 40% decrease in the proportion of benthic feeding and an increase of 1 trophic...

Data from: Landscape genetics identifies streams and drainage infrastructure as dispersal corridors for an endangered wetland bird

Charles B. Van Rees, J. Michael Reed, Robert E. Wilson, Jared G. Underwood & Sarah A. Sonsthagen
Anthropogenic alterations to landscape structure and composition can have significant impacts on biodiversity, potentially leading to species extinctions. Population-level impacts of landscape change are mediated by animal behaviors, in particular dispersal behavior. Little is known about the dispersal habits of rails (Rallidae) due to their cryptic behavior and tendency to occupy densely vegetated habitats. The effects of landscape structure on the movement behavior of waterbirds in general are poorly studied due to their reputation for...

Data from: Social learning of migratory performance

Thomas Mueller, Robert B. O’Hara, Sarah J. Converse, Richard P. Urbanek & William F. Fagan
Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort,...

Data from: Harvesting wildlife affected by climate change: a modelling and management approach for polar bears

Eric V. Regehr, Ryan R. Wilson, Karyn D. Rode, Michael C. Runge & Harry L. Stern
The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans. We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity (K). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i)...

Data from: Persistent reproductive isolation between sympatric lineages of fall Chinook salmon in White Salmon River, Washington

Christian T. Smith & Rod Engle
Populations of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River are divided among two evolutionarily significant units: lower Columbia River fall Chinook salmon (or “tules”) in the lower portion of the river and upriver “brights” (URBs) in the upper portion. The two lineages migrate together through portions of the lower Columbia River but spawn allopatrically. Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery has been releasing URBs adjacent to what was historically exclusively tule spawning habitat...

Data from: Increases in the mean and variability of thermal regimes result in differential phenotypic responses among genotypes during early ontogenetic stages of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

Kari J. Dammerman, Juan P. Steibel & Kim T. Scribner
Climate change is affecting thermal conditions worldwide. Understanding organismal responses associated with predicted changes are essential for predicting population persistence. Few studies have examined the effects of both increased mean and variance in temperature on organismal traits, particularly during early life stages. Using lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from Black Lake, MI, we tested whether phenotypic variation differed among families reared in two constant (10 and 18°C) and two fluctuating temperature treatments (10-19°C) representing temperatures experienced...

Data from: Contemporary factors influencing genetic diversity in the Alaska humpback whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis complex

J. B. Olsen, R. J. Brown, O. L. Russ, K. Harper & J. K. Wenburg
Thirteen microsatellite loci were used to address three hypotheses regarding genetic diversity in the humpback whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis complex in Alaska. The test results provided further insight into the factors influencing C. clupeaformis complex population structure and level of genetic variation. First, themicrosatellite data did not provide evidence of two spatially distinct Beringian and Eurasian refugial groups as revealed in previous phylogeographic analyses ofmitochondrialDNAvari- ation. Rather, the population structure inferred from the microsatellite variation appears...

Data from: Demographic and spatiotemporal patterns of avian influenza infection at the continental scale, and in relation to annual life cycle of a migratory host

Rodolfo Nallar, Zsuzsanna Papp, Tasha Epp, Frederick A. Leighton, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Robert J. Dusek, Hon S. Ip, Jeffrey Hall, Johannes Berhane, Samantha E. J. Gibbs, Catherine Soos & Yohannes Berhane
Since the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in the eastern hemisphere, numerous surveillance programs and studies have been undertaken to detect the occurrence, distribution, or spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in wild bird populations worldwide. To identify demographic determinants and spatiotemporal patterns of AIV infection in long distance migratory waterfowl in North America, we fitted generalized linear models with binominal distribution to analyze results from 13,574 blue-winged teal (Anas discors, BWTE)...

Data from: Identifying demographic and environmental drivers of recruitment and population growth in a cavity nesting sea duck population

Abigail J. Lawson, James S. Sedinger & Eric J. Taylor
Traits with the greatest proportional effects on fitness are typically conserved (Stearns 1992), and traits with larger temporal variation frequently play a dominant role in population dynamics (Cooch et al. 2001). We examined recruitment patterns and population growth in Common Goldeneyes (Bucephala clangula; hereafter goldeneye), using Pradel mark-recapture models from a long-term nest box study (1997-2010). Our objectives were to estimate recruitment (f) and population growth (λ) relative to recruitment origin group (in-situ or unknown),...

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