18 Works

Data from: Parasites and competitors suppress bacterial pathogen synergistically due to evolutionary trade-offs

XiaoFang Wang, Zhong Wei, Mei Li, Xueqi Wang, Anqi Shan, Xinlan Mei, Alexandre Jousset, Qirong Shen, Yangchun Xu & Ville-Petri Friman
Parasites and competitors are important for regulating pathogen densities and subsequent disease dynamics. It is, however, unclear to what extent this is driven by ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we used experimental evolution to study the eco-evolutionary feedbacks between Ralstonia solanacearum bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia-specific phage parasite and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens competitor bacterium in the laboratory and plant rhizosphere. We found that while the phage had a small effect on pathogen densities on its own, it considerably...

Data from: Reframing the evidence base for policy-relevance to increase impact: a case study on forest fragmentation in the oil palm sector

Jennifer M. Lucey, Georgina Palmer, K. Loong Yeong, David P. Edwards, Michael J. M. Senior, Sarah A. Scriven, Glen Reynolds & Jane K. Hill
It is necessary to improve knowledge exchange between scientists and decision-makers so that scientific evidence can be readily accessed to inform policy. To maximise impact of scientific evidence in policy development, the scientific community should engage more fully with decision-makers, building long-term working relationships in order to identify and respond to ‘policy windows’ with science that is reframed for policy-relevance. We illustrate the process and challenges using a case study in which we synthesised evidence...

Data from: Crossing fitness valleys: empirical estimation of adaptive landscape associated with polymorphic mimicry

Mónica Arias, Yann Le Poul, Mathieu Chouteau, Romain Boisseau, Neil Rosser, Marc Théry & Violaine Llaurens
Characterising the fitness landscapes associated with polymorphic adaptive traits enables the investigation of the mechanisms allowing transitions between fitness peaks. Here, we explore how natural selection can promote genetic mechanisms preventing heterozygous phenotypes from falling into non-adaptive valleys. Polymorphic mimicry is an ideal system to investigate such fitness landscapes, because the direction of selection acting on complex mimetic colour patterns can be predicted by the local mimetic community composition. Using more than 5,000 artificial butterflies...

Data from: Source-sink plasmid transfer dynamics maintain gene mobility in soil bacterial communities

James Hall, Andrew James Wood, Ellie Harrison & Michael Brockhurst
Horizontal gene transfer is a fundamental process in bacterial evolution that can accelerate adaptation via the sharing of genes between lineages. Conjugative plasmids are the principal genetic elements mediating the horizontal transfer of genes, both within and between bacterial species. In some species, plasmids are unstable and likely to be lost through purifying selection, but when alternative hosts are available, interspecific plasmid transfer could counteract this and maintain access to plasmid-borne genes. To investigate the...

Data from: The ecology of herbivore-induced silicon defences in grasses

Susan E. Hartley & Jane L. DeGabriel
Silicon as a defence against herbivory in grasses has gained increasing recognition and has now been studied in a wide range of species, at scales from individual plants in pots to plant communities in the field. The impacts of these defences have been assessed on herbivores ranging from insects to rodents to ungulates. Here, we review current knowledge of silicon mediation of plant–herbivore interactions in an ecological context. The production of silicon defences by grasses...

Data from: Conjugation is necessary for a bacterial plasmid to survive under protozoan predation

Johannes Cairns, Matti Jalasvuori, Ville Ojala, Michael Brockhurst & Teppo Hiltunen
Horizontal gene transfer by conjugative plasmids plays a critical role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Interactions between bacteria and other organisms can affect the persistence and spread of conjugative plasmids. Here we show that protozoan predation increased the persistence and spread of the antibiotic resistance plasmid RP4 in populations of the opportunist bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens. A conjugation-defective mutant plasmid was unable to survive under predation, suggesting that conjugative transfer is required for plasmid...

Data from: The impact of digging on craniodental morphology and integration

Andrew F McIntosh & Philip Graham Cox
The relationship between the form and function of the skull has been the subject of a great deal of research, much of which has concentrated on the impact of feeding on skull shape. However, there are a number of other behaviours that can influence craniodental morphology. Previous work has shown that subterranean rodents that use their incisors to dig (chisel-tooth digging) have a constrained cranial shape which is probably driven by a necessity to create...

Data from: Bacterial competition and quorum-sensing signalling shapes the eco-evolutionary outcomes of model in vitro phage therapy

Rachel Mumford & Ville-Petri Friman
The rapid rise of antibiotic resistance has renewed interest in phage therapy – the use of bacteria-specific viruses (phages) to treat bacterial infections. Even though phages are often pathogen-specific, little is known about the efficiency and eco-evolutionary outcomes of phage therapy in polymicrobial infections. We studied this experimentally by exposing both quorum sensing (QS) signalling PAO1 and QS-deficient lasR Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotypes (differing in their ability to signal intra-specifically) to lytic PT7 phage in the...

Data from: Diversity and composition of tropical butterflies along an Afromontane agricultural gradient in the Jimma Highlands, Ethiopia

Olivia Norfolk, Abebe Asale, Tsegab Temesgen, Dereje Denu, Philip J. Platts, Rob Marchant, Delenasaw Yewhalaw. & Delenasaw Yewhalaw
Afromontane landscapes are typically characterized by a mosaic of smallholder farms and the biodiversity impacts of these practices will vary in accordance to local management and landscape context. Here, we assess how tropical butterfly diversity is maintained across an agricultural landscape in the Jimma Highlands of Ethiopia. We used transect surveys to sample understory butterfly communities within degraded natural forest, semi-managed coffee forest (SMCF), exotic timber plantations, open woodland, croplands and pasture. Surveys were conducted...

Data from: Barriers to dispersal of rain forest butterflies in tropical agricultural landscapes

Sarah A. Scriven, Colin Michael Beale, Suzan Benedick & Jane K. Hill
Fragmentation of natural habitats can be detrimental for species if individuals fail to cross habitat boundaries to reach new locations, thereby reducing functional connectivity. Connectivity is crucial for species shifting their ranges under climate change, making it important to understand factors that might prevent movement through human-modified landscapes. In tropical regions, rain forests are being fragmented by agricultural expansion, potentially isolating populations of highly diverse forest-dependent species. The likelihood of crossing habitat boundaries is an...

Data from: Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears

Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Aurora Grandal-D'Anglade, Ben Kolbe, Daniel Fernandes, Ioana N. Meleg, Ana Garcia-Vazquez, Ana C. Pinto-Llona, Silviu Constantin, Trino J. De Torres, Jose E. Ortiz, Christine Frischauf, Gernot Rabeder, Michael Hofreiter, Axel Barlow & Gloria G. Fortes
Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost...

Data from: Does cooperation mean kinship between spatially discrete ant nests?

Duncan S. Procter, Joan E. Cottrell, Kevin Watts, Stuart W. A'Hara, Michael Hofreiter & Elva J. H. Robinson
Eusociality is one of the most complex forms of social organization, characterized by cooperative and reproductive units termed colonies. Altruistic behavior of workers within colonies is explained by inclusive fitness, with indirect fitness benefits accrued by helping kin. Members of a social insect colony are expected to be more closely related to one another than they are to other conspecifics. In many social insects, the colony can extend to multiple socially connected but spatially separate...

Data from: The ecology of wildlife disease surveillance: demographic and prevalence fluctuations undermine surveillance

Laura Walton, Glenn Marion, Ross S. Davidson, Piran C. L. White, Lesley A. Smith, Dolores Gavier-Widen, Lisa Yon, Duncan Hannant, Michael R. Hutchings & Piran C.L. White
Wildlife disease surveillance is the first line of defence against infectious disease. Fluctuations in host populations and disease prevalence are a known feature of wildlife disease systems. However, the impact of such heterogeneities on the performance of surveillance is currently poorly understood. We present the first systematic exploration of the effects of fluctuations' prevalence and host population size on the efficacy of wildlife disease surveillance systems. In this study, efficacy is measured in terms of...

Data from: Probabilistic divergence time estimation without branch lengths: dating the origins of dinosaurs, avian flight and crown birds

Graeme T. Lloyd, David W. Bapst, Matt Friedman & Katie E. Davis
Branch lengths—measured in character changes—are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two...

Data from: Empirical demonstration of hybrid chromosomal races in house mice

Mabel D. Giménez, Thadsin Panithanarak, Heidi C. Hauffe & Jeremy B. Searle
Western house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and common shrews (Sorex araneus) are important models for study of chromosomal speciation. Both had ancestral karyotypes consisting of telocentric chromosomes, and each is subdivided into numerous chromosomal races many of which have resulted from fixation of new mutations (Robertsonian fusions and whole-arm reciprocal translocations). However, some chromosomal races in both species may alternatively have originated through hybridization, with particular homozygous recombinant products reaching fixation. Here, we demonstrate the...

Data from: An insect ecosystem engineer alleviates drought stress in plants without increasing plant susceptibility to an above-ground herbivore

Scott N. Johnson, Goran Lopaticki, Kirk Barnett, Sarah L. Facey, Jeff R. Powell & Susan E. Hartley
Climate change models predict more extreme rainfall patterns, ranging from droughts to deluges, which will inevitably affect primary productivity in many terrestrial ecosystems. Insects within the ecosystem, living above- and below-ground, may modify plant responses to water stress. For example, some functional groups improve soil conditions via resource provision, potentially alleviating water stress. Enhanced resource provision may, however, render plants more susceptible to herbivores and negate beneficial effects. Using a model system, we tested how...

Data from: Differential gene expression according to race and host plant in the pea aphid

Isobel Eyres, Julie Jaquiéry, Akiko Sugio, Ludovic Duvaux, Karim Gharbi, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Fabrice Legeai, Michaela Nelson, Jean-Christophe Simon, Carole M. Smadja, Roger Butlin & Julia Ferrari
Host-race formation in phytophagous insects is thought to provide the opportunity for local adaptation and subsequent ecological speciation. Studying gene expression differences amongst host races may help to identify phenotypes under (or resulting from) divergent selection and their genetic, molecular and physiological bases. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) comprises host races specializing on numerous plants in the Fabaceae and provides a unique system for examining the early stages of diversification along a gradient of genetic...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • University of York
    18
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    2
  • Western Sydney University
    2
  • University of Sheffield
    2
  • Anglia Ruskin University
    1
  • University of Nottingham
    1
  • Burapha University
    1
  • University of Edinburgh
    1
  • University of A Coruña
    1
  • Macquarie University
    1