Small, isolated populations may experience increased extinction risk due to reduced genetic variability at important functional genes, thus decreasing the population’s adaptive potential. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a key immunological gene cluster, usually shows high variability maintained by positive or balancing selection in response to challenges by pathogens. Here we investigated for the first time, the variability of 3 MHC class II genes (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) in 94 samples collected from Italian wolves....
The ability to cope with increasing and more variable temperatures, due to predicted climate changes, through plastic and/or evolutionary responses will be crucial for the persistence of Arctic species. Here, we investigate plasticity of heat tolerance of the Greenlandic seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which inhabits areas with widely fluctuating temperatures. We test the heat resistance and hardening capacity (plasticity) of N. groenlandicus using both static (heat knock down time, HKDT) and dynamic (critical thermal maximum,...
Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in...
A variety of nonrandom mate choice strategies, including disassortative mating, are used by vertebrate species to avoid inbreeding, maintain heterozygosity and increase fitness. Disassortative mating may be mediated by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important gene cluster controlling immune responses to pathogens. We investigated the patterns of mate choice in 26 wild-living breeding pairs of gray wolf (Canis lupus) that were identified through noninvasive genetic methods and genotyped at 3 MHC class II and...
Data from: Thermal acclimation and adaptation across populations in a broadly distributed soil arthropodAnne Jensen, Tibebu Alemu, Temesgen Alemneh, Cino Pertoldi & Simon Bahrndorff
The relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution to the respons-es of species to climate change are poorly understood. It has been suggested that some species or populations will have to rely on their ability to adjust their phenotype rather than on adaptation through evolutionary adaptation. 2. We test the extent of intra- and inter-population patterns of acclimation and genetic varia-tion in multiple traits directly related to environmental tolerance limits in the broadly dis-tributed...
Background: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global...
Data from: Unexpected high genetic diversity in small populations suggests maintenance by associative overdominanceMads F. Schou, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Bechsgaard, Christian Schlötterer & Torsten N. Kristensen
The effective population size (Ne) is a central factor in determining maintenance of genetic variation. The neutral theory predicts that loss of variation depends on Ne, with less genetic drift in larger populations. We monitored genetic drift in 42 Drosophila melanogaster populations of different adult census population sizes (10, 50 or 500) using pooled RAD sequencing. In small populations, variation was lost at a substantially lower rate than expected. This observation was consistent across two...
Data from: Preservation of potassium balance is strongly associated with insect cold tolerance in the field: a seasonal study of Drosophila subobscuraHeath A. MacMillan, Mads F. Schou, Torsten N. Kristensen & Johannes Overgaard
There is interest in pinpointing genes and physiological mechanisms explaining intra- and interspecific variations in cold tolerance, because thermal tolerance phenotypes strongly impact the distribution and abundance of wild animals. Laboratory studies have highlighted that the capacity to preserve water and ion homeostasis is linked to low temperature survival in insects. It remains unknown, however, whether adaptive seasonal acclimatization in free-ranging insects is governed by the same physiological mechanisms. Here, we test whether cold tolerance...
Data from: Species distribution models of the Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii, Diptera: Drosophilidae) in its native and invasive range reveal an ecological niche shiftIben V. Ørsted & Michael Ørsted
The Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) is native to Southeast Asia. Since its first detection in 2008 in Europe and North America, it has been a pest to the fruit production industry as it feeds and oviposits on ripening fruit. Here we aim to model the potential geographical distribution of D. suzukii. We performed an extensive literature review to map the current records. In total 517 documented occurrences (96 native and 421 invasive) was identified...
Data from: Heat hardening capacity in Drosophila melanogaster is life stage specific and juveniles show the highest plasticityNeda Nasiri Moghadam, Tarmo Ketola, Cino Pertoldi, Simon Bahrndorff & Torsten Kristensen
Variations in stress resistance and adaptive plastic responses during ontogeny have rarely been addressed, despite the possibility that differences between life stages can affect species' range margins and thermal tolerance. Here, we assessed the thermal sensitivity and hardening capacity of Drosophila melanogaster across developmental stages from larval to the adult stage. We observed strong differences between life stages in heat resistance, with adults being most heat resistant followed by puparia, pupae and larvae. The impact...
In this video Researcher Christian Skov from DTU Aqua tells about the Citizen Science project “Fangstjournalen” and how Research Data Management, data sharing and following the FAIR guiding principles for research data can increase the impact and the value of the research - even beyond the scope of the project. This video is produced by four Danish Universities as part of a project financially supported by DEFF. The aim of the project is to identify...
Technical University of Denmark5
University of Zagreb4
Polish Academy of Sciences4
Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale4
University of Copenhagen3
University of the Basque Country2
Estación Biológica de Doñana2
University of Bologna2