28 Works

Data from: Phylogeographic structure, demographic history, and morph composition in a colour polymorphic lizard

Claire A. McLean, Devi Stuart-Fox & Adnan Moussalli
In polymorphic species, population divergence in morph composition and frequency has the potential to promote speciation. We assessed the relationship between geographic variation in male throat colour polymorphism and phylogeographic structure in the tawny dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii. We identified four genetically distinct lineages, corresponding to two polymorphic lineages in the Northern Flinders Ranges and Southern Flinders Ranges/Olary Ranges regions respectively, and a monomorphic lineage in the Mt Lofty Ranges/Kangaroo Island region. The degree of...

Data from: Museum genomics: low-cost and high-accuracy genetic data from historical specimens

Kevin C. Rowe, Sonal Singhal, Matthew D. MacManes, Julien F. Ayroles, Toni Lyn Morelli, Emily M. Rubidge, Ke Bi & Craig C. Moritz
Natural history collections are unparalleled repositories of geographic and temporal variation in faunal conditions. Molecular studies offer an opportunity to uncover much of this variation; however, genetic studies of historical museum specimens typically rely on extracting highly degraded and chemically modified DNA samples from skins, skulls or other dried samples. Despite this limitation, obtaining short fragments of DNA sequences using traditional PCR amplification of DNA has been the primary method for genetic study of historical...

Data from: Climate is a strong predictor of near-infrared reflectance but a poor predictor of colour in butterflies

Joshua T. Munro, Iliana Medina, Ken Walker, Adnan Moussalli, Michael R. Kearney, Adrian G. Dyer, Jair Garcia, Katrina J. Rankin & Devi Stuart-Fox
Colour variation across climatic gradients is a common ecogeographical pattern; yet there is long-standing contention over underlying causes, particularly selection for thermal benefits. We tested the evolutionary association between climate gradients and reflectance of near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which influence heat gain but are not visible to animals. We measured ultraviolet, visible and NIR reflectance from calibrated images of 372 butterfly specimens from 60 populations (49 species, 5 families) spanning the Australian continent. Consistent with selection...

Data from: Geographic variation in hybridization and ecological differentiation between three syntopic, morphologically similar species of montane lizards

Margaret L. Haines, Jane Melville, Joanna Sumner, Nick Clemann, David G. Chapple & Devi Stuart-Fox
To understand factors shaping species boundaries in closely related taxa, a powerful approach is to compare levels of genetic admixture at multiple points of contact and determine how this relates to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as genetic, morphological and ecological differentiation. In the Australian Alps, the threatened alpine bog skink Pseudemoia cryodroma co-occurs with two morphologically and ecologically similar congeners, P. entrecasteauxii and P. pagenstecheri, and all three species are suspected to hybridize. We...

Data from: Spatio-temporal changes in the structure of an Australian frog hybrid zone: a 40 year perspective

Katie Louise Smith, Joshua Miles Hale, Laurène Gay, Michael R. Kearney, Jeremy J. Austin, Kirsten M. Parris, Jane Melville & Michael Kearney
Spatio-temporal studies of hybrid zones provide an opportunity to test evolutionary hypotheses of hybrid zone maintenance and movement. We conducted a landscape genetics study on a classic hybrid zone of the south-eastern Australian frogs, Litoria ewingii and L. paraewingi. This hybrid zone has been comprehensively studied since the 1960s, providing the unique opportunity to directly assess changes in hybrid zone structure across time. We compared both mtDNA and male advertisement call data from two time...

Data from: Environment predicts repeated body size shifts in a recent radiation of Australian mammals

Emily J. Roycroft, Jonathan A. Nations & Kevin C. Rowe
Closely related species that occur across steep environmental gradients often display clear body size differences, and examining this pattern is crucial to understanding how environmental variation shapes diversity. Australian endemic rodents in the Pseudomys Division (Muridae: Murinae) have repeatedly colonized the arid, monsoon, and mesic biomes over the last 5 million years. Using occurrence records, body mass data, and Bayesian phylogenetic models we test whether body mass of 31 species in the Pseudomys Division can...

Data from: Patterns of niche filling and expansion across the invaded ranges of an Australian lizard

Reid Tingley, Michael B. Thompson, Stephen Hartley & David G. Chapple
Studies of realized niche shifts in alien species typically ignore the potential effects of intraspecific niche variation and different invaded-range environments on niche lability. We incorporate our detailed knowledge of the native-range source populations and global introduction history of the delicate skink Lampropholis delicata to examine intraspecific variation in realized niche expansion and unfilling, and investigate how alternative niche modelling approaches are affected by that variation. We analyzed the realized niche dynamics of L. delicata...

Data from: Resources for phylogenomic analyses of Australian terrestrial vertebrates

Jason G. Bragg, Sally Potter, Ke Bi, Renee Catullo, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mark D. B. Eldridge, Leo Joseph, J. Scott Keogh, Paul Oliver, Kevin C. Rowe & Craig Moritz
High-throughput sequencing methods promise to improve our ability to infer the evolutionary histories of lineages and to delimit species. These are exciting prospects for the study of Australian vertebrates, a group comprised of many globally unique lineages with a long history of isolation. The evolutionary relationships within many of these lineages have been difficult to resolve with small numbers of loci, and we now know that many lineages also exhibit substantial cryptic diversity. Here, we...

Data from: Female ornamentation and the fecundity trade-off in a sex-role reversed pipefish

Kenyon B. Mobley, John R. Morrongiello, Matthew Warr, Dianne J. Bray, Bob B.M. Wong & Bob B. M. Wong
Sexual ornaments found only in females are a rare occurrence in nature. One explanation for this is that female ornaments are costly to produce and maintain and, therefore, females must trade-off resources related to reproduction to promote ornament expression. Here, we investigate whether a trade-off exists between female ornamentation and fecundity in the sex-role reversed, wide-bodied pipefish, Stigmatopora nigra. We measured two components of the disk-shaped, ventral-striped female ornament, body width and stripe thickness. After...

Data from: Developmental dynamics of ecomorphological convergence in a transcontinental lizard radiation

Christy A. Hipsley & Johannes Müller
Phenotypic convergence has confounded evolutionary biologists for centuries, explained as adaptations to shared selective pressures, or alternatively, the result of limited developmental pathways. We tested the relative roles of adaptation and constraint in generating convergent cranial morphologies across a large lizard radiation, the Lacertidae, whose members inhabit diverse environments throughout the Old World and display high amounts of homoplasy associated with ecological niche. Using three-dimensional X-ray computed tomography, we quantified cranial shape variation associated with...

Data from: Sex-specific shifts in morphology and colour pattern polymorphism during range expansion of an invasive lizard

Kimberly A. Miller, Andressa Duran, Jane Melville, Michael B. Thompson & David G. Chapple
Aim: Human-assisted range expansion of animals to new environments can lead to phenotypic shifts over ecological timescales.We investigated whether phenotypic changes are sex-specific using an invasive lizard (Lampropholis delicata). Location: Pacific region (Hawaiian Islands, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, eastern Australia) Methods: Using our knowledge of theintroduction history of L. delicata, we examined museum specimens of individuals collected across the native and introduced range to determine whether shifts in morphologyor colour pattern polymorphism had occurred...

Data from: Local adaptation and divergence in colour signal conspicuousness between monomorphic and polymorphic lineages in a lizard

Claire A. McLean, Adnan Moussalli & Devi Stuart-Fox
Population differences in visual environment can lead to divergence in multiple components of animal coloration including signalling traits and colour patterns important for camouflage. Divergence may reflect selection imposed by different receivers (conspecifics, predators), which depends in turn on the location of the colour patch. We tested for local adaptation of two genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages of a rock-inhabiting lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, by comparing the visual contrast of colour patches to different receivers in...

Data from: Repeated evolution of carnivory among Indo-Australian rodents

Kevin C. Rowe, Anang S. Achmadi & Jacob A. Esselstyn
Convergent evolution, often observed in island archipelagos, provides compelling evidence for the importance of natural selection as a generator of species and ecological diversity. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is the world's largest island system and encompasses distinct biogeographic units, including the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves, which together bracket the oceanic archipelagos of the Philippines and Wallacea. Each of these biogeographic units houses numerous endemic rodents in the family Muridae. Carnivorous murids, i.e.,...

Data from: Phylogenetic evidence for mid-Cenozoic turnover of a diverse continental biota

Paul M. Oliver & Andrew F. Hugall
Rapid climatic change at the beginning of the Oligocene epoch is concordant with global biotic turnover in the fossil record. However, while Southern Hemisphere geological movement played a key role in shaping these global climatic shifts, given generally poor terrestrial fossil records, evidence for matching turnover in entire Austral biotas is lacking. Emerging comprehensive phylogenetic frameworks provide alternative avenues to explore for signals of mass turnover or restructuring. Here, we combine phylogenetic data with empirical...

Data from: Contrasting processes drive ophiuroid phylodiversity across shallow and deep seafloors

Timothy J. O'Hara, Andrew F. Hugall, Skipton N.C. Woolley, Guadalupe Bribiesca-Contreras & Nocholas J. Bax
Our knowledge of the distribution and evolution of deep-sea life is limited, impeding our ability to identify priority areas for conservation. Here we analyse, for the first time, large integrated phylogenomic and distributional datasets of seafloor fauna from sea surface to abyss and equator to pole of the Southern Hemisphere for an entire class of invertebrates (Ophiuroidea). We find that latitudinal diversity gradients are assembled through contrasting evolutionary processes for shallow (0-200 m) and deep...

Data from: Dark ophiuroid biodiversity in a prospective abyssal mine field

Magdalini Christodoulou, Timothy D O’Hara, Andrew F Hugall & Pedro Martinez Arbizu
The seafloor contains valuable mineral resources, including polymetallic (or manganese) nodules that form on offshore abyssal plains. The largest and most commercially attractive deposits are located in the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ), in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EP) between Hawaii and Mexico, where testing of a mineral collection system is set to start soon [1]. The requirement to establish pre-mining environmental management plans has prompted numerous recent biodiversity and DNA barcoding surveys across these...

Data from: Spatially heterogeneous impact of climate change on small mammals of montane California

Kevin C. Rowe, Karen M. C. Rowe, Morgan W. Tingley, Michelle S. Koo, James L. Patton, Christopher J. Conroy, John D. Perrine, Steven R. Beissinger & Craig Moritz
Resurveys of historical collecting localities have revealed range shifts, primarily leading edge expansions, which have been attributed to global warming. However, there have been few spatially replicated community-scale resurveys testing whether species' responses are spatially consistent. Here we repeated early twentieth century surveys of small mammals along elevational gradients in northern, central and southern regions of montane California. Of the 34 species we analysed, 25 shifted their ranges upslope or downslope in at least one...

Data from: Persistent genetic signatures of historic climatic events in an Antarctic octopus

Jan M. Strugnell, Phill C. Watts, Peter J. Smith & A. Louise Allcock
Repeated cycles of glaciation have had major impacts on the distribution of genetic diversity of the Antarctic marine fauna. During glacial periods, ice cover limited the amount of benthic habitat on the continental shelf. Conversely, more habitat and possibly altered seaways, were available during interglacials when the ice receded and the sea level was higher. We used microsatellites and partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene to examine genetic structure...

Relict from the Jurassic: New family of brittle-stars from a New Caledonian seamount

Timothy O'Hara, Ben Thuy & Andrew Hugall
The deep-seafloor in the tropical Indo-Pacific harbours a rich and diverse benthic fauna with numerous palaeo-endemics. Here we describe a new species, genus and family of brittle-star (Ophiuroidea) from a single eight-armed specimen collected from a depth between 360 and 560 m on Banc Durand, a seamount east of New Caledonia. Leveraging a robust, fossil-calibrated (273 kbp DNA) phylogeny for the Ophiuroidea, we estimate the new lineage diverged from other ophiacanthid families in the Late...

The evolution of broadly polylectic behaviour in Lasioglossum (Chilalictus) (Halictidae, Apoidea)

Trace Akankunda, Carlos Rodriguez Lopez, Remko Leijs & Ken Walker
Based on the number of pollen hosts utilised, bees have been categorised as generalists (polylectic) or specialists (oligolectic). Faced with a changing habitat, polylectic bees can diversify their pollen ‘portfolio’, while oligolectic bees cannot and therefore may go locally extinct. Research into the evolution and maintenance of broad polylecty is scant. Instead, research has mainly focussed on the factors that constrain oligolectic species to a narrow diet. Here, we developed a molecular phylogeny of a...

Data from: The remarkable convergence of skull shape in crocodilians and toothed whales

Matthew R. McCurry, Alistair R. Evans, Erich M.G. Fitzgerald, Justin W. Adams, Philip D. Clausen, Colin R. McHenry & Erich M. G. Fitzgerald
The striking resemblance of long-snouted aquatic mammals and reptiles has long been considered an example of morphological convergence, yet the true cause of this similarity remains untested. We addressed this deficit through three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the full diversity of crocodilian and toothed whale (Odontoceti) skull shapes. Our focus on biomechanically important aspects of shape allowed us to overcome difficulties involved in comparing mammals and reptiles, which have fundamental differences in the number and position...

Data from: Molecular patterns of introgression in a classic hybrid zone between the Australian tree frogs, Litoria ewingii and L. paraewingi: Evidence of a tension zone

Katie L. Smith, Joshua M. Hale, Michael R. Kearney, Jeremy J. Austin & Jane Melville
Hybrid zones provide a rare opportunity to explore the processes involved in reproductive isolation and speciation. The southern hybrid zone between the southeastern Australian tree frogs Litoria ewingii and L. paraewingi has been comprehensively studied over the last 40 years, primarily using reproductive compatibility experiments and male advertisement calls. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and eight nuclear microsatellite markers to characterize this hybrid zone along a historically studied transect and to test various dispersal-dependent and...

Data from: Identification and qualification of 500 nuclear, single-copy, orthologous genes for the Eupulmonata (Gastropoda) using transcriptome sequencing and exon capture

Luisa C. Teasdale, Frank Köhler, Kevin D. Murray, Tim O'Hara & Adnan Moussalli
The qualification of orthology is a significant challenge when developing large, multiloci phylogenetic data sets from assembled transcripts. Transcriptome assemblies have various attributes, such as fragmentation, frameshifts and mis-indexing, which pose problems to automated methods of orthology assessment. Here, we identify a set of orthologous single-copy genes from transcriptome assemblies for the land snails and slugs (Eupulmonata) using a thorough approach to orthology determination involving manual alignment curation, gene tree assessment and sequencing from genomic...

Data from: Revealing the biochemical and genetic basis of color variation in a polymorphic lizard

Claire A. McLean, Adrian Lutz, Katrina J. Rankin, Devi Stuart-Fox & Adnan Moussalli
Determining the mechanistic and genetic basis of animal coloration is essential to understand the costs and constraints on colour production, and the evolution and maintenance of phenotypic variation. However, genes underlying structural colour and widespread pigment classes apart from melanin remain largely uncharacterised, in part due to restricted taxonomic focus. We combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq gene expression analyses to characterise the pigments and genes associated with skin colour in the polymorphic lizard, Ctenophorus...

A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoan family, Adeonidae

Russell John Scott Orr, Marianne N. Haugen, Björn Berning, Philip Bock, Robyn Cumming, Wayne Florence, Masato Hirose, Emanuela Di Martino, Mali H. Ramsfjell, Maja M. Sannum, Abigail M. Smith, Leandro M. Vieira, Andrea Waeschenbach & Lee Hsiang Liow
Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among species is one of the main goals of systematic biology. Simultaneously, credible phylogenetic hypotheses are often the first requirement for unveiling the evolutionary history of traits and for modelling macroevolutionary processes. However, many non-model taxa have not yet been sequenced to an extent such that statistically well-supported molecular phylogenies can be constructed for these purposes. Here, we use a genome-skimming approach to extract sequence information for 15 mitochondrial and 2...

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