71 Works

COVID-19 evidence syntheses with artificial intelligence: an empirical study of systematic reviews

Juan R. Tercero-Hidalgo, Khalid S. Khan, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Rodrigo Fernández-López, Juan F. Huete, Carmen Amezcua-Prieto, Javier Zamora & Juan M. Fernández-Luna
Objectives: A rapidly developing scenario like a pandemic requires the prompt production of high-quality systematic reviews, which can be automated using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. We evaluated the application of AI tools in COVID-19 evidence syntheses. Study design: After prospective registration of the review protocol, we automated the download of all open-access COVID-19 systematic reviews in the COVID-19 Living Overview of Evidence database, indexed them for AI-related keywords, and located those that used AI tools....

Data from: Protection of pepper plants from drought by microbacterium sp. 3J1 by modulation of the plant's glutamine and α-ketoglutarate content: a comparative metabolomics approach

Cristina Garcia Fontana, Juan Ignacio Vílchez & Maximino Manzanera
Desiccation-tolerant plants are able to survive for extended periods of time in the absence of water. The molecular understanding of the mechanisms used by these plants to resist droughts can be of great value for improving drought tolerance in crops. This understanding is especially relevant in an environment that tends to increase the number and intensity of droughts. The combination of certain microorganisms with drought-sensitive plants can improve their tolerance to water scarcity. One of...

Data from: Palaeobiogeography and evolutionary patterns of the larger foraminifer Borelis de Montfort (Borelidae)

Davide Bassi, Juan Carlos Braga, Giovanni Di Domenico, Johannes Pignatti, Sigal Abramovich, Pamela Hallock, Janine Koenen, Zoltan Kovacs, Martin R. Langer, Giulio Pavia & Yasufumi Iryu
The palaeobiogeography of the alveolinoid Borelis species reveals the evolutionary patterns leading to the two extant representatives, which occur in shallow-water tropical carbonate, coral reef-related settings. Type material and new material of fossil Borelis species, along with Recent specimens were studied to assess their taxonomic status, species circumscriptions (based on proloculus size, occurrence of Y-shaped septula, and the index of elongation), palaeobiogeography and evolutionary dynamics. The species dealt with here are known from exclusively fossil...

Data from: De novo active sites for resurrected Precambrian enzymes

Valeria A. Risso, Sergio Martinez Rodriguez, Adela M. Candel, Dennis M. Krüger, David Pantoja-Uceda, Mariano Ortega-Munoz, Francisco Santoyo-Gonzalez, Eric A. Gaucher, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin, Marta Bruix, Jose A. Gavira & Jose M. Sanchez-Ruiz
Protein engineering studies often suggest the emergence of completely new enzyme functionalities to be highly improbable. However, enzymes likely catalysed many different reactions already in the last universal common ancestor. Mechanisms for the emergence of completely new active sites must therefore either plausibly exist or at least have existed at the primordial protein stage. Here, we use resurrected Precambrian proteins as scaffolds for protein engineering and demonstrate that a new active site can be generated...

Data from: Parasites structuring ecological communities: the mistletoe footprint in Mediterranean pine forests

Ana Mellado & Regino Zamora
1. The capacity of parasitic plants in structuring natural communities is increasingly recognized. These plants can affect the structure, composition and productivity of plant communities by modifying the competitive balance between hosts and non-host species and by altering the quantity and quality of resources entering the soil. Despite the progress made in this field, there is still a lack of integrative studies showing the structuring capacity of parasitic plants in forest ecosystems, where their effect...

Data from: Host nest site choice depends on risk of cuckoo parasitism in magpie hosts

Mónica Expósito-Granados, Deseada Parejo, Juan Gabriel Martínez, Marta Precioso, Mercedes Molina-Morales & Jesús M. Avilés
Avian brood parasites impose large fitness costs on their hosts and, thus, brood parasitism has selected for an array of host defensive mechanisms to avoid them. So far most studies have focused on antiparasite defenses operating at the egg and chick stages and neglected defenses that may work prior to parasite egg deposition. Here, we experimentally explore the possibility that hosts, as part of a front-line defense, might minimize parasitism costs through informed nest site...

Data from: Association between inbreeding depression and floral traits in a generalist-pollinated plant

Mohamed Abdelaziz, Antonio Jesús Muñoz-Pajares, Modesto Berbel, Francisco Perfectti & José María Gómez
Individual variation in the magnitude of inbreeding depression (ID) in plants and its association with phenotypic traits may have important consequences for mating system evolution. This association has been investigated only scarcely, and always considering traits functionally related to autogamy. Here, we explore the association between individual variation in ID and plant traits associated with pollinator attractiveness (related to plant size, corolla size and corolla shape) in two populations of Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). ID was...

Data from: Bees explain floral variation in a recent radiation of Linaria

José Luis Blanco-Pastor, Concepción Ornosa, Daniel Romero, Isabel Liberal, José M. Gómez & Pablo Vargas
The role of pollinators in floral divergence has long attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists. Although abundant studies have reported the effect of pollinators on flower shape variation and plant speciation, the influence of pollinators on plant species differentiation during rapid radiations and the specific consequences of shifts among similar pollinators are not well understood. Here, we evaluate the association between pollinators and floral morphology in a closely related and recently diversifying clade of Linaria...

Data from: Recent speciation and secondary contact in endemic ants

Michael J. Jowers, Fernando Amor, Patrocinio Ortega, Alain Lenoir, Raphaël R. Boulay, Xim Cerdá & Juan A. Galarza
Gene flow is the main force opposing divergent selection, and its effects are greater in populations in close proximity. Thus, complete reproductive isolation between parapatric populations is not expected, particularly in the absence of ecological adaptation and sharp environmental differences. Here, we explore the biogeographical patterns of an endemic ant species, Cataglyphis floricola, for which two colour morphs (black and bicolour) coexist in parapatry throughout continuous sandy habitat in southern Spain. Discriminant analyses of six...

Data from: Where do monomorphic sexual systems fit in the evolution of dioecy? Insights from the largest family of angiosperms

Rubén Torices, Marcos Méndez & José María Gómez
A range of hypothesized evolutionary pathways has been proposed for describing the evolution of dioecy. However, the evolutionary links between other sexual systems not directly involved in dioecy evolution remain largely unexplored, and hence, a comprehensive picture of evolutionary transitions between sexual systems is still lacking. We explored the diversity and evolution of sexual systems in Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, where almost all sexual systems are present. We used a phylogenetic approach...

Data from: Unwrapping broken tails: Biological and environmental correlates of predation pressure in limbless reptiles

Mario R. Moura, Henrique C. Costa, Arthur D. Abegg, Esmeralda Alaminos, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Weverton S. Azevedo, Hugo Cabral, Priscila Carvalho, Sonia Cechin, Nathalie Citeli, Ângelo C. M. Dourado, André F. V. Duarte, Frederico G. R. França, Eliza M. X Freire, Paulo C. A. Garcia, Rafael Mol, Ricardo Montero, Antônio Moraes-Da-Silva, Daniel C. Passos, Paulo Passos, Renata Perez, Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Pedro Prado, Ana Lúcia C. Prudente, Raul F. D. Sales … & Jhonny J. M. Guedes
Studying species interactions in nature often requires elaborate logistics and intense fieldwork. The difficulties in such task might hinder our ability to answer questions on how biotic interactions change with the environment. Fortunately, a workaround to this problem lies within scientific collections. For some animals, the inspection of preserved specimens can reveal the scars of past antagonistic encounters, such as predation attempts. A common defensive behaviour that leaves scars on animals is autotomy, the loss...

Maite Méndez Baiges (ed.), “Arte escrita. Texto, imagen y género en el arte contemporáneo”

José Luis Plaza Chillón

Data from: Great spotted cuckoos show dynamic patterns of host selection during the breeding season

Manuel Soler, Tomás Perez-Contreras & Juan José Soler
Avian brood parasites depend entirely on their hosts to raise their nestlings until independence. Thus, parasite females should select suitable host nests for egg laying according to traits that enhance offspring survival. Availability of nests of certain characteristics influencing survival of parasitic offspring is however temporally dynamic and, thus, patterns of host selection should be evaluated considering characteristics of available host nests the day of parasitism. This allows detecting possible seasonal changes and, therefore, a...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Age-related brood parasitism and egg rejection in magpie hosts

Juan Gabriel Martinez Suarez, Mercedes Molina-Morales, Marta Precioso & Jesus Miguel Avilés
When the strength or nature of a host -parasite interaction changes over the host life cycle, the consequences of parasitism can depend on host population age structure. Avian brood parasites reduce hosts’ breeding success, and host age may play a role in this interaction if younger hosts are more likely parasitized and/or less able to defend themselves. We analyzed whether the age of female magpies (Pica pica) hosts is associated with parasite attack or their...

Epistatic selection on a selfish Segregation Distorter supergene: drive, recombination, and genetic load

Beatriz Navarro-Dominguez, Ching-Ho Chang, Cara Brand, Christina Muirhead, Daven Presgraves & Amanda Larracuente
Meiotic drive supergenes are complexes of alleles at linked loci that together subvert Mendelian segregation resulting in preferential transmission. In males, the most common mechanism of drive involves the disruption of sperm bearing one of a pair of alternative alleles. While at least two loci are important for male drive- the driver and the target- linked modifiers can enhance drive, creating selection pressure to suppress recombination. In this work, we investigate the evolution and genomic...

Made-up mouths with preen oil reveal genetic and phenotypic conditions of starling nestlings

Juan José Soler, Ester Martínez-Renau, Manuel Azcárate-García, Cristina Ruiz-Castellano, José Martín & Manuel Martin-Vivaldi
Animal colouration are due to pigments, nanostructures, or to the cosmetic use of natural products, and plays a central role in social communication. The role of cosmetic colouration has traditionally been focussed on scenarios of sexual selection, but it could also be used in other contexts. Here, by using spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor) as a model system, we explore the possibility that nestlings cosmetically used their intensely yellow coloured uropygial secretion to signal their genetic...

Data from: Exploitation of a turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) immune-related expressed sequence tag (EST) database for microsatellite screening and validation

Rafael Navajas-Pérez, Francisca Robles, María-Jesus Molina-Luzón, Roberto De La Herrán, José Antonio Álvarez-Dios, Belen G. Pardo, Manuel Vera, Carmen Bouza & Paulino Martínez
In this study, we identified and characterized 160 microsatellite loci from an expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from immune-related organs of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). A final set of 83 new polymorphic microsatellites were validated after the analysis of 40 individuals from Atlantic origin including both wild and farmed individuals. The allele number and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 18 and from 0.021 to 0.951, respectively. Evidences of null alleles at moderate-high frequencies...

Data from: Spatial heterogeneity of a parasitic plant drives the seed-dispersal pattern of a zoochorous plant community in a generalist dispersal system

Ana Mellado & Regino Zamora
Biota plays a central role as sources of spatial heterogeneity, having great potential to define ecological processes and patterns in the landscape. Mistletoes are fleshy-fruited parasitic plants that dwell in forest canopies showing a strong aggregated spatial distribution. Parasitized trees potentially concentrate frugivore activity on their canopy, where birds find food, places to perch and protection against predators. Thus, seed-deposition patterns generated from the canopy are expected to reflect the heterogeneity associated with the parasite....

Data from: Transgenerational effects of ungulates and pre-dispersal seed predators on offspring success and resistance to herbivory

Martin Aguirrebengoa, Maite García-Planas, Caroline Müller & Adela González-Megías
Herbivorous mammals and insect pre-dispersal seed predators are two types of herbivores that, despite their functional and morphological differences, tend to severely impact many plant species, highly decreasing their seed production and even imperiling the performance of their offspring through transgenerational effects. However, how they influence offspring resistance to herbivory remains largely unknown. In this study we experimentally examined the effects of ungulates and pre-dispersal seed predators on seed quality as well as on the...

Data from: Breathing frequency bias in fractal analysis of heart rate variability

Pandelis Perakakis, Michael Taylor, Eduardo Martinez-Nieto, Ioanna Revithi & Jaime Vila
Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is an algorithm widely used to determine fractal long-range correlations in physiological signals. Its application to heart rate variability (HRV) has proven useful in distinguishing healthy subjects from patients with cardiovascular disease. In this study we examined the effect of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) on the performance of DFA applied to HRV. Predictions based on a mathematical model were compared with those obtained from a sample of 14 normal subjects at...

Warming and CO2 effects under oligotrophication on temperate phytoplankton communities

Marco J. Cabrerizo, M. Inmaculada Álvarez-Manzaneda, Elizabeth León-Palmero, Gerardo Guerrero-Jiménez, Lisette N. De Senerpont Domis, Sven Teurlincx & Juan M. González-Olalla
Eutrophication, global warming, and rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are the three most prevalent pressures impacting the biosphere. Despite their individual effects are well-known, it remains untested how oligotrophication (i.e. nutrients reduction) can alter the planktonic community responses to warming and elevated CO2 levels. Here, we performed an indoor mesocosm experiment to investigate the warming × CO2 interaction under a nutrient reduction scenario (40%) mediated by an in-lake management strategy (i.e. addition of a commercial...

Hyaenas and lions: how the largest African carnivores interact at carcasses

Mar Amorós, Jose M. Gil-Sánchez, Beatriz De Las Nieves López-Pastor & Marcos Moleón
The study of the competitive interactions between predators has traditionally been approached within the context of predatory behavior. By using a quasi-experimental, non-intrusive approach, we go beyond the classical view that predators only compete for living prey and disentangle the mechanisms of exploitative and interference competition between two charismatic apex predators, lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), at carcasses other than their own kills. Carcasses of different sizes were monitored in two study...

Data from: Patient and impatient punishers of free-riders

Antonio M. Espín, Pablo Brañas-Garza, Benedikt Herrmann, Juan F. Gamella, A. M. Espin & P. Branas-Garza
Costly punishment of cheaters who contribute little or nothing to a cooperating group has been extensively studied as an effective means to enforce cooperation. The prevailing view is that individuals use punishment to retaliate against transgressions of moral standards like fairness or equity. However, there is much debate regarding the psychological underpinnings of costly punishment. Some authors suggest that costly punishment must be a product of humans’ capacity for reasoning, self-control, and long-term planning, while...

Data from: Watch out for your neighbor: climbing onto shrubs is related to risk of cannibalism in the scorpion Buthus cf. occitanus

Francisco Sánchez-Piñero, Fernando Urbano Tenorio & Fernando Urbano-Tenorio
The distribution and behavior of foraging animals usually imply a balance between resource availability and predation risk. In some predators such as scorpions, cannibalism constitutes an important mortality factor determining their ecology and behavior. Climbing on vegetation by scorpions has been related both to prey availability and to predation (cannibalism) risk. We tested different hypotheses proposed to explain climbing on vegetation by scorpions. We analyzed shrub climbing in Buthus cf. occitanus with regard to the...

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