665 Works

Data from: Aggressive chemotherapy and the selection of drug resistant pathogens

Silvie Huijben, Andrew S. Bell, Derek G. Sim, Danielle Tomasello, Nicole Mideo, Troy Day & Andrew F. Read
Drug resistant pathogens are one of the key public health challenges of the 21st century. There is a widespread belief that resistance is best managed by using drugs to rapidly eliminate target pathogens from patients so as to minimize the probability that pathogens acquire resistance de novo. Yet strong drug pressure imposes intense selection in favor of resistance through alleviation of competition with wild-type populations. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine...

Data from: Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania)

István Mikó, Robert S. Copeland, James P. Balhoff, Matthew J. Yoder & Andrew R. Deans
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable,...

Data from: A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation

Patricia L. Mullins, Ricardo Kawada, James P. Balhoff, Andrew R. Deans, James Balhoff, Patricia Mullins & Andrew Deans
The Neotropical evaniid genus Evaniscus Szépligeti currently includes six species. Two new species are described, Evaniscus lansdownei Mullins, sp. n. from Colombia and Brazil and Evaniscus rafaeli Kawada, sp. n. from Brazil. Evaniscus sulcigenis Roman, syn. n., is synonymized under Evaniscus rufithorax Enderlein. An identification key to species of Evaniscus is provided. Thirty-five parsimony informative morphological characters are analyzed for six ingroup and four outgroup taxa. A topology resulting in a monophyletic Evaniscus is presented...

Data from: No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata

Iliana B. Baums, Jennifer N. Boulay, Nicholas R. Polato & Michael E. Hellberg
The expanse of deep water between the Central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world’s most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO - El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favorable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal Eastern Pacific reefs. Here we investigate the population connectivity of the reef...

Data from: Genetic variation in HIF signaling underlies quantitative variation in physiological and life history traits within lowland butterfly populations

James H. Marden, Howard W. Fescemyer, Rudolf J. Schilder, William R. Doerfler, Juan Cristobal Vera & Christopher W. Wheat
Oxygen conductance to the tissues determines aerobic metabolic performance in most eukaryotes but has cost/benefit tradeoffs. Here we examine in lowland populations of a butterfly a genetic polymorphism affecting oxygen conductance via the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which senses intracellular oxygen and controls the development of oxygen delivery networks. Genetically distinct clades of Glanville fritillary (Melitaea cinxia) across a continental scale maintain, at intermediate frequencies, alleles in a metabolic enzyme (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH) that...

Data from: Female-limited colour polymorphism in the crab spider Synema globosum (Araneae: Thomisidae)

Helena Ajuria Ibarra & Tom Reader
Conspicuous colour variation, caused by the influence of the environment on phenotype or by genetic differences among individuals, is frequently observed in nature. If genetic in origin, colour variation can facilitate the study of mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of true polymorphisms. Here we describe, for the first time, the female-limited colour polymorphism in the crab spider, Synema globosum. We looked for associations between life-history traits and female colour morph, and identified potential agents...

Data from: Understanding genetic variation in in vivo tolerance to artesunate: implications for treatment efficacy and resistance monitoring

Laura C. Pollitt, Derek Sim, Rahel Salathé & Andrew F. Read
Artemisinin-based drugs are the front-line weapon in the treatment of human malaria cases, but there is concern that recent reports of slow clearing infections may signal developing resistance to treatment. In the absence of molecular markers for resistance, current efforts to monitor drug efficacy are based on the rate at which parasites are cleared from infections. However, some knowledge of the standing variation in parasite susceptibility is needed to identify a meaningful increase in infection...

Data from: Natural selection for the Duffy-null allele in the recently admixed people of Madagascar

Jason A. Hodgson, Joseph K. Pickrell, Laurel N. Pearson, Ellen E. Quillen, Antonio Prista, Jorge Rocha, Himla Soodyall, Mark D. Shriver & George H. Perry
While gene flow between distantly related populations is increasingly recognized as a potentially important source of adaptive genetic variation for humans, fully characterized examples are rare. In addition, the role that natural selection for resistance to vivax malaria may have played in the extreme distribution of the protective Duffy-null allele, which is nearly completely fixed in mainland sub-Saharan Africa and absent elsewhere, is controversial. We address both these issues by investigating the evolution of the...

Data from: Environmental and biological controls on the diversity and ecology of Late Cretaceous through early Paleogene marine ecosystems in the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain

Jocelyn A. Sessa, Timothy J. Bralower, Mark E. Patzkowsky, John C. Handley & Linda C. Ivany
The late Mesozoic through early Cenozoic is an interval of significant biologic turnover and ecologic reorganization within marine assemblages, but the timing and causes of these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we quantify the pattern and timing of changes in the diversity (richness and evenness) and ecology of local (i.e., sample level) mollusk-dominated assemblages during this critical interval using field-collected and published datasets from the US Gulf Coastal Plain. We test whether the biologic and...

Data from: Comparative and population mitogenomic analyses of Madagascar’s extinct, giant ‘subfossil’ lemurs

Logan Kistler, Aakrosh Ratan, Laurie R. Godfrey, Brooke E. Crowley, Cris E. Hughes, Runhua Lei, Yinqui Cui, Mindy L. Wood, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Haingoson Andriamialison, John J. McGraw, Lynn P. Tomsho, Stephan C. Schuster, Webb Miller, Edward E. Louis, Anne D. Yoder, Ripan S. Malhi, George H. Perry & Yinqiu Cui
Humans first arrived on Madagascar only a few thousand years ago. Subsequent habitat destruction and hunting activities have had significant impacts on the island's biodiversity, including the extinction of megafauna. For example, we know of 17 recently extinct ‘subfossil’ lemur species, all of which were substantially larger (body mass ∼11–160 kg) than any living population of the ∼100 extant lemur species (largest body mass ∼6.8 kg). We used ancient DNA and genomic methods to study...

Data from: Tc-MYBPA an Arabidopsis TT2-like transcription factor and functions in the regulation of proanthocyanidin synthesis in Theobroma cacao

Yi Liu, Zi Shi, Siela N. Maximova, Mark J. Payne & Mark J. Guiltinan
Background: The flavan-3-ols catechin and epicatechin, and their polymerized oligomers, the proanthocyanidins (PAs, also called condensed tannins), accumulate to levels of up to 15 % of the total weight of dry seeds of Theobroma cacao L. These compounds have been associated with several health benefits in humans. They also play important roles in pest and disease defense throughout the plant. In Arabidopsis, the R2R3 type MYB transcription factor TT2 regulates the major genes leading to...

Data from: Do humans optimally exploit redundancy to control step variability in walking?

Jonathan B. Dingwell, Joby John & Joseph P. Cusumano
It is widely accepted that humans and animals minimize energetic cost while walking. While such principles predict average behavior, they do not explain the variability observed in walking. For robust performance, walking movements must adapt at each step, not just on average. Here, we propose an analytical framework that reconciles issues of optimality, redundancy, and stochasticity. For human treadmill walking, we defined a goal function to formulate a precise mathematical definition of one possible control...

Data from: Island-wide aridity did not trigger recent megafaunal extinctions in Madagascar

Brooke E. Crowley, Laurie R. Godfrey, Richard J. Bankoff, George H. Perry, Brendan J. Culleton, Douglas J. Kennett, Michael R. Sutherland, Karen E. Samonds & David A. Burney
Researchers are divided about the relative importance of people versus climate in triggering the Late Holocene extinctions of the endemic large-bodied fauna on the island of Madagascar. Specifically, a dramatic and synchronous decline in arboreal pollen and increase in grass pollen ca. 1,000 years ago has been alternatively interpreted as evidence for aridification, increased human activity, or both. As aridification and anthropogenic deforestation can have similar effects on vegetation, resolving which of these factors (if...

Data from: Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, megalopal settlement and condition during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Erin K. Grey, Susan C. Chiasson, Hannah G. Williams, Victoria J. Troeger & Caz M. Taylor
The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH...

Data from: Postural stability margins as a function of support surface slopes

Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder, Seymon M. Slobounov, John Henry Challis & Karl Maxim Newell
This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe) Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe) Up) and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure—CoP (displacement, area and length) had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat) platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both...

Data from: Phylogenetic clustering of origination and extinction across the Late Ordovician mass extinction

Andrew Z. Krug & Mark E. Patzkowsky
Mass extinctions can have dramatic effects on the trajectory of life, but in some cases the effects can be relatively small even when extinction rates are high. For example, the Late Ordovician mass extinction is the second most severe in terms of the proportion of genera eliminated, yet is noted for the lack of ecological consequences and shifts in clade dominance. By comparison, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction was less severe but eliminated several major clades...

Data from: The evolutionary consequences of blood-stage vaccination on the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi

Victoria C. Barclay, Derek Sim, Brian H. K. Chan, Lucas A. Nell, Maia A. Rabaa, Andrew S. Bell, Robin F. Anders & Andrew F. Read
Malaria vaccine developers are concerned that antigenic escape will erode vaccine efficacy. Evolutionary theorists have raised the possibility that some types of vaccine could also create conditions favoring the evolution of more virulent pathogens. Such evolution would put unvaccinated people at greater risk of severe disease. Here we test the impact of vaccination with a single highly purified antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi evolving in laboratory mice. The antigen we used, AMA-1, is...

Data from: Sexual selection on male vocal fundamental frequency in humans and other anthropoids

David A. Puts, Alexander K. Hill, Drew H. Bailey, Robert S. Walker, Drew Rendall, John R. Wheatley, Lisa L. M. Welling, Khytam Dawood, Rodrigo A. Cárdenas, Robert P. Burriss, Nina G. Jablonski, Mark D. Shriver, Daniel J. Weiss, Adriano R. Lameira, Coren L. Apicella, Michael J. Owren, Claudia Barelli, Mary E. Glenn & Gabriel Ramos-Fernandez
In many primates, including humans, the vocalizations of males and females differ dramatically, with male vocalizations and vocal anatomy often seeming to exaggerate apparent body size. These traits may be favoured by sexual selection because low-frequency male vocalizations intimidate rivals and/or attract females, but this hypothesis has not been systematically tested across primates, nor is it clear why competitors and potential mates should attend to vocalization frequencies. Here we show across anthropoids that sexual dimorphism...

Data from: The geography of spatial synchrony

Jonathan A. Walter, Lawrence W. Sheppard, Thomas L. Anderson, Jude H. Kastens, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Andrew M. Liebhold & Daniel C. Reuman
Spatial synchrony, defined as correlated temporal fluctuations among populations, is a fundamental feature of population dynamics, but many aspects of synchrony remain poorly understood. Few studies have examined detailed geographical patterns of synchrony; instead most focus on how synchrony declines with increasing linear distance between locations, making the simplifying assumption that distance decay is isotropic. By synthesising and extending prior work, we show how geography of synchrony, a term which we use to refer to...

Data from: Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

Roland A. Knapp, Gary M. Fellers, Patrick M. Kleeman, David A. W. Miller, Vance T. Vredenburg, Erica Bree Rosenblum & Cheryl J. Briggs
Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National...

Nitrous oxide emissions in a landscape transitioning from Conservation Reserve Program grassland to energy crops switchgrass and Miscanthus

A.R. Kemanian, D. Shaha, B.M. Rau, J.P. Kaye, F.R. Montes & P.R. Adler
uture liquid fuel demand from renewable sources may, in part, be met by converting the seasonally wet portions of the landscape currently managed for soil and water conservation to perennial energy crops. However, this shift may increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, thus limiting the carbon (C) benefits of energy crops. Particularly high emissions may occur during the transition period when the soil is disturbed, plants are establishing, and nitrate and water accumulation may favor emissions....

Data from: A phylogeny of the treehopper subfamily Heteronotinae reveals convergent pronotal traits (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracidae)

Olivia Evangelista, Albino M. Sakakibara, Jason R. Cryan & Julie M. Urban
Even within an insect family famous for its morphological diversity, the treehopper subfamily Heteronotinae is a microcosm of pronotal variation, displaying remarkably dissimilar thoracic ornamentations among its ten included genera. Presented here is a reconstruction of heteronotine relationships based on DNA nucleotide sequence data from five nuclear and two mitochondrial genes from a comprehensive sample of ingroup taxa (including exemplars of all genera except for the monotypic Dysyncritus Fowler, 1895). Concordant phylogenetic estimates support the...

Data from: Attraction, oviposition and larval survival of the fungus gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on fungal species isolated from adults, larvae, and mushroom compost

Kevin R. Cloonan, Stefanos S. Andreadis, Haibin Chen, Nina E. Jenkins & Thomas C. Baker
We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is...

Data from: Plant reproductive strategies vary under low and high pollinator densities

Junpeng Mu, Qinggui Wu, Yulian Yang, Mei Huang & Christina M. Grozinger
Long-term variation in the population density of honey bees (Apis mellifera) across landscapes has been shown to correlate with variation in the floral traits of plant populations in these landscapes, suggesting that variations in pollinator population density and foraging rates can drive floral trait evolution of their host plants. However, it remained to be determined whether this variation in plant traits is associated with adaptive variation in plant reproductive strategies under conditions of high and...

Data from: Two-species occupancy modeling accounting for species misidentification and nondetection

Thierry Chambert, Evan H. Campbell Grant, David A. W. Miller, James D. Nichols, Kevin P. Mulder & Adrianne B. Brand
1.In occupancy studies, species misidentification can lead to false positive detections, which can cause severe estimator biases. Currently, all models that account for false positive errors only consider omnibus sources of false detections and are limited to single species occupancy. 2.However, false detections for a given species often occur because of the misidentification with another, closely-related species. To exploit this explicit source of false positive detection error, we develop a two-species occupancy model that accounts...

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