405 Works

Data from: Existing infection facilitates establishment and density of malaria parasites in their mosquito vector

Laura C. Pollitt, Joshua T. Bram, Simon Blanford, Matthew J. Jones & Andrew F. Read
Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together...

Data from: The evolutionary history of ferns inferred from 25 low-copy nuclear genes

Carl J. Rothfels, Fay-Wei Li, Erin M. Sigel, Layne Huiet, Anders Larsson, Dylan O. Burge, Markus Ruhsam, Michael Deyholos, Douglas E. Soltis, , Shane W. Shaw, Lisa Pokorny, Tao Chen, Claude DePamphilis, Lisa DeGironimo, Li Chen, Xiaofeng Wei, Xiao Sun, Petra Korall, Dennis W. Stevenson, Sean W. Graham, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Kathleen M. Pryer, C. Neal Stewart, Gane K-S. Wong … & Claude De Pamphilis
Premise of the study: Understanding fern (monilophyte) phylogeny and its evolutionary timescale is critical for broad investigations of the evolution of land plants, and for providing the point of comparison necessary for studying the evolution of the fern sister group, seed plants. Molecular phylogenetic investigations have revolutionized our understanding of fern phylogeny, however, to date, these studies have relied almost exclusively on plastid data. Methods: Here we take a curated phylogenomics approach to infer the...

Data from: Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens

Andrew F. Read, Susan J. Baigent, Claire Powers, Lydia B. Kgosana, Luke Blackwell, Lorraine P. Smith, David A. Kennedy, Stephen W. Walkden-Brown & Venugopal K. Nair
Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity...

The hornwort genome and early land plant evolution

Jian Zhang, Xin-Xing Fu, Rui-Qi Li, Xiang Zhao, Yang Liu, Ming-He Li, Arthur Zwaenepoel, Hong Ma, Bernard Goffinet, Yan-Long Guan, Jia-Yu Xue, Yi-Ying Liao, Qing-Feng Wang, Qing-Hua Wang, Jie-Yu Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Zhi-Wen Wang, Yu Jia, Mei-Zhi Wang, Shan-Shan Dong, Jian-Fen Yang, Yuan-Nian Jiao, Ya-Long Guo, Hong-Zhi Kong, An-Ming Lu … & Zhi-Duan Chen
Hornworts, liverworts, and mosses are three early diverging clades of land plants, together composing the bryophytes. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the hornwort Anthoceros angustus. Phylogenomic inferences confirm the monophyly of bryophytes, with hornworts sister to liverworts and mosses. The simple morphology of hornworts correlates with low genetic redundancy in plant body plan while the basic transcriptional regulation toolkit for plant development has already been established in this early land plant lineage....

An adjunctive therapy administered with an antibiotic prevents enrichment of antibiotic-resistant clones of a colonizing opportunistic pathogen

Valerie Morley & Clare Kinnear
Therapeutic antibiotic use drives the spread of antibiotic resistance, a major threat to public health. Ideally, clinicians could treat infections with antibiotics without fueling transmission of resistant pathogens. Here, we show proof of concept for an adjunctive therapy approach that allows treatment of target pathogens without the emergence and onward transmission of resistance. Like many of the bacterial species responsible for the antimicrobial resistance crisis, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a colonizing opportunistic pathogen and an...

Data from: Predicting fine root lifespan from plant functional traits in temperate trees

M. Luke McCormack, Thomas S. Adams, Mark D. Coleman & David M. Eissenstat
• Although linkages of leaf and whole-plant traits to leaf lifespan have been rigorously investigated, there is a limited understanding of similar linkages of whole-plant and fine root traits to root lifespan. In comparisons across species, do suites of traits found in leaves also exist for roots, and can these traits be used to predict root lifespan? • We observed the fine root lifespan of 12 temperate tree species using minirhizotrons in a common garden...

The effect of parasite dose on disease severity in the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi

Andrew Read, Nick Colegrave, Brian Chan & Rebecca Tims
Experiments were designed to look at the relationship between infective dose and disease severity using two clones of Plasmodium chabaudi that differ in virulence. We asked whether there were dose–severity relationships, whether clone differences in virulence were maintained over a range of doses, and whether disease severity could be accounted for by parasite dynamics. Groups of mice were infected with parasite doses differing by an order of magnitude, ranging from 100 to 1×108 parasites. Infective...

Data from: How does avian seed dispersal shape the structure of early successional tropical forests?

Aarón González-Castro, Suann Yang & Tomás A. Carlo
1. Frugivores shape plant communities via seed dispersal of fleshy-fruited plant species. However, the structural characteristics that frugivores impart to plant communities are little understood. Evaluating how frugivores structure plant communities via the non-proportional use of available fruit resources is critical to understand the functioning of ecosystems where fleshy-fruited plant species are dominant, such as tropical forests. 2. We performed a seed-addition field experiment to investigate how frugivorous birds shape the composition and richness of...

Data from: Collective behavior and colony persistence of social spiders depends on their physical environment

Ambika Kamath, Skylar D. Primavera, Colin M. Wright, Grant N. Doering, Kirsten A. Sheehy, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The physical environment occupied by group-living animals can profoundly affect their cooperative social interactions and therefore their collective behavior and success. These effects can be especially apparent in human-modified habitats, which often harbor substantial variation in the physical environments available within them. For nest-building animal societies, this influence of the physical environment on collective behavior can be mediated by the construction of nests—nests could either buffer animal behavior from changes in the physical environment or...

Data from: Fat in the leg: function of the expanded hind leg in gasteruptiid wasps (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae)

István Mikó, Sarthok Rasique Rahman, Salvatore S. Anzaldo, Thomas Van De Kamp, Ben A. Parslow, Nikolai J. Tatarnic, Maxwell T. Wetherington, Julie Anderson, Rudolf J. Schilder, Jonah M. Ulmer, Andrew R. Deans & Heather M. Hines
Among some of the most unusual traits of the gasteruptiid wasps is their unique hovering flight and the expansion of their hind tibiae. Tibial expansions in female parasitoid hymenopterans often involve an enlarged sensory structure for vibration detection, the subgenual organ, thus enabling refined substrate-borne detection of concealed hosts. In the present paper, we utilize a combination of microscopy, chemical analysis, gene expression, and behavior to explore the function of the expanded hind tibia of...

Data from: Fitness costs of mating with preferred females in a scramble mating system

Lindsey Swierk & Tracy Langkilde
Little is known about the operation of male mate choice in systems with perceived high costs to male choosiness. Scramble mating systems are one type of system in which male choice is often considered too costly to be selected. However, in many scramble mating systems, there are also potentially high rewards of male choosiness, as females vary dramatically in reproductive output and males typically mate once per season and/or per lifetime. Using scramble-mating wood frogs...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial homogenization of microbial habitats: a multivariate index of headwater wetland complex condition

Jessica B. Moon, Denice H. Wardrop, Erica A.H. Smithwick, Kusum J. Naithani & Erica A. H. Smithwick
With growing public awareness that wetlands are important to society, there are intensifying efforts to understand the ecological condition of those wetlands that remain, and to develop indicators of wetland condition. Indicators based on soils are not well developed and are absent in some current assessment protocols; these could be advantageous, particularly for soils, which are complex habitats for plants, invertebrates, and microbial communities. In this study, we examine whether multivariate soil indicators, correlated with...

Data from: Earth history and the passerine superradiation

Carl H. Oliveros, Daniel J. Field, Daniel T. Ksepka, F. Keith Barker, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael J. Andersen, Per Alström, Brett W. Benz, Edward L. Braun, Michael J. Braun, Gustavo A. Bravo, Robb T. Brumfield, R. Terry Chesser, Santiago Claramunt, Joel Cracraft, Andrés M. Cuervo, Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Travis C. Glenn, Michael G. Harvey, Peter A. Hosner, Leo Joseph, Rebecca T. Kimball, Andrew L. Mack, Colin M. Miskelly, A. Townsend Peterson … & Brant C. Faircloth
Avian diversification has been influenced by global climate change, plate tectonic movements, and mass extinction events. However, the impact of these factors on the diversification of the hyperdiverse perching birds (passerines) is unclear because family level relationships are unresolved and the timing of splitting events among lineages is uncertain. We analyzed DNA data from 4,060 nuclear loci and 137 passerine families using concatenation and coalescent approaches to infer a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis that clarifies relationships...

Implications for evolutionary trends from the pairing frequencies among golden-winged and blue-winged warblers and their hybrids

John Confer, Cody Porter, Kyle Aldinger, Ronald Canterbury, Jeffery Larkin & Darin McNeil
Extensive range loss for the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) has occurred in areas of intrusion by the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera) potentially related to their close genetic relationship. We compiled data on social pairing from nine studies for 2,679 resident Vermivora to assess evolutionary divergence. Hybridization between pure phenotypes occurred with 1.2% of resident males for sympatric populations. Pairing success rates for Golden-winged Warblers was 83% and for Blue-winged Warblers was 77%. Pairing success for...

Does evolutionary relatedness predict ecological similarity?

Judith Sclafani, Curtis Congreve & Mark Patzkowsky
A fundamental question in paleobiology is whether ecology is correlated with evolutionary history. By combining time-calibrated phylogenetic trees with genus occurrence data through time, we can understand how environmental preferences are distributed on a tree and evaluate support for models of ecological similarity. Exploring parameters that lend support to each evolutionary model will help address questions that lie at the nexus of the evolutionary and ecological sciences. We calculated ecological difference and phylogenetic distance between...

Neurovascular coupling and bilateral connectivity during NREM and REM sleep

Patrick Drew, Kevin Turner, Kyle Gheres & Elizabeth Proctor
Hemodynamic signals in the brain are used as surrogates of neural activity, but how these hemodynamic signals depend on arousal state is poorly understood. Here, we monitored neural activity and hemodynamic signals in un-anesthetized, head-fixed mice to understand how sleep and awake states impact cerebral hemodynamics. In parallel with electrophysiological recordings, we used intrinsic optical signal imaging to measure bilateral changes in cerebral hemoglobin ([HbT]), and two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM) to measure dilations of...

Data from: Group density, disease, and season shape territory size and overlap of social carnivores

Ellen Brandell, Nicholas Fountain-Jones, Marie Gilbertson, Paul Cross, Peter Hudson, Douglas Smith, Daniel Stahler, Craig Packer & Meggan Craft
1. The spatial organization of a population can influence the spread of information, behaviour, and pathogens. Territory size and territory overlap, components of spatial organization, provide key information as these metrics may be indicators of habitat quality, resource dispersion, contact rates, and environmental risk (e.g., indirectly transmitted pathogens). Furthermore, sociality and behaviour can also shape space use, and subsequently, how space use and habitat quality together impact demography. 2. Our study aims to identify factors...

Supplemental data for article: DNA content variation and SNP diversity within a single population of asexual snails

Kara Million, Amrita Bhattacharya, Zoe Dinges, Sarah Montgomery, Eries Smith & Curtis Lively
A growing body of research suggests that many clonal populations maintain genetic diversity even without occasional sexual reproduction. The purpose of our study was to document variation in SNP diversity, DNA content, and pathogen susceptibility in clonal lineages of the New Zealand freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. We studied snails that were collected from multiple field sites around a single lake (Lake Alexandrina), as well as isofemale clonal lineages that had been isolated and maintained in...

nNOS-expressing interneurons control basal and behaviorally-evoked arterial dilation in somatosensory cortex of mice

Patrick Drew, Christina Echagarruga, Kyle Gheres & Jordan Norwood
Cortical neural activity is coupled to local arterial diameter and blood flow. However, which neurons control the dynamics of cerebral arteries is not well understood. We dissected the cellular mechanisms controlling the basal diameter and evoked dilation in cortical arteries in awake, head-fixed mice. Locomotion drove robust arterial dilation, increases in gamma band power in the local field potential (LFP), and increases calcium signals in pyramidal and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing neurons. Chemogenetic or...

Bumble bees in landscapes with abundant floral resources have lower pathogen loads

Darin McNeil, Elyse McCormick, Ashley C. Heimann, Melanie Kammerer, Margaret R. Douglas, Sarah C. Goslee, Christina M. Grozinger & Heather M. Hines
AbstractThe pollination services provided by bees are essential for supporting natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, bee population declines have been documented across the world. Many of the factors known to undermine bee health (e.g., poor nutrition) can decrease immunocompetence and, thereby, increase bees’ susceptibility to diseases. Given the myriad of stressors that can exacerbate disease in wild bee populations, assessments of the relative impact of landscape habitat conditions on bee pathogen prevalence are needed to...

Idealized tornado simulations for Wang et al. (2021) turbulence memory study.

A. Wang, Y. Pan & P. Markowski
This dataset contains the numerical simulations used in the Wang et al. (2021) study of turbulence memory in idealized tornadoes. Surface friction contributes to tornado formation and maintenance by enhancing the convergence of angular momentum. The traditional lower boundary condition in atmospheric models typically assumes an instant equilibrium between the unresolved stress and the resolved shear. This assumption ignores the physics that turbulent motions are generated and dissipated at finite rates—in effect, turbulence has a...

Position-Specific Isotope Fractionation in Amino Acids Sorbed to Ice: Implications for the Preservation of Isotopologue Biosignatures

A.C. Fox, E. Martineau, G.S. Remaud & K. Freeman
Sorption to mineral surfaces is a key process that protects amino acids from oxidation and aids their polymerization into complex biomolecules. Sorption of neutral amino acids is driven by a combination of intermolecular forces, commonly through hydrogen bonds with surface functional groups. Substitutions of heavy isotopes are known to influence the strength of intermolecular interactions, but global (i.e., whole-molecule) C isotope fractionation associated with sorption is small (< 1 ‰). However, larger fractionation of C...

Simple Simulation Model for Exploring the Effects of Solvent and Structure on Asphaltene Aggregation

N. J. H. Dunn, B. Gutama & W.G. Noid
Asphaltenes are operationally defined as the fraction of crude oil that is soluble in toluene but insoluble in n-heptane. According to the Yen–Mullins model, typical asphaltenes are relatively small molecules consisting of a single aromatic core flanked by aliphatic chains. The Yen–Mullins model posits that asphaltene aggregation proceeds via a hierarchical mechanism involving small nanoaggregates with stacked aromatic cores surrounded by a corona of aliphatic tails. In this work, we introduce a coarse-grained (CG) model...

ISR - Phil Erickson, MIT/Haystack Observatory. (2013)

L.R. Dinsmore
The period of Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) observation extended between 12:42 UT May 6th and 19:47 UT May 8th, 2013. The Millstone Hill (MH) ISR system contains two radar dishes with one (the Zenith beam) having fixed pointing at an 88° beam elevation, and the other pointed parallel-B (MISA: the MH Steerable Antenna), with an azimuth angle of 165.8° and an elevation angle of 66.26°, at an altitude of 250 kilometers based on the IGRF...

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