500 Works

Data from: Limited hatchery introgression into wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations despite reoccurring stocking

Shannon L. White, William L. Miller, Stephanie A. Dowell, Meredith L. Bartron & Tyler Wagner
Due to increased anthropogenic pressures on many fish populations, supplementing wild populations with captive-raised individuals has become an increasingly common management practice. Stocking programs can be controversial due to uncertainty about the long-term fitness effects of genetic introgression on wild populations. In particular, introgression between hatchery and wild individuals can cause declines in wild population fitness, resiliency, and adaptive potential, and contribute to local population extirpation. However, low survival and fitness of captive-raised individuals can...

Data from: Empirical and theoretical investigation into the potential impacts of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets

Katey D. Glunt, Maureen Coetzee, Silvie Huijben, A. Alphonsine Koffi, Penelope A. Lynch, Raphael N'Guessan, Welbeck A. Oumbouke, Eleanore D. Sternberg & Matthew B. Thomas
In spite of widespread insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes throughout Africa, there is limited evidence that long lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are failing to protect against malaria. Here, we showed that LLIN contact in the course of host-seeking resulted in higher mortality of resistant Anopheles spp. mosquitoes than predicted from standard laboratory exposures with the same net. We also found that sub-lethal contact with an LLIN caused a reduction in blood feeding and subsequent...

Data from: Existing infection facilitates establishment and density of malaria parasites in their mosquito vector

Laura C. Pollitt, Joshua T. Bram, Simon Blanford, Matthew J. Jones & Andrew F. Read
Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together...

Data from: Phylogenetic revision of the Strophomenida, a diverse and ecologically important palaeozoic brachiopod order

Curtis R. Congreve, Andrew Z. Krug, Mark E. Patzkowksy & Mark E. Patzkowsky
The order Strophomenida was an ecologically abundant and taxonomically diverse group of Palaeozoic brachiopods that originated in the earliest Ordovician and went extinct in the Carboniferous. During their long geological range, the Strophomenida survived two of the ‘Big Five’ mass extinction events, the Late Ordovician and the Late Devonian, suggesting that they are potentially informative taxa for studying the evolutionary effects of these two distinct mass extinctions, each with drastically different forcing mechanisms. However, while...

Data from: A connection between colony biomass and death in Caribbean reef-building corals

Daniel J. Thornhill, Randi D. Rotjan, Brian D. Todd, Geoff C. Chilcoat, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Todd C. LaJeunesse, Dustin W. Kemp, Jennifer McCabe Reynolds, Gregory W. Schmidt, Thomas Shannon, Mark E. Warner & William K. Fitt
Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994–2007), eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995–2006), and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003–2007). For...

Data from: Complex environmental drivers of immunity and resistance in malaria mosquitoes

Courtney C. Murdock, Lillian L. Moller-Jacobs & Matthew B. Thomas
Considerable research effort has been directed at understanding the genetic and molecular basis of mosquito innate immune mechanisms. Whether environmental factors interact with these mechanisms to shape overall resistance remains largely unexplored. Here we examine how changes in mean ambient temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation, and time of day of infection affected the immunity and resistance of Anopheles stephensi to infection with Escherichia coli. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the gene expression of three immune...

Data from: Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens

Andrew F. Read, Susan J. Baigent, Claire Powers, Lydia B. Kgosana, Luke Blackwell, Lorraine P. Smith, David A. Kennedy, Stephen W. Walkden-Brown & Venugopal K. Nair
Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity...

Data from: Projecting the recovery of a long-lived deep-sea octocoral species after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill using structured population models

Fanny Girard, Katriona Shea & Charles R. Fisher
1. Deep-water coral communities are hotspots of diversity and biomass in the deep sea. Most deep-sea coral species are long-lived and slow-growing, and are thus expected to recover slowly after disturbance. A better understanding of the recovery potential of these organisms is necessary to make appropriate management decisions. 2. We used data from high resolution monitoring of individual coral colonies that were impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (April 2010) to parameterise and validate...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial homogenization of microbial habitats: a multivariate index of headwater wetland complex condition

Jessica B. Moon, Denice H. Wardrop, Erica A.H. Smithwick, Kusum J. Naithani & Erica A. H. Smithwick
With growing public awareness that wetlands are important to society, there are intensifying efforts to understand the ecological condition of those wetlands that remain, and to develop indicators of wetland condition. Indicators based on soils are not well developed and are absent in some current assessment protocols; these could be advantageous, particularly for soils, which are complex habitats for plants, invertebrates, and microbial communities. In this study, we examine whether multivariate soil indicators, correlated with...

Data from: The influence of complex and threatening environments in early life on brain size and behaviour

Cairsty DePasquale, Thomas Neuberger, Amy M. Hirrlinger & Victoria A. Braithwaite
The ways in which challenging environments during development shape the brain and behaviour are increasingly being addressed. To date, studies typically consider only single variables, but the real world is more complex. Many factors simultaneously affect the brain and behaviour, and whether these work independently or interact remains untested. To address this, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were reared in a two-by-two design in housing that varied in structural complexity and / or exposure to a stressor....

Data from: Collective behavior and colony persistence of social spiders depends on their physical environment

Ambika Kamath, Skylar D. Primavera, Colin M. Wright, Grant N. Doering, Kirsten A. Sheehy, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The physical environment occupied by group-living animals can profoundly affect their cooperative social interactions and therefore their collective behavior and success. These effects can be especially apparent in human-modified habitats, which often harbor substantial variation in the physical environments available within them. For nest-building animal societies, this influence of the physical environment on collective behavior can be mediated by the construction of nests—nests could either buffer animal behavior from changes in the physical environment or...

Data from: The potential for fungal biopesticides to reduce malaria transmission under diverse environmental conditions

Rebecca L. Heinig, Krijn P. Paaijmans, Penelope A. Hancock & Matthew B. Thomas
1.The effectiveness of conventional malaria vector control is being threatened by the spread of insecticide resistance. One promising alternative to chemicals is the use of naturally-occurring insect-killing fungi. Numerous laboratory studies have shown that isolates of fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana can infect and kill adult mosquitoes, including those resistant to chemical insecticides. 2. Unlike chemical insecticides, fungi may take up to a week or more to kill mosquitoes following exposure. This slow kill...

Data from: Task shifting interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Joyce Gyamfi, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Alisa Surkis, Diana Margot Rosenthal, Collins Airhihenbuwa, Juliet Iwelunmor & Richard Cooper
Objective: To evaluate evidence from published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the use of task-shifting strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design: Systematic review of RCTs that utilised a task-shifting strategy in the management of CVD in LMICs. Data Sources: We searched the following databases for relevant RCTs: PubMed from the 1940s, EMBASE from 1974, Global Health from 1910, Ovid Health Star from 1966, Web of Knowledge from...

Data from: Ecologically differentiated, stress tolerant endosymbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) Clade D are different species.

Todd C. LaJeunesse, Drew C. Wham, D. Tye Pettay, John Everett Parkinson, Shashank Keshavmurthy & Chaolun Allen Chen
We used an integrative genetics approach using sequences of (1) nuclear ribosomal rDNA (internal transcribed spacers and partial large subunit rDNA), (2) single-copy microsatellite nuclear DNA, (3) chloroplast-encoded 23S rDNA, (4) mitochondrial cytochrome b, and (5) repeat variation at eight microsatellite markers, to test the hypothesis that the stress-tolerant, ‘morphologically cryptic’ Clade D Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) was composed of more than one species. Concordant phylogenetic and population genetic evidence clearly differentiate separately evolving, reproductively isolated lineages....

Data from: Root morphology and mycorrhizal type strongly influence root production in nutrient hot spots of mixed forests

Weile Chen, Roger T. Koide & David M. Eissenstat
1. Plants compete for nutrients using a range of strategies. We investigated nutrient foraging within nutrient hot-spots simultaneously available to plant species with diverse root traits. We hypothesized that there would be more root proliferation by thin-root species than by thick-root species, and that root proliferation by thin-root species would limit root proliferation by thick-root species. 2. We conducted a root ingrowth experiment in a temperate forest in eastern USA where root systems of different...

A spatially aware likelihood test to detect sweeps from haplotype distributions

Zachary Szpiech & Michael DeGiorgio
The inference of positive selection in genomes is a problem of great interest in evolutionary genomics. By identifying putative regions of the genome that contain adaptive mutations, we are able to learn about the biology of organisms and their evolutionary history. Here we introduce a composite likelihood method that identifies recently completed or ongoing positive selection by searching for extreme distortions in the spatial distribution of the haplotype frequency spectrum along the genome relative to...

Data from: Emerging wild virus of native grass bioenergy feedstock is well established in the Midwestern USA and associated with premature stand senescence

Carolyn M. Malmstrom, Anna K. Busch, Ellen A. Cole, Piotr Trebicki, Pauline Bernardo, Ally K. Brown, Douglas A. Landis & Benjamin P. Werling
This dataset includes values for the prevalence of switchgrass mosaic virus (Genus Marafivirus, Family Tymoviridae) detected with molecular diagnostics (RT-PCR) in individual Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) plants and in Graminella leafhoppers that feed on them. Surveys were conducted in 15 sites in August 2012. Stands surveyed had been established for some time and represent a range of landscape contexts. Measures of stand height and percent senescence were also collected. Land cover composition surrounding each site was...

Local and landscape characteristics shape amphibian communities across production landscapes in the Western Ghats

Vishnupriya Sankararaman, Shashank Dalvi, David Miller & Krithi Karanth
Global tropical forests have been modified and fragmented by commodity agroforests, leading to significant alterations in ecological communities. Nevertheless, these production landscapes offer secondary habitats that support and sustain local biodiversity. In this study, we assess community level and species-specific responses of amphibians to land management in areca, coffee and rubber, three of the largest commodity agroforests in the Western Ghats. A total of 106 agroforests across a 30,000 km2 landscape were surveyed for amphibians...

Data from: Predicting fine root lifespan from plant functional traits in temperate trees

M. Luke McCormack, Thomas S. Adams, Mark D. Coleman & David M. Eissenstat
• Although linkages of leaf and whole-plant traits to leaf lifespan have been rigorously investigated, there is a limited understanding of similar linkages of whole-plant and fine root traits to root lifespan. In comparisons across species, do suites of traits found in leaves also exist for roots, and can these traits be used to predict root lifespan? • We observed the fine root lifespan of 12 temperate tree species using minirhizotrons in a common garden...

An adjunctive therapy administered with an antibiotic prevents enrichment of antibiotic-resistant clones of a colonizing opportunistic pathogen

Valerie Morley & Clare Kinnear
Therapeutic antibiotic use drives the spread of antibiotic resistance, a major threat to public health. Ideally, clinicians could treat infections with antibiotics without fueling transmission of resistant pathogens. Here, we show proof of concept for an adjunctive therapy approach that allows treatment of target pathogens without the emergence and onward transmission of resistance. Like many of the bacterial species responsible for the antimicrobial resistance crisis, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a colonizing opportunistic pathogen and an...

Wild bumble bee colony abundance, scaled by field size, predicts pollination services

Shelby Fleischer, James Strange, Margarita Lopez-Uribe & Carley McGrady
Although bee visitation rate to flowers is often used to assess both pollination services and bee abundance, the abundance of social species needs to be assessed by quantifying the number of colonies instead of the number of foraging individuals. Because accurately quantifying the number of wild bee colonies can be difficult, the relationship of visitation rates provided by foragers and the abundance of colonies contributing those foragers from the surrounding landscape is poorly documented for...

Habitat suitability modeling to predict the spatial distribution of cold-water coral communities affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Samuel Georgian, Kody Kramer, Miles Saunders, William Shedd, Harry Roberts, Christopher Lewis, Chuck Fisher & Erik Cordes
Aim: The Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in the largest accidental marine oil spill in history and caused extensive injury to deep-sea habitats, including cold-water coral communities dominated by Paramuricea species. One of the primary difficulties in assessing the full extent of the injury to cold-water coral ecosystems is the extreme paucity of observational data and the subsequent lack of knowledge of their distribution within the affected region. The aim of this study was to use...

The hornwort genome and early land plant evolution

Jian Zhang, Xin-Xing Fu, Rui-Qi Li, Xiang Zhao, Yang Liu, Ming-He Li, Arthur Zwaenepoel, Hong Ma, Bernard Goffinet, Yan-Long Guan, Jia-Yu Xue, Yi-Ying Liao, Qing-Feng Wang, Qing-Hua Wang, Jie-Yu Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Zhi-Wen Wang, Yu Jia, Mei-Zhi Wang, Shan-Shan Dong, Jian-Fen Yang, Yuan-Nian Jiao, Ya-Long Guo, Hong-Zhi Kong, An-Ming Lu … & Zhi-Duan Chen
Hornworts, liverworts, and mosses are three early diverging clades of land plants, together composing the bryophytes. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the hornwort Anthoceros angustus. Phylogenomic inferences confirm the monophyly of bryophytes, with hornworts sister to liverworts and mosses. The simple morphology of hornworts correlates with low genetic redundancy in plant body plan while the basic transcriptional regulation toolkit for plant development has already been established in this early land plant lineage....

Bumble bees in landscapes with abundant floral resources have lower pathogen loads

Darin McNeil, Elyse McCormick, Ashley C. Heimann, Melanie Kammerer, Margaret R. Douglas, Sarah C. Goslee, Christina M. Grozinger & Heather M. Hines
AbstractThe pollination services provided by bees are essential for supporting natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, bee population declines have been documented across the world. Many of the factors known to undermine bee health (e.g., poor nutrition) can decrease immunocompetence and, thereby, increase bees’ susceptibility to diseases. Given the myriad of stressors that can exacerbate disease in wild bee populations, assessments of the relative impact of landscape habitat conditions on bee pathogen prevalence are needed to...

Cryptic diversity on cliffs: Aster sanqingensis, a new species of Asteraceae from Eastern China

Guojin Zhang, Jiahao Shen, Bohan Jiao, Guohao Niu, Fanghua Zhong, Guo Li & Tiangang Gao
It is generally believed that cliffs bear low biodiversity because of its harsh habitats. However, another reason, i.e. insufficient investigation caused by the inaccessibility of the cliffs, could not be excluded. In the genus Aster, two cliff species, Aster fanjingshanicus and Aster tianmenshanensis, respectively growing on the slate and limestone cliffs, were established. During our extensive field investigations, the third cliff species of Aster growing on granite cliffs from Eastern China was found. Based on...

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