552 Works

Bumble bees in landscapes with abundant floral resources have lower pathogen loads

Darin McNeil, Elyse McCormick, Ashley C. Heimann, Melanie Kammerer, Margaret R. Douglas, Sarah C. Goslee, Christina M. Grozinger & Heather M. Hines
AbstractThe pollination services provided by bees are essential for supporting natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, bee population declines have been documented across the world. Many of the factors known to undermine bee health (e.g., poor nutrition) can decrease immunocompetence and, thereby, increase bees’ susceptibility to diseases. Given the myriad of stressors that can exacerbate disease in wild bee populations, assessments of the relative impact of landscape habitat conditions on bee pathogen prevalence are needed to...

Intersecting Identities: A Trioethnographic Exploration of How Disability Studies Informs Our Work as Artists, Educators, and Researchers

Alexandra Allen, Timothy Smith & Amanda Newman-Godfrey

Shale Network database – A snapshot of the Entire Shale Network database as of March 2021

S.L. Brantley & T. Wen
This data set is a snapshot copy of the entire Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork) as of March 3rd, 2021. The Shale Network (http://www.shalenetwork.org/) is a project funded by the National Science Foundation to help scientists and other stakeholders store data for water resources that may be affected by gas exploitation in shale in the U.S.A. Our primary focus currently is the northeastern U.S.A. We want to enable the generation of knowledge from water chemistry and...

Flapping Wing Aerodynamics with PRSSM

Yagiz Bayiz & Bo Cheng
Flying animals resort to fast, large-degree-of-freedom motion of flapping wings, a key feature that distinguishes them from rotary or fixed-winged robotic fliers with limited motion of aerodynamic surfaces. However, flapping-wing aerodynamics are characterised by highly unsteady and three-dimensional flows difficult to model or control, and accurate aerodynamic force predictions often rely on expensive computational or experimental methods. Here, we developed a computationally efficient and data-driven state-space model to dynamically map wing kinematics to aerodynamic forces/moments....

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Evidence for a Modest Undercount Bias in Early Historical Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Counts’ (Mann et al. 2007)

M.E. Mann, T.A. Sabatelli & U. Neu
We obtain new insights into the reliability of long-term historical Atlantic tropical cyclone (‘TC’) counts through the use of a statistical model that relates variations in annual Atlantic TC counts to climate state variables. We find that the existence of a substantial undercount bias in late 19th through mid 20th century TC counts is inconsistent with the statistical relationship between TC counts and climate.

Separating planetary reflex Doppler shifts from stellar variability in the wavelength domain (code)

Andrew Collier Cameron, E. B. Ford, S. Shahaf & A. Mortier

Data, Analyses, and Code for Swarmsonde 2019

E.A. Bartos, P. Markowski & Y.P. Richardson
This dataset includes observations, analyses, and Python code for the “Swarmsonde 2019” project, in which swarms of balloon-borne sondes obtained in-situ thermodynamic and wind observations from above the ground in four supercell thunderstorms in May 2019. The supercells intercepted include a tornadic supercell on 17 May 2019 in southwestern Nebraska, a tornadic supercell on 20 May 2019 in southwestern Oklahoma, a nontornadic supercell on 23 May 2019 in the northeast Texas panhandle, and a tornadic...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘On forced temperature changes, internal variability, and the AMO’ (Geophysical Research Letters, Mann et al. 2014)

M.E. Mann, B.A. Steinman & S.K. Miller
We estimate the low-frequency internal variability of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature using observed temperature variations, which include both forced and internal variability components, and several alternative model simulations of the (natural + anthropogenic) forced component alone. We then generate an ensemble of alternative historical temperature histories based on the statistics of the estimated internal variability. Using this ensemble, we show, first, that recent NH mean temperatures fall within the range of expected multidecadal variability....

Lactational performance, rumen fermentation and enteric methane emission of dairy cows fed high-amylase corn silage.

S.F. Cueva, H.A. Stefenoni, A. Melgar, S.E. Räisänen, C.F.A. Lage, D.E. Wasson, M.E. Fetter & A.N. Hristov
The current study investigated the effect of a high-amylase corn silage on lactational performance, enteric methane (CH4) emission, and rumen fermentation of lactating dairy cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, 48 Holstein cows were blocked based on parity, days-in-milk, milk yield (MY), and CH4 emission. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in an 8-wk randomized complete block design experiment: (1) control corn silage (CON) from an isogenic corn without a-amylase trait and...

Supplementary data, code, validation statistics, and other information for ‘Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia’ (PNAS, Mann et al. 2008)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, M.K. Hughes, R.S. Bradley, S.K. Miller, S. Rutherford & F. Ni
Following the suggestions of a recent National Research Council report [NRC (National Research Council) (2006) Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (Natl Acad Press, Washington, DC).], we reconstruct surface temperature at hemispheric and global scale for much of the last 2,000 years using a greatly expanded set of proxy data for decadal-to-centennial climate changes, recently updated instrumental data, and complementary methods that have been thoroughly tested and validated with model simulation experiments. Our...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘The likelihood of recent warmth’ (Nature Scientific Reports, Mann et al. 2016)

M.E. Mann, S. Rahmstorf, B.A. Steinman, M. Tingley & S.K. Miller
2014 was nominally the warmest year on record for both the globe and northern hemisphere based on historical records spanning the past one and a half centuries. It was the latest in a recent run of record temperatures spanning the past decade and a half. Press accounts reported odds as low as one-in-650 million that the observed run of global temperature records would be expected to occur in the absence of human-caused global warming. Press...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Projected changes in persistent extreme summer weather events: The role of quasi-resonant amplification’ (Science Advances, Mann et al. 2018)

M.E. Mann, S.E. Räisänen, K. Kornhuber, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller, S. Petri & D. Coumou
Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been associated with highamplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves, with zonal wave numbers 6 to 8 resulting from the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA). A fingerprint for the occurrence of QRA can be defined in terms of the zonally averaged surface temperature field. Examining state-of-the-art [Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)] climate model projections, we find that QRA events are likely to increase by...

Impacts of COVID-19 on the U.S. Restaurant Industry from the Global Perspective

Seoki Lee, Hyoungju Song, Michael S. Lin & Amit Sharma

Cryptic diversity on cliffs: Aster sanqingensis, a new species of Asteraceae from Eastern China

Guojin Zhang, Jiahao Shen, Bohan Jiao, Guohao Niu, Fanghua Zhong, Guo Li & Tiangang Gao
It is generally believed that cliffs bear low biodiversity because of its harsh habitats. However, another reason, i.e. insufficient investigation caused by the inaccessibility of the cliffs, could not be excluded. In the genus Aster, two cliff species, Aster fanjingshanicus and Aster tianmenshanensis, respectively growing on the slate and limestone cliffs, were established. During our extensive field investigations, the third cliff species of Aster growing on granite cliffs from Eastern China was found. Based on...

Effects of the macroalga Asparagopsis taxiformis and oregano leaves on methane emission, rumen fermentation, and lactational performance of dairy cows

H.A. Stefenoni, S.E. Räisänen, S.F. Cueva, D.E. Wasson, C.F.A. Lage, A. Melgar, M.E. Fetter, P. Smith, M. Hennessy, B. Vecchiarelli, J. Bender, D. Pitta, C.L. Cantrell, C. Yarish & A.N. Hristov
Asparagopsis taxiformis (AT) is a source of multiple halogenated compounds and, in a limited number of studies, has been shown to decrease enteric CH4 production in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, oregano has also been suggested as a potential CH4 mitigating agent. This study consisted of 2 in vitro and 2 in vivo experiments. Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) was aimed at establishing the effect of AT on total gas production and CH4 emission in vitro....

Genomic variation of an endosymbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium fitti) among closely related coral hosts

Hannah Reich, Sheila A. Kitchen, Kathryn H. Stankiewicz, Meghann Devlin‐Durante, Nicole D. Fogarty & Iliana B. Baums
Mutualisms where hosts are coupled metabolically to their symbionts often exhibit high partner fidelity. Most reef-building coral species form obligate symbioses with a specific species of photosymbionts, dinoflagellates in the family Symbiodiniaceae, despite needing to acquire symbionts early in their development from environmental sources. Three Caribbean acroporids (Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, and their F1 hybrid) are geographically sympatric across much of their range, but often occupy different depth and light habitats. Throughout this range, both...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations’ (Mann et al. 1999 – the second ‘Hockey Stick’ paper [MBH99])

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
Building on recent studies, we attempt hemispheric temperature reconstructions with proxy data networks for the past millennium. We focus not just on the reconstructions, but the uncertainties therein, and important caveats. Though expanded uncertainties prevent decisive conclusions for the period prior to AD 1400, our results suggest that the latter 20th century is anomalous in the context of at least the past millennium. The 1990s was the warmest decade, and 1998 the warmest year, at...

Analysis of paralogs in target enrichment data pinpoints multiple ancient polyploidy events in Alchemilla s.l. (Rosaceae)

Diego F. Morales-Briones, Berit Gehrke, Chien-Hsun Huang, Aaron Liston, Hong Ma, Hannah Marx, David Tank & Ya Yang
Target enrichment is becoming increasingly popular for phylogenomic studies. Although baits for enrichment are typically designed to target single-copy genes, paralogs are often recovered with increased sequencing depth, sometimes from a significant proportion of loci, especially in groups experiencing whole-genome duplication (WGD) events. Common approaches for processing paralogs in target enrichment data sets include random selection, manual pruning, and mainly, the removal of entire genes that show any evidence of paralogy. These approaches are prone...

Data from: Broad geographic sampling reveals predictable, pervasive, and strong seasonal adaptation in Drosophila

Heather E. Machado, Alan O. Bergland, Ryan Taylor, Susanne Tilk, Emily Behrman, Kelly Dyer, Daniel K. Fabian, Thomas Flatt, Josefa González, Talia L. Karasov, Iryna Kozeretska, Brian P. Lazzaro, Thomas JS Merritt, John E. Pool, Katherine O’Brien, Subhash Rajpurohit, Paula R. Roy, Stephen W. Schaeffer, Svitlana Serga, Paul Schmidt, Dmitri Petrov & Bernard Kim
To advance our understanding of adaptation to temporally varying selection pressures, we identified signatures of seasonal adaptation occurring in parallel among Drosophila melanogaster populations. Specifically, we estimated allele frequencies genome-wide from flies sampled early and late in the growing season from 20 widely dispersed populations. We identified parallel seasonal allele frequency shifts across North America and Europe, demonstrating that seasonal adaptation is a general phenomenon of temperate fly populations. Seasonally fluctuating polymorphisms are enriched at...

Subroutines to Calculate the Deposition Coefficients for Ice Crystal Vapor Growth.

J.Y. Harrington, G. Sokolowsky & H. Morrison
This code uses fitting coefficients to calculate supersaturation-dependent deposition coefficients for numerical models. The code takes as input the ambient supersaturation, temperature, and atmospheric pressure, along with the size of the crystal. If the crystal shape is unknown an equivalent volume sphere may be used. The subroutines calculate and return the deposition coefficients.

Stone Valley Stem Mapped

E.K. Zenner & J.E. Peck
To permit forest structure analyses, two 2.25 ha permanent plots were established in mature (ca. 110 yr old) mixed stratified Eastern Hardwoods forest on the Stone Valley Experimental Forest in 2007. The species, diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial position of all trees = 5 cm DBH were recorded.

Wild bumble bee colony abundance, scaled by field size, predicts pollination services

Shelby Fleischer, James Strange, Margarita Lopez-Uribe & Carley McGrady
Although bee visitation rate to flowers is often used to assess both pollination services and bee abundance, the abundance of social species needs to be assessed by quantifying the number of colonies instead of the number of foraging individuals. Because accurately quantifying the number of wild bee colonies can be difficult, the relationship of visitation rates provided by foragers and the abundance of colonies contributing those foragers from the surrounding landscape is poorly documented for...

Genomic structural variants constrain and facilitate adaptation in natural populations of Theobroma cacao, the Chocolate Tree

Tuomas Hämälä, Eric Wafula, Paula Ralph, Mark Guiltinan, Claude DePamphilis & Peter Tiffin
Genomic structural variants (SVs) can play important roles in adaptation and speciation. Yet, the overall fitness effects of SVs are poorly understood, partly because accurate population-level identification of SVs requires multiple high-quality genome assemblies. Here, we use 31 chromosome-scale, haplotype-resolved genome assemblies of Theobroma cacao – an outcrossing, long-lived tree species that is the source of chocolate – to investigate the fitness consequences of SVs in natural populations. Among the 31 accessions, we find over...

Cooperative communication with humans evolved to emerge early in domestic dogs

Hannah Salomons, Kyle C.M. Smith, Megan Callahan-Beckel, Margaret Callahan, Kerinne Levy, Brenda S. Kennedy, Emily E. Bray, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Daniel J. Horschler, Margaret Gruen, Jingzhi Tan, Philip White, Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Evan L. MacLean & Brian Hare
While we know that dogs evolved from wolves, it remains unclear how domestication affected dog cognition. One hypothesis suggests dog domestication altered social maturation by a process of selecting for an attraction to humans. Under this account, dogs became more flexible in using inherited skills to cooperatively-communicate with a new social partner that was previously feared and expressed these unusual social skills early in development. Here we tested dog (N=44) and wolf (N=37) puppies, 5-18...

Effect of neutral winds on the creation of non-specular meteor trail echoes

F. Galindo, J. Urbina & L. Dyrud
Non-specular meteor trail echoes are radar reflections from plasma instabilities that are caused by field-aligned irregularities. Meteor simulations are examined to show that these plasma instabilities, and thus the associated meteor trail echo, strongly depend on the meteoroid properties and the characteristics of the atmosphere in which the meteoroid is embedded. The effects of neutral winds, as a function of altitude, are analyzed to understand how their amplitude variability impacts the temporal–space signatures of non-specular...

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