26 Works

Data from: Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

Frances E. Buderman, Duane R. Diefenbach, Mary J. Casalena, Christopher S. Rosenberry & Bret D. Wallingford
The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data...

Data from: Cascading effects of host plant inbreeding on the larval growth, muscle molecular composition, and flight capacity of an adult herbivorous insect.

Scott L. Portman, Rupesh R. Kariyat, Michelle A. Johnston, Andrew G. Stephenson & James H. Marden
A primary function of adult winged insects is dispersal. Limiting larval dietary intake (partial starvation) has been shown to affect the flight muscle metabolism of adult moths reared on artificial diet, but a more ecologically relevant question is whether natural variation in host plant quality can lead to differences in the flight capacity of adult insects. Recent studies have shown that inbreeding compromises plant anti-herbivore defenses. We created inbred and outbred progeny from locally collected...

Data from: Neonicotinoid insecticide travels through a soil food chain, disrupting biological control of non-target pests and decreasing soya bean yield

Margaret R. Douglas, Jason R. Rohr & John F. Tooker
1. Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides world-wide, but their fate in the environment remains unclear, as does their potential to influence non-target species and the roles they play in agroecosystems. 2. We investigated in laboratory and field studies the influence of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, applied as a coating to soya bean seeds, on interactions among soya beans, non-target molluscan herbivores and their insect predators. 3. In the laboratory, the pest slug Deroceras reticulatum...

Data from: Adaptive, convergent origins of the pygmy phenotype in African rainforest hunter-gatherers

George H. Perry, Matthieu Foll, Jean-Christophe Grenier, Etienne Patin, Yohann Nédélec, Alain Pacis, Maxime Barakatt, Simon Gravel, Xiang Zhou, Sam L. Nsobya, Laurent Excoffier, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Nathaniel J. Dominy & Luis B. Barreiro
The evolutionary history of the human pygmy phenotype (small body size), a characteristic of African and Southeast Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers, is largely unknown. Here we use a genome-wide admixture mapping analysis to identify 16 genomic regions that are significantly associated with the pygmy phenotype in the Batwa, a rainforest hunter-gatherer population from Uganda (east central Africa). The identified genomic regions have multiple attributes that provide supporting evidence of genuine association with the pygmy phenotype, including...

Data from: Comparative and population mitogenomic analyses of Madagascar’s extinct, giant ‘subfossil’ lemurs

Logan Kistler, Aakrosh Ratan, Laurie R. Godfrey, Brooke E. Crowley, Cris E. Hughes, Runhua Lei, Yinqui Cui, Mindy L. Wood, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Haingoson Andriamialison, John J. McGraw, Lynn P. Tomsho, Stephan C. Schuster, Webb Miller, Edward E. Louis, Anne D. Yoder, Ripan S. Malhi, George H. Perry & Yinqiu Cui
Humans first arrived on Madagascar only a few thousand years ago. Subsequent habitat destruction and hunting activities have had significant impacts on the island's biodiversity, including the extinction of megafauna. For example, we know of 17 recently extinct ‘subfossil’ lemur species, all of which were substantially larger (body mass ∼11–160 kg) than any living population of the ∼100 extant lemur species (largest body mass ∼6.8 kg). We used ancient DNA and genomic methods to study...

Data from: Natural selection for the Duffy-null allele in the recently admixed people of Madagascar

Jason A. Hodgson, Joseph K. Pickrell, Laurel N. Pearson, Ellen E. Quillen, Antonio Prista, Jorge Rocha, Himla Soodyall, Mark D. Shriver & George H. Perry
While gene flow between distantly related populations is increasingly recognized as a potentially important source of adaptive genetic variation for humans, fully characterized examples are rare. In addition, the role that natural selection for resistance to vivax malaria may have played in the extreme distribution of the protective Duffy-null allele, which is nearly completely fixed in mainland sub-Saharan Africa and absent elsewhere, is controversial. We address both these issues by investigating the evolution of the...

Data from: Understanding genetic variation in in vivo tolerance to artesunate: implications for treatment efficacy and resistance monitoring

Laura C. Pollitt, Derek Sim, Rahel Salathé & Andrew F. Read
Artemisinin-based drugs are the front-line weapon in the treatment of human malaria cases, but there is concern that recent reports of slow clearing infections may signal developing resistance to treatment. In the absence of molecular markers for resistance, current efforts to monitor drug efficacy are based on the rate at which parasites are cleared from infections. However, some knowledge of the standing variation in parasite susceptibility is needed to identify a meaningful increase in infection...

Data from: Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania)

István Mikó, Robert S. Copeland, James P. Balhoff, Matthew J. Yoder & Andrew R. Deans
We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable,...

Data from: Female-limited colour polymorphism in the crab spider Synema globosum (Araneae: Thomisidae)

Helena Ajuria Ibarra & Tom Reader
Conspicuous colour variation, caused by the influence of the environment on phenotype or by genetic differences among individuals, is frequently observed in nature. If genetic in origin, colour variation can facilitate the study of mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of true polymorphisms. Here we describe, for the first time, the female-limited colour polymorphism in the crab spider, Synema globosum. We looked for associations between life-history traits and female colour morph, and identified potential agents...

Data from: New insights into the dynamics between reef corals and their associated dinoflagellate endosymbionts from population genetic studies.

Iliana B. Baums, Meghann K. Devlin-Durante & Todd C. LaJeunesse
The mutualistic symbioses between reef-building corals and micro-algae form the basis of coral reef ecosystems, yet recent environmental changes threaten their survival. Diversity in host-symbiont pairings on the sub-species level could be an unrecognized source of functional variation in response to stress. The Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, associates predominantly with one symbiont species (Symbiodinium ‘fitti’), facilitating investigations of individual-level (genotype) interactions. Individual genotypes of both host and symbiont were resolved across the entire range...

Data from: The effect of Speed of Processing training on microsaccade magnitude

Stephen J. Layfield, Wesley K. Burge, William G. Mitchell, Lesley A. Ross, Christine R. Denning, Frank R. Amthor, Kristina M. Visscher, Stephen Layfield, Wesley Burge, Frank Amthor, William Mitchell, Lesley Ross, Christine Denning & Kristina Visscher
Older adults experience cognitive deficits that can lead to driving errors and a loss of mobility. Fortunately, some of these deficits can be ameliorated with targeted interventions which improve the speed and accuracy of simultaneous attention to a central and a peripheral stimulus called Speed of Processing training. To date, the mechanisms behind this effective training are unknown. We hypothesized that one potential mechanism underlying this training is a change in distribution of eye movements...

Data from: Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet

Eleanore D. Sternberg, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favoring the evolution of trans-generational defenses. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary...

Data from: Swimming against the tide: resilience of a riverine turtle to recurrent extreme environmental events

Abigail M. Jergenson, David A. W. Miller, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Daniel A. Warner & Fredric J. Janzen
Extreme environmental events (EEE) are likely to exert deleterious effects on populations. From 1996-2012 we studied the nesting dynamics of a riverine population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) that experienced seven years with significantly definable spring floods. We used capture-mark-recapture methods to estimate the relationships between >5-m and >6-m flood events and population parameters. Contrary to expectations, flooding was not associated with annual differences in survival, recruitment, or annual population growth rates of the adult...

Data from: Women’s preference for masculine traits is disrupted by images of male-on-female aggression

Yaoran Li, Drew H. Bailey, Benjamin Winegard, David A. Puts, Lisa L. M. Welling & David C. Geary
Women’s preferences for men’s masculinized faces and voices were assessed after women (n = 331) were primed with images of male-on-male aggression, male-on-female aggression, pathogens, and neutral scenes. Male-on-male aggression and pathogen primes were associated with increased preference for masculine traits, but the same effect emerged in the neutral condition. We show the increased preference for masculine traits was due to repeated exposure to these traits, not the priming images themselves. Images of male-on-female aggression...

Data from: An experimental test of whether cheating is context dependent

Melanie Ghoul, Stuart A. West, Steve P. Diggle & Ashleigh S. Griffin
Microbial cells rely on cooperative behaviours that can breakdown as a result of exploitation by cheats. Recent work on cheating in microbes, however, has produced examples of populations benefiting from the presence of cheats and/or cooperative behaviours being maintained despite the presence of cheats. These observations have been presented as evidence for selection favouring cheating at the population level. This apparent contradiction arises when cheating is defined simply by the reduced expression of a cooperative...

Data from: Virus infection influences host plant interactions with non-vector herbivores and predators

Kerry Mauck, Erica Smyers, Consuelo M. De Moraes, Mark Mescher, Kerry E. Mauck & Mark C. Mescher
1. Viruses are widespread in both natural and agricultural plant communities and can significantly alter diverse traits of their host plants that mediate key interactions with other organisms. Yet, the impacts of plant viruses on broader community dynamics remain little studied. 2. Here we explore the effects of Cucumber mosaic virus, a common non-persistently transmitted plant virus, on short and long-term interactions of herbivorous and predatory insects with squash (Cucurbita pepo) plants in a weedy...

Data from: Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles

Ian A. Warren, J. Cristobal Vera, Annika Johns, Robert Zinna, James H. Marden, Douglas J. Emlen, Ian Dworkin & Laura C. Lavine
Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce...

Data from: The Probable Datum Method (PDM): a technique for estimating the age of origination or extinction of nannoplankton

Jonathan D. Schueth, Klaus Keller, Timothy J. Bralower & Mark E. Patzkowsky
Accurate interpretation of origination and extinction of fossil species is crucial to answering a variety of questions in paleontology. Fossil datums, the observed age of first or last occurrences, are subject to sampling error as a result of preservation and low abundances near range endpoints. This sampling error can cause local range offset, an age difference between the observed first or last occurrence of a species and its true origination or extinction. Here we develop...

Data from: Dynamics of short- and long-term association between a bacterial plant pathogen and its arthropod vector

Lori R. Shapiro, Irmgard Seidl-Adams, Consuelo M. De Moraes, Andrew G. Stephenson & Mark C. Mescher
The dynamics of association between pathogens and vectors can strongly influence epidemiology. It has been proposed that wilt disease epidemics in cucurbit populations are sustained by persistent colonization of beetle vectors (Acalymma vittatum) by the bacterial phytopathogen Erwinia tracheiphila. We developed a qPCR method to quantify E. tracheiphila in whole beetles and frass and used it to assess pathogen acquisition and retention following variable exposure to infected plants. We found that (i) E. tracheiphila is...

Data from: Geographic differences in vertical connectivity in the Caribbean coral Montastraea cavernosa despite high levels of horizontal connectivity at shallow depths

Xaymara Serrano, Iliana B. Baums, Katherine O'Reilly, Tyler B. Smith, Ross J. Jones, Tonya L. Shearer, Flavia L. D. Nunes & Andrew C. Baker
The Deep Reef Refugia Hypothesis proposes that deep reefs can act as local recruitment sources for shallow reefs following disturbance. To test this hypothesis, nine polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and used to assess vertical connectivity in 583 coral colonies of the Caribbean depth-generalist coral Montastraea cavernosa. Samples were collected from three depth zones (≤10 m, 15-20 m and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), Bermuda, and...

Data from: Genetic species delineation among branching Caribbean Porites corals

Carlos Prada, Melissa B. Debiasse, Joseph E. Neigel, Bree Yednock, Joseph L. Stake, Zach H. Foesman, Iliana B. Baums & Michael E. Hellberg
Coral species are difficult to discern because of their morphological plasticity, long generation times, and slow rates of mitochondrial DNA evolution. Amongst Caribbean representatives of the genus Porites are three named species (P. divaricata, P. furcata, and P. porites) with branching colony morphologies whose validity as genetically isolated species has been debated. We present sequence data from the mitochondrial control region, nuclear ITS, and nine single copy nuclear loci for the Caribbean Porites and a...

Data from: Persistent social interactions beget more pronounced personalities in a desert-dwelling social spider

Andreas P. Modlmeier, Kate L. Laskowski, Alex E. DeMarco, Anna Coleman, Katherine Zhao, Hayley A. Brittingham, Donna R. McDermott & Jonathan N. Pruitt
The social niche specialization hypothesis predicts that repeated social interactions will generate social niches within groups, thereby promoting consistent individual differences in behaviour. Current support for this hypothesis is mixed, probably because the importance of social niches is dependent upon the ecology of the species. We test whether repeated interactions among group mates generate consistent individual differences in boldness in the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola. In support of the social niche specialization hypothesis, we found...

Data from: Ebola cases and health system demand in Liberia

John M. Drake, RajReni B. Kaul, Laura W. Alexander, Suzanne M. O'Regan, Andrew M. Kramer, J. Tomlin Pulliam, Matthew J. Ferrari, Andrew W. Park & Suzanne M. O’Regan
In 2014, a major epidemic of human Ebola virus disease emerged in West Africa, where human-to-human transmission has now been sustained for greater than 12 months. In the summer of 2014, there was great uncertainty about the answers to several key policy questions concerning the path to containment. What is the relative importance of nosocomial transmission compared with community-acquired infection? How much must hospital capacity increase to provide care for the anticipated patient burden? To...

Data from: Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle

Jared Egan Decker, Stephanie D. McKay, Megan M. Rolf, JaeWoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almieda Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel & Jeremy F. Taylor
The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns...

Data from: Task shifting interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Joyce Gyamfi, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Alisa Surkis, Diana Margot Rosenthal, Collins Airhihenbuwa, Juliet Iwelunmor & Richard Cooper
Objective: To evaluate evidence from published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the use of task-shifting strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design: Systematic review of RCTs that utilised a task-shifting strategy in the management of CVD in LMICs. Data Sources: We searched the following databases for relevant RCTs: PubMed from the 1940s, EMBASE from 1974, Global Health from 1910, Ovid Health Star from 1966, Web of Knowledge from...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Pennsylvania State University
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • University of Missouri
  • National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
  • North West Agriculture and Forestry University
  • New York University Langone Medical Center
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • University of Montana
  • Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology