124 Works

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘The Influence of Climate State Variables on Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Occurrence Rates’ (Sabbatelli and Mann 2007)

T.A. Sabatelli & M.E. Mann
We analyzed annual North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) counts from 1871-2004, considering three climate state variables—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), peak (August-October or ‘ASO’) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) over the main development region (‘MDR’: 6-18N latitude, 20-60W), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—thought to influence variations in annual TC counts on interannual and longer timescales. The unconditional distribution of TC counts is observed to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis of a fixed rate random...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Robustness of Proxy-Based Climate Field Reconstruction Methods’ (Mann et al. 2007)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford, E. Wahl & C. Ammann
We present results from continued investigations into the fidelity of covariance-based climate field reconstruction (CFR) approaches used in proxy-based climate reconstruction. Our experiments employ synthetic ‘‘pseudoproxy’’ data derived from simulations of forced climate changes over the past millennium. Using networks of these pseudoproxy data, we investigate the sensitivity of CFR performance to signal-to-noise ratios, the noise spectrum, the spatial sampling of pseudoproxy locations, the statistical representation of predictors used, and the diagnostic used to quantify...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Extreme Weather Events: The Case For an Alternative (Bayesian) Approach’ (Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, E.A. Lloyd & N. Oreskes
The conventional approach to detecting and attributing climate change impacts on extreme weather events is generally based on frequentist statistical inference wherein a null hypothesis of no influence is assumed, and the alternative hypothesis of an influence is accepted only when the null hypothesis can be rejected at a sufficiently high (e.g., 95% or p = 0.05) level of confidence. Using a simple conceptual model for the occurrence of extreme weather events, we show that...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Long-term variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and associated teleconnections’

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
We analyze global patterns of reconstructed surface temperature for insights into the behavior of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and related climatic variability during the past three centuries. The global temperature reconstructions are based on calibrations of a large set of globally distributed proxy records, or “multiproxy” data, against the dominant patterns of surface temperature during the past century. These calibrations allow us to estimate large-scale surface temperature patterns back in time. The reconstructed eastern...

Model Input, Analysis Code, and Select Model Output for the Murdzek et al. (2021) Inflow Layer Study

S. Murdzek, P. Markowski, Y.P. Richardson & M.R. Kumjian
This dataset contains all relevant Cloud Model 1 (CM1) input files, python analysis code, and select CM1 output for the Murdzek et al. (2021, JAS) study that examines whether reversible or pseudoadiabatic convective inhibition should be used when determining the effective inflow layer of a convective storm. Enough CM1 output is provided to recreate all the figures from Murdzek et al. (2021), and the rest of the output can be recreated using the supplied input...

Investigating axisymmetric and asymmetric signals of secondary eyewall formation using observations-based modeling of the tropical cyclone boundary layer

C. Yu, A.C. Didlake,Jr. , J.D. Kepert & F. Zhang
This study examines axisymmetric and asymmetric aspects of secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in tropical cyclones (TCs) by applying a nonlinear boundary layer model to tangential wind composites of observed TCs with and without SEF. SEF storms were further analyzed at times prior to and after SEF, as defined by the emergence of a secondary maximum in axisymmetric tangential wind. The model is used to investigate the steady-state boundary layer response to the free-tropospheric pressure forcing...

Permian Basin: in-situ tower greenhouse gas data

V. Monteiro, N.L. Miles, S.J. Richardson, Z.R. Barkley, B.J. Haupt & K.J. Davis
The Permian Basin in-situ greenhouse gas network was designed to measure atmospheric mole fractions of methane to be used in conjunction with transport modeling to determine methane emissions from the Permian Basin oil and natural gas extraction area in Texas/New Mexico. The current network includes 5 measurement sites with continuous measurements of CH4, 4 sites with measurements of CO2, 2 sites with measurements of the isotopic ratio of methane, and 1 site with measurements of...

Light and temperature niches of ground-foraging Amazonian insectivorous birds

Vitek Jirinec, Patricia Rodrigues, Bruna Amaral & Philip Stouffer
Insectivores of the tropical rainforest floor are consistently among the most vulnerable birds to forest clearing and fragmentation. Several hypotheses attempt to explain this pattern, including sensitivity to extreme microclimates found near forest borders—particularly brighter and warmer conditions. Importantly, this “microclimate hypothesis” has additional implications for intact forest under global climate change that could be evaluated through direct assessment of the light and temperature environment of terrestrial insectivores. In this study, we harness novel technology...

Origins of 1/f-like tissue oxygenation fluctuations in the murine cortex

Qingguang Zhang, Kyle Gheres & Patrick Drew
The concentration of oxygen in the brain spontaneously fluctuates, and the distribution of power in these fluctuations has a 1/f-like spectra, where the power present at low frequencies of the power spectrum is orders of magnitude higher than at higher frequencies. Though these oscillations have been interpreted as being driven by neural activity, the origins of these 1/f-like oscillations is not well understood. Here, to gain insight of the origin of the 1/f-like oxygen fluctuations,...

Eastern bluebird and tree swallow response to noise from natural gas compressor stations

Margaret Brittingham, Danielle Williams, Julian Avery & Thomas Gabrielson
Natural gas compressor stations emit loud, low-frequency noise that travels hundreds of meters into undisturbed habitat. We used experimental playback of natural gas compressor noise to determine whether and how noise influenced settlement decisions and reproductive output as well as when in the nesting cycle birds were most affected by compressor noise. We established 80 nest boxes to attract Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to locations where they had not previously...

The impact of estimator choice: Disagreement in clustering solutions across K estimators for Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure across a wide range of empirical datasets

Kathryn Stankiewicz, Kate Vasquez Kuntz, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Didier Aurelle, Joaquim Garrabou, Yuichi Nakajima, Mikael Dahl, Yuna Zayasu, Sabri Jaziri, Federica Costantini & Iliana Baums
The software program STRUCTURE is one of the most cited tools for determining population structure. To infer the optimal number of clusters from STRUCTURE output, the ΔK method is often applied. However, a recent study relying on simulated microsatellite data suggested that this method has a downward bias in its estimation of K and is sensitive to uneven sampling. If this finding holds for empirical datasets, conclusions about the scale of gene flow may have...

Changes in arthropod community but not plant quality benefit a specialist herbivore on plants under reduced water availability

Po-An Lin, Chia-Ming Liu, Jia-Ang Ou, Cheng-Han Sun, Wen-Po Chuang, Chuan-Kai Ho, Natsuko Kinoshita & Gary Felton
Plants growing under reduced water availability can affect insect herbivores differently, in some instances benefitting them. However, the forces mediating these positive impacts remain mostly unclear. To identify how water availability impacts plant quality and multitrophic interactions, we conducted manipulative field studies with two populations of the specialist herbivore Pieris rapae, and its host plant, Rorippa indica. We found that P. rapae larvae experienced higher survival on R. indica growing under low water availability compared...

A combined RAD-Seq and WGS approach reveals the genomic basis of yellow color variation in bumble bee Bombus terrestris

Sarthok Rasique Rahman, Jonathan Cnaani, Lisa N. Kinch, Nick V. Grishin & Heather M. Hines
Bumble bees exhibit exceptional diversity in their segmental body coloration largely as a result of mimicry. In this study we sought to discover genes involved in this variation through studying a lab-generated mutant in bumble bee Bombus terrestris, in which the typical black coloration of the pleuron, scutellum, and first metasomal tergite is replaced by yellow, a color variant also found in sister lineages to B. terrestris. Utilizing a combination of RAD-Seq and whole-genome re-sequencing,...

Data from: Whole-organism 3D quantitative characterization of zebrafish melanin by silver deposition micro-CT

Spencer Katz, Maksim Yakovlev, Daniel Vanselow, Yifu Ding, Alex Lin, Dilworth Parkinson, Yuxin Wang, Victor Canfield, Khai Ang & Keith Cheng
Melanin-rich zebrafish melanophores are used to study pigment development, human skin color, and as a large-scale screening phenotype. To facilitate more detailed whole-body, computational analyses of melanin content and morphology, we have combined X-ray microtomography (micro-CT), a non-destructive, full-volume imaging modality, with a novel application of ionic silver staining to characterize melanin distribution in whole zebrafish larvae. Normalized micro-CT reconstructions of silver-stained fish consistently reproduced pigment patterns seen by light microscopy, and allowed direct quantitative...

Data from: Ecological genetics of Juglans nigra: differences in early growth patterns of natural populations

Laura Leites, Lauren Onofrio & Gary Hawley
Many boreal and temperate forest tree species distributed across large geographic ranges are composed of populations adapted to the climate they inhabit. Forestry provenance studies and common gardens provide evidence of local adaptation to climate when associations between fitness traits and the populations’ home climates are observed. Most studies that evaluate tree height as a fitness trait do so at a specific point in time. In this study, we elucidate differences in early growth patterns...

Density, parasitism, and sexual reproduction are strongly correlated in lake Daphnia populations

Meghan A. Duffy, Camden D. Gowler, Mary A. Rogalski, Clara L. Shaw & Katherine K. Hunsberger
Many organisms can reproduce both asexually and sexually. For cyclical parthenogens, periods of asexual reproduction are punctuated by bouts of sexual reproduction, and the shift from asexual to sexual reproduction has large impacts on fitness and population dynamics. We studied populations of Daphnia dentifera to determine the amount of investment in sexual reproduction as well as the factors associated with variation in investment in sex. To do so, we tracked host density, infections by nine...

Supplemental information for: An early burst in brachiopod evolution corresponding with significant climatic shifts during the great Ordovician biodiversification event

Curtis Congreve, Mark Patzkowsky & Peter Wagner
We employ modified tip-dating methods to date divergence times within the Strophomenoidea, one of the most abundant and species-rich brachiopod clades to radiate during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), to determine if significant environmental changes at this time correlate with the diversification of the clade. Models using origination, extinction and sampling rates to estimate prior probabilities of divergence times strongly support both high rates of anatomical change per million-years and rapid divergences shortly before...

The Role of Landscape Context in Forests Recovering from Fire

J.L. Peeler & E.A. Smithwick
Distance to seed source is often used to estimate seed dispersal – a process needed for post-fire tree recovery. However, distance, especially in mountainous terrain, does not capture pattern (area and arrangement) or scale-dependent effects controlling seed supply and delivery. Measuring seed source pattern could provide insights on how these spatial dynamics shape recovery. Here we provide access to data collected at 71 plots in the Boulder and Bull Fires near Jackson, Wyoming, United States....

Archived Dataset for Wen et al. (2021) in Water Research

T. Wen & S.L. Brantley
This data set has been discussed in the following publication: “Wen, T., Liu, M., Woda, J., Zheng, G., Brantley, S., 2021. Detecting Anomalous Methane in Groundwater within Hydrocarbon Production Areas across the United States. Water Research.”. Parts of this dataset (i.e., groundwater chemistry in Pennsylvania) are a subset of the Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork). Colorado data were downloaded from COGCC website (https://cogcc.state.co.us/). Texas data were compiled from published literature (Darvari et al., 2017; Nicot et...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Influence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Planetary Wave Resonance and Extreme Weather Events’ (Nature Scientific Reports, Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, S. Rahmstorf, K. Kornhuber, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller & D. Coumou
Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been shown to be associated with the presence of high-amplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves within a particular wavelength range (zonal wavenumber 6–8). The underlying mechanistic relationship involves the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA) of synoptic-scale waves with that wavenumber range becoming trapped within an effective mid-latitude atmospheric waveguide. Recent work suggests an increase in recent decades in the occurrence of QRA-favorable conditions and associated...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Predictability of the recent slowdown and subsequent recovery of large-scale surface warming using statistical methods’ (Geophysical Research Letters, Mann et al. 2016)

M.E. Mann, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller, L.H. Frankcombe, M.H. England & A.H. Cheung
The temporary slowdown in large-scale surface warming during the early 2000s has been attributed to both external and internal sources of climate variability. Using semiempirical estimates of the internal low-frequency variability component in Northern Hemisphere, Atlantic, and Pacific surface temperatures in concert with statistical hindcast experiments, we investigate whether the slowdown and its recent recovery were predictable. We conclude that the internal variability of the North Pacific, which played a critical role in the slowdown,...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Underestimation of volcanic cooling in tree-ringbased reconstructions of hemispheric temperatures’ (Nature Geoscience, Mann et al. 2012)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford & J.D. Fuentes
The largest eruption of a tropical volcano during the past millennium occurred in AD 1258–1259. Its estimated radiative forcing was several times larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption1 . Radiative forcing of that magnitude is expected to result in a climate cooling of about 2 ?C. This effect, however, is largely absent from tree-ring reconstructions of temperature, and is muted in reconstructions that employ a mix of tree-rings and other proxy data. This discrepancy has...

Cost-benefit Analysis Rules for the Foodservice System

Amit Sharma

Supplementary data and code for ‘On smoothing potentially non-stationary climate time series’ (Geophysical Research Letters, Mann 2004)

M.E. Mann
A simple approach to the smoothing of a potentially non-stationary time series is presented which provides an optimal choice among three alternative, readily motivated and easily implemented boundary constraints. This method is applied to the smoothing of the instrumental Northern Hemisphere (NH) annual mean and coldseason North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) time series, yielding an objective estimate of the smoothed decadalscale variations in these series including long-term trends.

Supplementary data, code, and other information for ‘Discussion of: A Statistical Analysis of Multiple Temperature Proxies: Are Reconstructions of Surface Temperatures over the Last 1000 Years Reliable’

G.A. Schmidt, M.E. Mann & S. Rutherford
McShane and Wyner (2011) (henceforth MW) analyze a dataset of “proxy” climate records previously used by Mann et al. (2008) (henceforth M08) to attempt to assess their utility in reconstructing past temperatures. MW introduce new methods in their analysis, which is welcome. However, the absence of both proper data quality control and appropriate “pseudoproxy” tests to assess the performance of their methods invalidate their main conclusions.

Registration Year

  • 2021
    124

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    107
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    12
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Affiliations

  • Pennsylvania State University
    123
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    7
  • Roger Williams University
    6
  • University of Arizona
    6
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    4
  • Duke University
    3
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
    3
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
    3