372 Works

Data from: Influence of land use and climate on recent forest expansion: a case study in the Eurosiberian-Mediterranean limit of northwest Spain

Jose Manuel Álvarez-Martínez, Susana Suárez-Seoane, Jetse J. Stoorvogel & Estanisao De Luis Calabuig
1. In Mediterranean mountainous areas, forests have expanded in recent decades because traditional management practices have been abandoned or reduced. However, understanding the ecological mechanism behind landscape change is a complex undertaking as the effects of land use may be influenced (reinforced or constrained) by other factors such as climate. 2. We used orthorectified aerial photographs to monitor changes in forest distribution in a set of 20 head-water basins (located in the Cantabrian Mountains of...

Data from: Impact of diet and individual variation on intestinal microbiota composition and fermentation products in obese men

Anne Salonen, Leo Lahti, Jarkko Salojärvi, Grietje Holtrop, Katri Korpela, Sylvia H. Duncan, Priya Date, Freda Farquharson, Alexandra M. Johnstone, Gerald E. Lobley, Petra Louis, Harry J. Flint & Willem M. De Vos
There is growing interest in understanding how diet affects the intestinal microbiota, including its possible associations with systemic diseases such as metabolic syndrome. Here we report a comprehensive and deep microbiota analysis of fourteen obese males consuming fully controlled diets supplemented with resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), and a weight-loss diet (WL). We analyzed the composition, diversity and dynamics of the faecal microbiota on each dietary regime by phylogenetic microarray and quantitative PCR...

Data from: Inferring the origin of populations introduced from a genetically structured native range by approximate Bayesian computation: case study of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis

Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Cathleen E. Thomas, Lori J. Lawson Handley, Jiahui Li, Su Wang, Hong Pang, Irina Goryacheva, Ilya A. Zakharov, Emmanuelle Jousselin, Remy L. Poland, Alain Migeon, Joop Van Lenteren, Patrick De Clercq, Nick Berkvens, Walker Jones & Arnaud Estoup
Correct identification of the source population of an invasive species is a prerequisite for testing hypotheses concerning the factors responsible for biological invasions. The native area of invasive species may be large, poorly known and/or genetically structured. Because the actual source population may not have been sampled, studies based on molecular markers may generate incorrect conclusions about the origin of introduced populations. In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of the invasive ladybird Harmonia...

Data from: Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis

Rudy M. Jonker, Robert H. S. Kraus, Qiong Zhang, Pim Van Hooft, Kjell Larsson, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd, Ralf H. J. M. Kurvers, Sip E. Van Wieren, Maarten J. J. M. Loonen, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Ronald C. Ydenberg, Martien A. M. Groenen, Herbert H. T. Prins & M. J. J. E. Loonen
Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of...

Data from: Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?

Juul Limpens, Emily Van Egmond, Bingxi Li & Milena Holmgren
Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unraveling the mechanisms that may explain successful tree seedling establishment in these ecosystems is highly relevant. To assess the role of drought on early tree seedling establishment and the relative importance of plant traits in tree seedling survival, we conducted a factorial...

Data from: Replicated high-density genetic maps of two great tit populations reveal fine-scale genomic departures from sex-equal recombination rates

Kees Van Oers, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Nikkie E. M. Van Bers, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Ben C. Sheldon, Marcel E. Visser, Jon Slate & Martien A. M. Groenen
Linking variation in quantitative traits to variation in the genome is an important, but challenging task in the study of life-history evolution. Linkage maps provide a valuable tool for the unravelling of such trait-gene associations. Moreover, they give insight into recombination landscapes and between- species karyotype evolution. Here we used genotype data, generated from a 10k SNP-chip, of over 2000 individuals to produce high-density linkage maps of the great tit (Parus major), a passerine bird,...

Ecosystem and biogeochemical coupling in terrestrial ecosystems under global change: A roadmap for synthesis and call for data

Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, Anita C. Risch, Scott L. Collins, Nico Eisenhauer & Wim H. van der Putten

Data from: Ranked tree shapes, nonrandom extinctions and the loss of phylogenetic diversity

Odile Maliet, Fanny Gascuel & Amaury Lambert
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a measure of the evolutionary legacy of a group of species, which can be used to define conservation priorities. It has been shown that an important loss of species diversity can sometimes lead to a much less important loss of PD, depending on the topology of the species tree and on the distribution of its branch lengths. However, the rate of decrease of PD strongly depends on the relative depths of...

Data from: Disturbance regulates the density–body mass relationship of soil fauna

Frank Van Langevelde, Vincent Comor, Steven De Bie, Herbert Prins & Madhav Thakur
Theory on the density-body mass (DBM) relationship predicts that the density of animal species decreases by the power of −0.75 per unit increase in their body mass, or by the power of −1 when taxa across trophic levels are studied. This relationship is, however, largely debated as the slope often deviates from the theoretical predictions. Here, we tested the ability of the DBM relationship to reflect changes in the structure of communities subjected to an...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Data from: Combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis identifies defence responses in spider-mite infested pepper

Yuanyuan Zhang, Harro J. Bouwmeester & Iris F. Kappers
Plants regulate responses towards herbivory through fine-tuning of defence-related hormone production, expression of defence genes and production of secondary metabolites. Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a key role in plant-herbivorous arthropod interactions. To understand how pepper responds to herbivory, leaf transcriptomes and metabolomes of two genotypes different in their susceptibility to spider mites, were studied. Mites induced both JA and salicylic acid (SA) signalling. However, mite infestation and exogenous JA resulted in distinct transcriptome profiles. Compared...

Data from: Seagrass coastal protection services reduced by invasive species expansion and megaherbivore grazing

Rebecca K. James, Marjolijn J. A. Christianen, Marieke Van Katwijk, Jaco De Smit, , Peter Herman & Tjeerd Bouma
1. Seagrasses provide an important ecosystem service by creating a stable erosion-resistant seabed that contributes to effective coastal protection. Variable morphologies and life history strategies, however, are likely to impact the sediment stabilisation capacity of different seagrass species. We question how opportunistic invasive species and increasing grazing by megaherbivores may alter sediment stabilisation services provided by established seagrass meadows, using the Caribbean as a case study. 2. Utilising two portable field-flumes that simulate unidirectional and...

First come, first served: possible role for priority effects in marine populations under different degrees of dispersal potential

Christiaan De Leeuw, Katja Peijnenburg, Rosemary Gillespie, Diede Maas, Naoto Hanzawa, Yosephine Tuti, Abdul Toha, Ludi Aji & Leontine Becking
Aim Studying clearly delineated populations in marine lakes, islands of sea, we investigate the interplay of habitat size, immigration, and priority effects in shaping marine population genetic structure. Location Marine lakes and coastal locations in Indonesia, Palau, Papua New-Guinea and Australia. Taxon Mussels (Mytillidae, Brachidontes spp.) Methods Populations were sampled from four coastal locations and 22 marine lakes of similar age (~8,000 years), yet differing in size (0.04 - 4.7 km2) and degree of connection...

Extra-territorial forays by great tits are associated with dawn song in unexpected ways

Nina Bircher, Kees Van Oers, Camilla A. Hinde & Marc Naguib
Conspicuous male signals often play an important role in both attracting mates and deterring rivals. In territorial species with extra-pair mating, female and male forays to other territories may be an important component underlying female choice and male mating success and might be influenced by male advertisement signals. Yet, whether off-territory foraying is associated with male signals is still not well understood. Here, we tested how female and male forays are associated with short-range visual...

Data from: Spatial scale, neighbouring plants and variation in plant volatiles interactively determine the strength of host-parasitoid relationships

Yavanna Aartsma, Silvia Pappagallo, Wopke Van Der Werf, Marcel Dicke, Felix Bianchi & Erik Poelman
Species-specific responses to the environment can moderate the strength of interactions between plants, herbivores and parasitoids. However, the ways in which characteristics of plants, such as genotypic variation in herbivore induced volatiles (HIPVs) that attract parasitoids, affect trophic interactions in different contexts of plant patch size and plant neighbourhood is not well understood. We conducted a factorial field experiment with white cabbage (Brassica oleracea) accessions that differ in the attractiveness of their HIPVs for parasitoids,...

Data from: Dispersal versus environmental filtering in a dynamic system: drivers of vegetation patterns and diversity along stream riparian gradients

Rob G. A. Fraaije, Cajo J. F. Ter Braak, Betty Verduyn, Jos T. A. Verhoeven & Merel B. Soons
1. Both environmental filtering and dispersal filtering are known to influence plant species distribution patterns and biodiversity. Particularly in dynamic habitats, however, it remains unclear whether environmental filtering (stimulated by stressful conditions) or dispersal filtering (during re-colonization events) dominates in community assembly, or how they interact. Such a fundamental understanding of community assembly is critical to the design of biodiversity conservation and restoration strategies. 2. Stream riparian zones are species-rich dynamic habitats. They are characterized...

Data from: From salmon to salmonberry: the effects of salmon-derived nutrients on the stomatal density of leaves of the nitriphillic shrub Rubus spectabilis

G.G. Van Den Top, John D. Reynolds, Herbert H.T. Prins, Jim Mattsson, David J. Green, Ronald C. Ydenberg, Gregory G. Van Den Top & Herbert H. T. Prins
Background and Aims: Nutrients derived from the carcasses of Pacific salmon have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on riparian systems. These include changes in community species composition and an increase in leaf nitrogen concentration, with the latter effect pronounced in the nitriphilic shrub Rubus spectabilis (salmonberry). Experimental work with other species has shown that leaf stomatal density increases in response to nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, we predicted that the stomatal density of salmonberry leaves would...

Data from: Cattle affect regeneration of the palm species Attalea princeps in a Bolivian forest-savanna mosaic

Iris Hordijk, Fabian Meijer, Esther Nissen, Tjalle Boorsma, Lourens Poorter. & Lourens Poorter
Attalea princeps is an important palm species that shapes the forest-savanna mosaic in Beni, Bolivia, because it dominates and shapes the two principal forest landscape elements (forest islands and gallery forest), and it provides a vital microhabitat, food and nesting source for numerous plant and animal species. The forest-savanna mosaic is used for extensive grazing, and the palm population is declining on the forest islands due to a low regeneration rate, which threatens the maintenance...

Data from: Effects of landscape complexity on pollinators are moderated by pollinators’ association with mass-flowering crops

Thijs Fijen, Jeroen Scheper, Bastiaen Boekelo, Ivo Raemakers & David Kleijn
Conserving and restoring semi-natural habitat, i.e. enhancing landscape complexity, is one of the main strategies to mitigate pollinator decline in agricultural landscapes. However, we still have limited understanding of how landscape complexity shapes pollinator communities in both crop and non-crop habitat, and whether pollinator responses to landscape complexity vary with their association with mass-flowering crops. Here, we surveyed pollinator communities on mass-flowering leek crops and in nearby semi-natural habitat in landscapes of varying complexity. Surveys...

Data from: Unequal contribution of widespread and narrow-ranged species to botanical diversity patterns

Andre S. J. Van Proosdij, Niels Raes, Jan J. Wieringa & Marc S. M. Sosef
In conservation studies, solely widespread species are often used as indicators of diversity patterns, but narrow-ranged species can show different patterns. Here, we assess how well subsets of narrow-ranged, widespread or randomly selected plant species represent patterns of species richness and weighted endemism in Gabon, tropical Africa. Specifically, we assess the effect of using different definitions of widespread and narrow-ranged and of the information content of the subsets. Finally, we test if narrow-ranged species are...

Data from: Spatial patterns of self-recruitment of a coral reef fish in relation to island-scale retention mechanisms

Ricardo Beldade, Sally J. Holbrook, Russell J. Schmitt, Serge Planes & Giacomo Bernardi
Oceanographic features influence the transport and delivery of marine larvae, and physical retention mechanisms, such as eddies, can enhance self-recruitment (i.e. the return of larvae to their natal population). Knowledge of exact locations of hatching (origin) and settlement (arrival) of larvae of reef animals provides a means to compare observed patterns of self-recruitment ‘connectivity’ with those expected from water circulation patterns. Using parentage inference based on multiple sampling years in Moorea, French Polynesia, we describe...

Data from: Cascading effects of defaunation on the coexistence of two specialized insect seed predators

Guille Peguero, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Patrick A. Jansen & S. Joseph Wright
Identification of the mechanisms enabling stable coexistence of species with similar resource requirements is a central challenge in ecology. Such coexistence can be facilitated by species at higher trophic levels through complex multi-trophic interactions, a mechanism that could be compromised by ongoing defaunation. We investigated cascading effects of defaunation on Pachymerus cardo and Speciomerus giganteus, the specialized insect seed predators of the Neotropical palm Attalea butyracea, testing the hypothesis that vertebrate frugivores and granivores facilitate...

Data from: Genetic variation of loci potentially under selection confounds species-genetic diversity correlations in a fragmented habitat

Angeline Bertin, Nicolas Gouin, Alex Baumel, Ernesto Gianoli, Juan Serratosa, Rodomiro Osorio & Stéphanie Manel
Positive species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) are often thought to result from the parallel influence of neutral processes on genetic and species diversity. Yet, confounding effects of non-neutral mechanisms have not been explored. Here, we investigate the impact of non-neutral genetic diversity on SGDCs in high Andean wetlands. We compare correlations between plant species diversity (SD) and genetic diversity (GD) calculated with and without loci potentially under selection (outlier loci). The study system includes 2188 specimens...

Quantitative genetics of wing morphology in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis: hosts increase sibling similarity

Shuwen Xia, Bart Pannebakker, Martien A.M. Groenen, Bas Piter Zwaan & Piter Bijma
The central aim of evolutionary biology is to understand patterns of genetic variation between species and within populations. To quantify the genetic variation underlying intraspecific differences, estimating quantitative genetic parameters of traits is essential. In Pterygota, wing morphology is an important trait affecting flight ability. Moreover, gregarious parasitoids such as Nasonia vitripennis oviposit multiple eggs in the same host, and siblings thus share a common environment during their development. Here we estimate the genetic parameters...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases P uptake and productivity of mixtures of maize varieties compared to monocultures

Gu Feng, Xinxin Wang, Ellis Hoffland, Gu Feng & Thomas Kuyper
Ecological intensification seeks to achieve crop yield increases through intensifying complementary or facilitative interactions between plant species or varieties. Different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) exhibit niche differentiation and show selectivity towards certain plants, which can further enhance complementarity. It is not clear whether in the presence of one AMF species, where mycelial networks connect crop species, opportunities for complementarity effects may be reduced. We grew monocultures and mixtures of maize varieties in a...

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