450 Works

Ecosystem and biogeochemical coupling in terrestrial ecosystems under global change: A roadmap for synthesis and call for data

Raúl Ochoa-Hueso, Anita C. Risch, Scott L. Collins, Nico Eisenhauer & Wim H. van der Putten

Data from: Disturbance regulates the density–body mass relationship of soil fauna

Frank Van Langevelde, Vincent Comor, Steven De Bie, Herbert Prins & Madhav Thakur
Theory on the density-body mass (DBM) relationship predicts that the density of animal species decreases by the power of −0.75 per unit increase in their body mass, or by the power of −1 when taxa across trophic levels are studied. This relationship is, however, largely debated as the slope often deviates from the theoretical predictions. Here, we tested the ability of the DBM relationship to reflect changes in the structure of communities subjected to an...

Data from: Combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis identifies defence responses in spider-mite infested pepper

Yuanyuan Zhang, Harro J. Bouwmeester & Iris F. Kappers
Plants regulate responses towards herbivory through fine-tuning of defence-related hormone production, expression of defence genes and production of secondary metabolites. Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a key role in plant-herbivorous arthropod interactions. To understand how pepper responds to herbivory, leaf transcriptomes and metabolomes of two genotypes different in their susceptibility to spider mites, were studied. Mites induced both JA and salicylic acid (SA) signalling. However, mite infestation and exogenous JA resulted in distinct transcriptome profiles. Compared...

Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropics

Francesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...

Fire and forage quality: post-fire regrowth quality and pyric herbivory in subtropical grasslands of Nepal

Shyam Kumar Thapa, Joost F. De Jong, Anouschka R. Hof, Naresh Subedi, Laxmi Raj Joshi & Herbert H.T. Prins
Indiscriminate fire is rampant throughout subtropical South and Southeast Asian grasslands. However, very little is known about the role of fire and pyric herbivory on the functioning of highly productive subtropical monsoon grasslands lying within Cwa-climatic region. We collected grass samples from 60 m x 60 m plots and determined vegetation physical and chemical properties at regular 30-day intervals from April to July 2020, starting from 30 days after fire to assess post-fire regrowth forage...

Immunosenescence in the wild? A longitudinal study in a long‐lived seabird

Coraline Bichet, Maria Moiron, Kevin D. Matson, Oscar Vedder & Sandra Bouwhuis
1. Longitudinal studies of various vertebrate populations have demonstrated senescent declines in reproductive performance and survival probability to be almost ubiquitous. Longitudinal studies of potential underlying proximate mechanisms, however, are still scarce. 2. Due to its critical function in the maintenance of health and viability, the immune system is among the potential (mediators of) proximate mechanisms that could underlie senescence. 3. Here, we studied three innate immune parameters - hemagglutination titre, haemolysis titre and haptoglobin...

Hawksbill turtle ddRAD raw sequencing data

Jurjan Van Der Zee, Marjolijn Christianen, Mabel Nava, Sietske Van Der Wal, Jessica Berkel, Tadzio Bervoets, Melanie Meijer Zu Schlochtern, Martine Bérubé, Leontine Becking & Per Palsbøll
Pleistocene environmental changes are generally assumed to have dramatically affected species’ demography via changes in habitat availability, but this is challenging to investigate due to our limited knowledge of how Pleistocene ecosystems changed through time. Here, we tracked changes in shallow marine habitat availability resulting from Pleistocene sea level fluctuations throughout the last glacial cycle (120 – 14 thousand years ago; kya) and assessed correlations with past changes in genetic diversity inferred from genome-wide SNPs,...

Plant traits of grass and legume species for flood resilience and N2O mitigation

Natalie J. Oram, Yan Sun, Diego Abalos, Jan-Willem Van Groenigen, & Gerlinde De Deyn
Flooding threatens the functioning of managed grasslands by decreasing primary productivity and increasing nitrogen losses, notably as the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Sowing species with traits that promote flood resilience and mitigate flood-induced N2O emissions within these grasslands could safeguard their productivity while mitigating nitrogen losses. We tested how plant traits and resource acquisition strategies could predict flood resilience and N2O emissions of 12 common grassland species (eight grasses and four legumes) grown...

Zebra finch song and distance call amplitude measurements: A transmission experiment and observational transects in the natural environment

Hugo Loning, Simon C. Griffith & Marc Naguib
Birdsong is typically seen as a long-range signal functioning in mate attraction and territory defense. Among birds, the zebra finch is the prime model organism in bioacoustics, yet almost exclusively studied in the lab. In the wild, however, zebra finch song differs strikingly from songbirds commonly studied in the wild as zebra finch males sing most after mating and in the absence of territoriality. Using data from the wild, we here provide an ecological context...

Data from: Ecological requirements drive the variable responses of wheat pests and natural enemies to the landscape context

Ezequiel Gonzalez, Felix J.J.A. Bianchi, Philipp Eckerter, Verena Pfaff, Sarah Weiler & Martin H. Entling
1. Semi-natural habitats (SNH) are considered essential for pest suppressive landscapes, but their influence on crop pests and natural enemies can be highly variable. Instead of SNH per se, the availability of resources, such as pollen and nectar, may be more relevant for supporting pest control. 2. Here, we assessed the spatio-temporal variation of multiple insect pests (cereal leaf beetles and aphids) and natural enemies (predators and aphid parasitoids) in wheat fields and their responses...

Microplastics in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) spraints and their potential as a biomonitoring tool in freshwater systems

James D. O'Connor, Heather T. Lally, Anne-Marie Mahon, Ian O'Connor, Róisín Nash, John J. O'Sullivan, Michael Bruen, Linda Heerey, Albert A. Koelmans, Ferdia Marnell & Sinéad Murphy
The ubiquitous nature of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems may have serious implications for aquatic biota. While microplastic research in freshwater ecosystems is increasing, very few studies have assessed the physical presence of microplastics among top predators. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), a top predator of aquatic ecosystems, is one of the most widely distributed otter species and has a broad habitat niche. The opportunistic collection of otter spraints (i.e. feces) presents a valuable opportunity to...

Data from: Great tits do not compensate over time for a radio-tag-induced reduction in escape-flight performance

Barbara Tomotani, Florian Muijres, Bronwyn Johnston, Henk Van Der Jeugd & Marc Naguib
The use of biologging and tracking devices is widespread in avian behavioural and ecological studies. Carrying these devices rarely has major behavioural or fitness effects in the wild, yet it may still impact animals in more subtle ways, such as during high power demanding escape manoeuvres. Here, we tested whether or not great tits (Parus major) carrying a backpack radio-tag changed their body-mass or flight behaviour over time to compensate for the detrimental effect of...

Data from: Seagrass coastal protection services reduced by invasive species expansion and megaherbivore grazing

Rebecca K. James, Marjolijn J. A. Christianen, Marieke Van Katwijk, Jaco De Smit, , Peter Herman & Tjeerd Bouma
1. Seagrasses provide an important ecosystem service by creating a stable erosion-resistant seabed that contributes to effective coastal protection. Variable morphologies and life history strategies, however, are likely to impact the sediment stabilisation capacity of different seagrass species. We question how opportunistic invasive species and increasing grazing by megaherbivores may alter sediment stabilisation services provided by established seagrass meadows, using the Caribbean as a case study. 2. Utilising two portable field-flumes that simulate unidirectional and...

Quantitative genetics of wing morphology in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis: hosts increase sibling similarity

Shuwen Xia, Bart Pannebakker, Martien A.M. Groenen, Bas Piter Zwaan & Piter Bijma
The central aim of evolutionary biology is to understand patterns of genetic variation between species and within populations. To quantify the genetic variation underlying intraspecific differences, estimating quantitative genetic parameters of traits is essential. In Pterygota, wing morphology is an important trait affecting flight ability. Moreover, gregarious parasitoids such as Nasonia vitripennis oviposit multiple eggs in the same host, and siblings thus share a common environment during their development. Here we estimate the genetic parameters...

Extra-territorial forays by great tits are associated with dawn song in unexpected ways

Nina Bircher, Kees Van Oers, Camilla A. Hinde & Marc Naguib
Conspicuous male signals often play an important role in both attracting mates and deterring rivals. In territorial species with extra-pair mating, female and male forays to other territories may be an important component underlying female choice and male mating success and might be influenced by male advertisement signals. Yet, whether off-territory foraying is associated with male signals is still not well understood. Here, we tested how female and male forays are associated with short-range visual...

First come, first served: possible role for priority effects in marine populations under different degrees of dispersal potential

Christiaan De Leeuw, Katja Peijnenburg, Rosemary Gillespie, Diede Maas, Naoto Hanzawa, Yosephine Tuti, Abdul Toha, Ludi Aji & Leontine Becking
Aim Studying clearly delineated populations in marine lakes, islands of sea, we investigate the interplay of habitat size, immigration, and priority effects in shaping marine population genetic structure. Location Marine lakes and coastal locations in Indonesia, Palau, Papua New-Guinea and Australia. Taxon Mussels (Mytillidae, Brachidontes spp.) Methods Populations were sampled from four coastal locations and 22 marine lakes of similar age (~8,000 years), yet differing in size (0.04 - 4.7 km2) and degree of connection...

Adaptive population structure shifts in invasive parasitic mites, Varroa destructor

Arrigo Moro, Tjeerd Blacquière, Bjorn Dahle, Vincent Dietemann, Yves Le Conte, Locke Barbara, Peter Neumann & Alexis Beaurepaire
Comparative studies of genetic diversity and population structure can shed light on the ecological and evolutionary factors governing host–parasite interactions. Even though invasive parasites are considered of major biological importance, little is known about their adaptive potential when infesting the new hosts. Here, the genetic diversification of Varroa destructor, a novel parasite of Apis mellifera originating from Asia, was investigated using population genetics to determine how the genetic structure of the parasite changed in distinct...

Inconsistent effects of agricultural practices on soil fungal communities across twelve European long‐term experiments

S. Emilia Hannula, D. P. Di Lonardo, B. T. Christensen, F.V. Crotty, A. Elsen, P.J. Erp, E.M. Hansen, G. H. Rubæk, M. Tits, Z. Toth & A. J. Termorshuizen
Cropping practices have a great potential to improve soil quality through changes in soil biota. Yet the effects of these soil improving cropping systems on soil fungal communities are not well known. Here, we analysed soil fungal communities using standardized measurements in 12 long‐term experiments and 20 agricultural treatments across Europe. We were interested in whether the same practices (i.e. tillage, fertilization, organic amendments and cover crops) applied across different sites have predictable and repeatable...

Modulation of the Tomato Fruit Metabolome by LED Light (GCMS and LCMS datasets)

Nikolaos Ntagkas, Ric C. H. De Vos, Ernst J. Woltering, Celine C. S. Nicole, Caroline Labrie & Leo F. M. Marcelis
Metabolic profiles of tomatoes change during ripening and light can modulate the activity of relevant biochemical pathways. We investigated the effects of light directly supplied to the fruits, on the metabolome of the fruit pericarp during ripening. Mature green tomatoes were exposed to well-controlled conditions with light as the only varying factor; control fruits were kept in darkness. In Experiment 1 the fruits were exposed to either white light or darkness for 15 days. In...

Data from: Spatial scale, neighbouring plants and variation in plant volatiles interactively determine the strength of host-parasitoid relationships

Yavanna Aartsma, Silvia Pappagallo, Wopke Van Der Werf, Marcel Dicke, Felix Bianchi & Erik Poelman
Species-specific responses to the environment can moderate the strength of interactions between plants, herbivores and parasitoids. However, the ways in which characteristics of plants, such as genotypic variation in herbivore induced volatiles (HIPVs) that attract parasitoids, affect trophic interactions in different contexts of plant patch size and plant neighbourhood is not well understood. We conducted a factorial field experiment with white cabbage (Brassica oleracea) accessions that differ in the attractiveness of their HIPVs for parasitoids,...

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases P uptake and productivity of mixtures of maize varieties compared to monocultures

Gu Feng, Xinxin Wang, Ellis Hoffland, Gu Feng & Thomas Kuyper
Ecological intensification seeks to achieve crop yield increases through intensifying complementary or facilitative interactions between plant species or varieties. Different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) exhibit niche differentiation and show selectivity towards certain plants, which can further enhance complementarity. It is not clear whether in the presence of one AMF species, where mycelial networks connect crop species, opportunities for complementarity effects may be reduced. We grew monocultures and mixtures of maize varieties in a...

Responses of tropical tree seedlings in the forest-savanna boundary to combined effects of grass competition and fire

Hamza Issifu, Philippine Vergeer, George K. D. Ametsitsi, Jelle Klijn, Paolo Sartorelli, Millicent Tanson, Hypolite Bayor, Vincent Logah, Frank Van Langevelde, Elmar Veenendaal, Hamza Issifu, Philippine Vergeer, George K. D. Ametsitsi, Jelle Klijn, Paolo Sartorelli, Millicent Tanson, Hypolite Bayor, Vincent Logah, Frank Van Langevelde, Elmar Veenendaal., Hamza Issifu, Philippine Vergeer, George K. D. Ametsitsi, Jelle Klijn, Paolo Sartorelli … & Elmar Veenendaal.
Co-occurring tree functional types (TFTs) within forest-savanna transitions may differ in seedling responses to grass competition and fire in savannas. We performed a common garden experiment in the Guinea savanna of Ghana to test hypotheses related to competition effects on growth, allocation to root storage reserves and subsequent survival responses to dry season fire for savanna-transitional TFT (i.e., species occurring both in forest and savanna) and forest TFT. The experiment included factorial combinations of TFT,...

Genome and transcriptome analysis of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua reveals targets for pest control

Sabrina Simon, Thijmen Breeschoten, M. Eric Schranz, Vera I.D. Ros, Hans J. Jansen & Ron P. Dirks
The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) includes some of the most infamous insect pests of cultivated plants including Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua. To effectively develop targeted pest control strategies for diverse Spodoptera species, genomic resources are highly desired. To this aim, we provide the genome assembly and developmental transcriptome comprising all major life stages of S. exigua, the beet armyworm. Spodoptera exigua is a polyphagous herbivore that can feed from > 130 host...

Data from: Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification and characterization in a non-model organism, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), using next generation sequencing

Nathalie Smitz, Pim Van Hooft, Rasmus Heller, Daniel Cornélis, Philippe Chardonnet, Robert Kraus, Ben J. Greyling, Richard Crooijmans, Martien Groenen, Johan Michaux & Ben Greyling
This study aimed to develop a set of SNP markers with high resolution and accuracy within the African buffalo. Such a set can be used, among others, to depict subtle population genetic structure for a better understanding of buffalo population dynamics. In total, 18.5 million DNA sequences of 76 bp were generated by next generation sequencing on an Illumina Genome Analyzer II from a reduced representation library using DNA from a panel of 13 African...

Data from: Remote sensing of plant trait responses to field-based plant–soil feedback using UAV-based optical sensors

Bob Van Der Meij, Lammert Kooistra, Juha Suomalainen, Janna M. Barel & Gerlinde B. De Deyn
Plant responses to biotic and abiotic legacies left in soil by preceding plants is known as plant–soil feedback (PSF). PSF is an important mechanism to explain plant community dynamics and plant performance in natural and agricultural systems. However, most PSF studies are short-term and small-scale due to practical constraints for field-scale quantification of PSF effects, yet field experiments are warranted to assess actual PSF effects under less controlled conditions. Here we used unmanned aerial vehicle...

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