417 Works

ddRAD of Hawaiian Ariamnes spiders

Ellie Armstrong, Benoît Perez-Lamarque, Ke Bi, Leontine Becking, Jun Lim, Tyler Linderoth, Rosemary Gillespie & Henrik Krehenwinkel
The diversification of a host organism can be influenced by both the external environment and its assemblage of microbes. Here, we use a young lineage of spiders, coupled with a chronologically arranged series of volcanic mountains, to determine the evolutionary history of a host and its associated microbial communities, altogether forming the “holobiont”. Using the stick spider Ariamnes waikula (Araneae, Theridiidae) on the island of Hawaiʻi, and outgroup taxa on older islands, we tested whether...

Data from: The origin of the legumes is a complex paleopolyploid phylogenomic tangle closely associated with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event

Erik Koenen, Dario Ojeda, Freek Bakker, Jan Wieringa, Catherine Kidner, Olivier Hardy, Toby Pennington, Patrick Herendeen, Anne Bruneau & Colin Hughes
The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (KPB) mass extinction for the evolution of plant diversity remain poorly understood, even though evolutionary turnover of plant lineages at the KPB is central to understanding assembly of the Cenozoic biota. The apparent concentration of whole genome duplication (WGD) events around the KPB may have played a role in survival and subsequent diversification of plant lineages. To gain new insights into the origins of Cenozoic biodiversity, we examine...

The contribution of semi-natural habitats to biological control is dependent on sentinel prey type

Niamh Mary McHugh, Stephen Moreby, Marjolein Lof, Wopke Van Der Werf & John Holland
It is widely recognized that landscape factors affect the biological control of weed seeds and insect pests in arable crops, but landscape effects have been found to be inconsistent between studies. Here, we compare six different types of sentinels (surrogate prey that was either live insects or seeds) to measure the effects of semi-natural habitats at field to landscape scales on levels of biological control in winter wheat in the UK. Sentinels were located in...

Data from: Adapted dandelions trade dispersal for germination upon root herbivore attack

Zoe Bont, Marc Pfander, Christelle Robert, Meret Huber, Erik Poelman, Ciska Raaijmakers & Matthias Erb
A plant’s offspring may escape unfavourable local conditions through seed dispersal. Whether plants use this strategy to escape insect herbivores is not well understood. Here, we explore how different dandelion (Taraxacum officinale agg.) populations, including diploid outcrossers and triploid apomicts, modify seed dispersal in response to root herbivore attack by their main root-feeding natural enemy, the larvae of the common cockchafer Melolontha melolontha. In a manipulative field experiment, root herbivore attack increased seed dispersal potential...

Fixed or mixed? variation in tree functional types and vegetation structure in a forest-savanna ecotone in West Africa

George K.D. Ametsitsi, Thomas Adjei-Gyapong, Vincent Logah, Jon Lloyd & Elmar M. Veenendaal
We analysed thirty-five 400-m2 plots encompassing forest, savanna and intermediate vegetation types in an ecotonal area in Ghana, West Africa. Across all plots, fire frequency was over a period of 15 years relatively uniform (once in 2–4 years). Although woodlands were dominated by species typically associated with savanna-type formations, and with forest formations dominated by species usually associated with closed canopies, these associations were non-obligatory and with a discrete non-specialized species grouping also identified. Across...

Disentangling temporal food web dynamics facilitates understanding of ecosystem functioning

Susanne Kortsch, Romain Frelat, Laurene Pecuchet, Pierre Olivier, Ivars Putnis, Erik Bonsdorff, Henn Ojaveer, Iveta Jurgensone, Solvita Strāķe, Gunta Rubene, Ēriks Krūze & Marie C. Nordström
Studying how food web structure and function varies through time represents an opportunity to better comprehend and anticipate ecosystem changes. Yet, temporal studies of highly resolved food web structure are scarce. With few exceptions, most temporal food web studies are either too simplified, preventing a detailed assessment of structural properties, or binary, missing the temporal dynamics of energy fluxes among species. Using long-term, multi-trophic biomass data coupled with highly resolved information on species feeding relationships,...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Methodology matters for comparing coarse wood and bark decay rates across tree species

Chenhui Chang, Richard S.P Van Logtestijn, Leo Goudzwaard, Jurgen Van Hal, Juan Zuo, Mariet Hefting, Shanshan Yang, Frank J. Sterck, Lourens Poorter, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & Ute Sass-Klaassen
1. The importance of wood decay for the global carbon and nutrient cycles is widely recognized. However, relatively little is known about bark decay dynamics, even though bark represents up to 25% of stem dry mass. Moreover, bark presence versus absence can significantly alter wood decay rates. Therefore, it really matters for the fate of carbon whether variation in bark and wood decay rates is coordinated across tree species. 2. Answering this question requires advances...

Eighty-four per cent of all Amazonian arboreal plant individuals are useful to humans

Sara D. Coelho, Carolina Levis, Fabrício B. Baccaro, Fernando O. G. Figueiredo, André Pinassi Antunes, Hans Ter Steege, Marielos Peña-Claros, Juliana Schietti & Charles R. Clement
Plants have been used in Amazonian forests for millennia and some of these plants are disproportionally abundant (hyperdominant). At local scales, people generally use the most abundant plants, which may be abundant as the result of management of indigenous peoples and local communities. However, it is unknown whether plant use is also associated with abundance at larger scales. We used the population sizes of 4,454 arboreal species (trees and palms) estimated from 1946 forest plots...

Reciprocal cybrids reveal how organellar genomes affect plant phenotypes

Tom Theeuwen, Pádraic Flood, Korbinian Schneeberger, Paul Keizer, Willem Kruijer, Edouard Severing, Evangelos Kouklas, Jos Hageman, Raúl Wijfjes, Vanessa Calvo-Baltanas, Frank Becker, Sabine Schnabel, Leo Willems, Wilco Ligterink, Jeroen Van Arkel, Roland Mumm, José Gualberto, Linda Savage, David Kramer, Joost Keurentjes, Fred Van Eeuwijk, Maarten Koornneef, Jeremy Harbinson, Mark Aarts & Erik Wijnker
Assessing the impact of variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA (collectively termed the plasmotype) on plant phenotypes is challenging due to the difficulty in separating their effect from nuclear derived variation (the nucleotype). Haploid inducer lines can be used as efficient plasmotype donors to generate new plasmotype-nucleotype combinations (cybrids). We generated a panel comprising all possible cybrids of seven Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and extensively phenotyped these lines for 1859 phenotypes under stable and fluctuating conditions....

Data from: Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in European commercial pigs

Mirte Bosse, Marcos S. Lopes, Ole Madsen, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Laurent A. F. Franzt, Barbara Harlizius, John W. M. Bastiaansen & Martien A. M. Groenen
Early pig farmers in Europe imported Asian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds. We propose that the Asian variants are still present because they affect phenotypes that were important for ancient traditional, as well as recent, commercial pig breeding. Genome-wide introgression levels were only weakly correlated with gene content and...

Data from: Species-specific plant-soil feedback effects on above-ground plant-insect interactions

Martine Kos, Maarten A. B. Tuijl, Joris De Roo, Patrick P. J. Mulder & T. Martijn Bezemer
1. Plant–soil feedback (PSF) effects on plant performance strongly depend on the plant species that conditioned the soil. Recent studies have shown that PSF can change above-ground plant–insect interactions via soil-mediated changes in plant quality, but whether these effects depend on species-specific soil conditioning is unknown. We examined how PSF effects of several plant species influence above-ground plant–aphid interactions. 2. We grew ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) in field soil conditioned specifically by 10 plant species, belonging...

Data from: Towards smarter harvesting from natural palm populations by sparing the individuals that contribute most to population growth or productivity

Merel Jansen, Niels P.R. Anten, Frans Bongers, Miguel Martínez-Ramos, Pieter A. Zuidema & Niels P. R. Anten
1. Natural populations deliver a wide range of products that provide income for millions of people and need to be exploited sustainably. Large heterogeneity in individual performance within these exploited populations has the potential to improve population recovery after exploitation and thus help sustaining yields over time. 2. We explored the potential of using individual heterogeneity to design smarter harvest schemes, by sparing individuals that contribute most to future productivity and population growth, using the...

Data from: Diminishing-returns epistasis among random beneficial mutations in a multicellular fungus

Sijmen Schoustra, Sungmin Hwang, Joachim Krug, J. Arjan G.M. De Visser & J. Arjan G. M. De Visser
Adaptive evolution ultimately is fuelled by mutations generating novel genetic variation. Non-additivity of fitness effects of mutations (called epistasis) may affect the dynamics and repeatability of adaptation. However, understanding the importance and implications of epistasis is hampered by the observation of substantial variation in patterns of epistasis across empirical studies. Interestingly, some recent studies report increasingly smaller benefits of beneficial mutations once genotypes become better adapted (called diminishing-returns epistasis) in unicellular microbes and single genes....

Data from: Water restriction causes an intergenerational trade-off and delayed mother-offspring conflict in a viviparous lizard

Andréaz Dupoué, Jean-François Le Galliard, Rémy Josserand, Dale F. DeNardo, Béatriz Decencière, Simon Agostini, Caludy Haussy & Sandrine Meylan
1. Parenting is costly and because the relationship between the mother and embryos is not mutualistic, mother-offspring conflicts may exist whenever resource are scarce. However, intergenerational trade-offs and conflicts resulting from limited access to water, a vital and depreciable resource, remain largely overlooked. 2. In this study, we examined the physiological, reproductive and life history responses to water restriction in the European Common Lizard (Zootoca vivipara). We hypothesised that, under water-limited conditions, pregnant females experience...

Data from: Winter cover crop legacy effects on litter decomposition act through litter quality and microbial community changes

Janna M. Barel, Thomas W. Kuyper, Jos Paul, Wietse De Boer, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & Gerlinde B. De Deyn
1. In agriculture, winter cover crop (WCC) residues are incorporated into the soil to improve soil quality, as gradual litter decomposition can improve fertility. Decomposition rate is determined by litter quality, local soil abiotic and biotic properties. However, how these factors are interlinked and influenced by cropping history is unclear. 2. We grew WCC monocultures and mixtures in rotation with main crops Avena sativa and Cichorium endivia and tested how crop rotation influences WCC litter...

Data from: Does wolf presence reduce moose browsing intensity in young forest plantations?

Suzanne T.S. Van Beeck Calkoen, Dries P.J. Kuijper, Hakan Sand, Navinder J. Singh, Sip E. Van Wieren, Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt, Suzanne T. S. Van Beeck Calkoen & Dries P. J. Kuijper
Large carnivores can be a key factor in shaping their ungulate prey’s behavior, which may affect lower trophic levels. While most studies on trade-offs between food acquisition and risk avoidance by ungulate prey species have been conducted in areas with limited human impact, carnivores are now increasingly returning to highly anthropogenic landscapes. Many of these landscapes are dominated by forestry, and ungulate-forestry conflicts are an increasing issue. The aim of this study was to test...

Data from: Diploid males support a two-step mechanism of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky in a parasitoid wasp

Wen-Juan Ma, Bart A. Pannebakker, Louis Van De Zande, Tanja Schwander, Bregje Wertheim & Leo W. Beukeboom
Background Haplodiploidy, where females develop from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs, is abundant in some insect lineages. Some species in these lineages reproduce by thelytoky that is caused by infection with endosymbionts: infected females lay haploid eggs that undergo diploidization and develop into females, while males are very rare or absent. It is generally assumed that in thelytokous wasps, endosymbionts merely diploidize the unfertilized eggs, which would then trigger female development....

Data from: Carrying a logger reduces escape flight speed in a passerine bird, but relative logger mass may be a misleading measure of this flight performance detriment

Barbara M. Tomotani, Wender Bil, Henk P. Van Der Jeugd, Remco P.M. Pieters, Florian T. Muijres & Remco P. M. Pieters
1. The recent boost in bird migration studies following the development of various tracking devices raised awareness of how detrimental attaching devices can be for animals. Such effects can occur during migration, but also immediately post-release if the device impairs escape flight performance and, consequently, the bird’s ability to evade predators. 2. In this study, we investigated the effect of carrying a device on the escape flight speed and aerodynamic force production in a migratory...

Data from: Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

Laura Iacolina, Massimo Scandura, Daniel J. Goedbloed, Panoraia Alexandri, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Greger Larson, Alan Archibald, Marco Apollonio, Lawrence B. Schook, Martien A. Groenen & Hendrik-Jan Megens
The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49 803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and...

Data from: Parasitism overrides herbivore identity allowing hyperparasitoids to locate their parasitoid host by using herbivore-induced plant volatiles

Feng Zhu, Colette Broekgaarden, Berhane T. Weldegergis, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Ben Vosman, Marcel Dicke & Erik H. Poelman
Foraging success of predators profoundly depends on reliable and detectable cues indicating the presence of their often inconspicuous prey. Carnivorous insects rely on chemical cues to optimize foraging efficiency. Hyperparasitoids that lay their eggs in the larvae or pupae of parasitic wasps may find their parasitoid hosts developing in different herbivores. They can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate parasitized caterpillars. Because different herbivore species induce different HIPV emission from plants, hyperparasitoids may have...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP data unveils the globalization of domesticated pigs

Bin Yang, Leilei Cui, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Aleksei Traspov, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Natalia Zinovieva, Lawrence B. Schook, Alan Archibald, Kesinee Gatphayak, Christophe Knorr, Alex Triantafyllidis, Panoraia Alexandri, Gono Semiadi, Olivier Hanotte, Deodália Dias, Peter Dovč, Pekka Uimari, Laura Iacolina, Massimo Scandura, Martien A. M. Groenen, Lusheng Huang & Hendrik-Jan Megens
Background: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global...

Data from: Minimum required number of specimen records to develop accurate species distribution models

André S. J. Van Proosdij, Marc S. M. Sosef, Jan J. Wieringa & Niels Raes
Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are widely used to predict the occurrence of species. Because SDMs generally use presence-only data, validation of the predicted distribution and assessing model accuracy is challenging. Model performance depends on both sample size and species’ prevalence, being the fraction of the study area occupied by the species. Here, we present a novel method using simulated species to identify the minimum number of records required to generate accurate SDMs for taxa of...

Data from: Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

Lotte W. Clausen, Anna Rindorf, Mikael Van Deurs, Mark Dickey-Collas & Niels T. Hintzen
Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature, the associated bottom-up effects and consequences for fisheries remain largely unidentified. We investigated the temporal development in forage fish productivity and the associated influence on fisheries yield of herring, sprat, Norway pout and sandeel in the...

Data from: Disturbance intensity is a stronger driver of biomass recovery than remaining tree-community attributes in a managed Amazonian forest

Angela L. De Avila, Masha T. Van Der Sande, Carsten F. Dormann, Marielos Peña-Claros, Lourens Poorter, Lucas Mazzei, Ademir R. Ruschel, José N. M. Silva, João O. P. De Carvalho & Jürgen Bauhus
1.Forest recovery following management interventions is important to maintain ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services. It remains, however, largely unclear how aboveground biomass (AGB) recovery of species-rich tropical forests is affected by disturbance intensity and post-disturbance (remaining) tree-community attributes, following logging and thinning interventions. 2.We investigated whether annual AGB increment (∆AGB) decreases with management-related disturbance intensity (disturbance hypothesis), and increases with the diversity (niche-complementarity hypothesis) and the community-weighted mean (CWM) of acquisitive traits...

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