48 Works

Data from: Dispersal versus environmental filtering in a dynamic system: drivers of vegetation patterns and diversity along stream riparian gradients

Rob G. A. Fraaije, Cajo J. F. Ter Braak, Betty Verduyn, Jos T. A. Verhoeven & Merel B. Soons
1. Both environmental filtering and dispersal filtering are known to influence plant species distribution patterns and biodiversity. Particularly in dynamic habitats, however, it remains unclear whether environmental filtering (stimulated by stressful conditions) or dispersal filtering (during re-colonization events) dominates in community assembly, or how they interact. Such a fundamental understanding of community assembly is critical to the design of biodiversity conservation and restoration strategies. 2. Stream riparian zones are species-rich dynamic habitats. They are characterized...

Data from: The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds

Damien R. Farine, Joshua Firth, Lucy M. Aplin, Ross A. Crates, Antica Culina, Colin J. Garroway, Lindall R. Kidd, Nicole D. Milligan, Ioannis Psorakis, Reinder Radersma, Brecht Verhelst, Bernhard Voelkl, Ben C. Sheldon, C. A. Hinde & J. A. Firth
Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73...

Data from: Hysteresis in an experimental phytoplankton population

Elisabeth J. Faassen, Annelies J. Veraart, Egbert H. Van Nes, Vasilis Dakos, Miquel Lürling & Marten Scheffer
The road to recovery of a deteriorated system is often different, and fraught with more barriers, than the path to the system's deterioration. This phenomenon is called hysteresis, and is inherent to systems presenting alternative stable states. In such systems, the stability of a given state is the product of positive feedback loops. A broad range of natural systems have been predicted to show hysteretic behaviour, but hysteresis has so far only been unambiguously demonstrated...

Data from: Early plant recruitment stages set the template for the development of vegetation patterns along a hydrological gradient

Rob G. A. Fraaije, Cajo J. F. Ter Braak, Betty Verduyn, Leonieke B. S. Breeman, Jos T. A. Verhoeven & Merel B. Soons
1. Recruitment processes are critical components of a plant's life cycle. However, in comparison with later stages in the plant life cycle (e.g. competition among adults), relatively little is known about their contribution to the regulation of plant species distribution. Particularly little is known about the individual contributions of the three main recruitment processes—germination, seedling survival, and seedling growth—to community assembly, while quantitative information on these contributions is essential for a more mechanistic understanding of...

Data from: How body torque and Strouhal number change with swimming speed and developmental stage in larval zebrafish

Johan L. Van Leeuwen, Cees J. Voesenek & Ulrike K. Muller
Small undulatory swimmers such as larval zebrafish experience both inertial and viscous forces, the relative importance of which is indicated by the Reynolds number (Re). Re is proportional to swimming speed (vswim) and body length; faster swimming reduces the relative effect of viscous forces. Compared with adults, larval fish experience relatively high (mainly viscous) drag during cyclic swimming. To enhance thrust to an equally high level, they must employ a high product of tail-beat frequency...

Data from: Interplay of robustness and plasticity of life history traits drives ecotypic differentiation in thermally distinct habitats

Maartje Liefting, Roy H. A. Van Grunsven, Michael B. Morrissey, Martijn J. T. N. Timmermans & Jacintha Ellers
Phenotypic plasticity describes the ability of an individual to alter its phenotype in response to the environment and is potentially adaptive when dealing with environmental variation. However, robustness in the face of a changing environment may often be beneficial for traits that are tightly linked to fitness. We hypothesized that robustness of some traits may depend on specific patterns of plasticity within and among other traits. We used a reaction norm approach to study robustness...

Data from: Minimum required number of specimen records to develop accurate species distribution models

André S. J. Van Proosdij, Marc S. M. Sosef, Jan J. Wieringa & Niels Raes
Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are widely used to predict the occurrence of species. Because SDMs generally use presence-only data, validation of the predicted distribution and assessing model accuracy is challenging. Model performance depends on both sample size and species’ prevalence, being the fraction of the study area occupied by the species. Here, we present a novel method using simulated species to identify the minimum number of records required to generate accurate SDMs for taxa of...

Data from: Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population

Antica Culina, Hinde A. Camilla, Ben C. Sheldon & Camilla A. Hinde
Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unexplored. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred,. Using detailed...

Data from: Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

Rieta Gols, Roel Wagenaar, Erik H. Poelman, Marjolein Kruidhof, Joop J. A. Van Loon, Jeffrey A. Harvey, H. Marjolein Kruidhof & Joop J.A. Van Loon
1. Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an ‘indirect defence’. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been rarely tested. 2. We investigated whether there are fitness consequences for the charlock mustard Sinapis arvensis, a short-lived outcrossing annual weedy plant, when exposed to groups of large cabbage white...

Data from: Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in European commercial pigs

Mirte Bosse, Marcos S. Lopes, Ole Madsen, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Laurent A. F. Franzt, Barbara Harlizius, John W. M. Bastiaansen & Martien A. M. Groenen
Early pig farmers in Europe imported Asian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds. We propose that the Asian variants are still present because they affect phenotypes that were important for ancient traditional, as well as recent, commercial pig breeding. Genome-wide introgression levels were only weakly correlated with gene content and...

Data from: Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

Anna W. Santure, Jocelyn Poissant, Isabelle De Cauwer, Kees Van Oers, Matthew R. Robinson, John L. Quinn, Martien A. M. Groenen, Marcel E. Visser, Ben C. Sheldon & Jon Slate
Currently there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic variation in different populations? Great tits (Parus major) have been studied extensively in long-term studies across Europe, and consequently are considered an ecological 'model organism'. Recently,...

Data from: Interaction between Varroa destructor and imidacloprid reduces flight capacity of honeybees

Lisa Blanken, Frank Van Langevelde & Coby Van Dooremalen
Current high losses of honey bees seriously threaten crop pollination. Whereas parasite exposure is acknowledged as an important cause of these losses, the role of insecticides is controversial. Parasites and neonicotinoid insecticides reduce homing success of foragers, e.g., by reduced orientation, but it is unknown whether they negatively affect flight capacity. We investigated how exposing colonies to the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid affect flight capacity of foragers. Flight distance, time...

Data from: Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

Laura Iacolina, Massimo Scandura, Daniel J. Goedbloed, Panoraia Alexandri, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Greger Larson, Alan Archibald, Marco Apollonio, Lawrence B. Schook, Martien A. Groenen & Hendrik-Jan Megens
The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly managed since prehistoric times. We examined genomic diversity at 49 803 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 99 Sardinian WBs and compared them with 196 wild specimens from mainland Europe and...

Data from: Complementarity and selection effects in early and mid-successional plant communities are differentially affected by plant-soil feedback

Jingying Jing, T. Martijn Bezemer & Wim H. Van Der Putten
1. Many studies that provided evidence for a positive relationship between plant diversity and productivity have proposed that this effect may be explained by complementarity among species in resources utilization, or selection of particularly productive species in high-diversity plant communities. Recent studies have related the higher productivity in diverse plant communities to suppression of pathogenic soil biota. If soil biota plays a role in diversity–productivity relationships, the question remains about how they may influence complementarity...

Data from: Diploid males support a two-step mechanism of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky in a parasitoid wasp

Wen-Juan Ma, Bart A. Pannebakker, Louis Van De Zande, Tanja Schwander, Bregje Wertheim & Leo W. Beukeboom
Background Haplodiploidy, where females develop from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs, is abundant in some insect lineages. Some species in these lineages reproduce by thelytoky that is caused by infection with endosymbionts: infected females lay haploid eggs that undergo diploidization and develop into females, while males are very rare or absent. It is generally assumed that in thelytokous wasps, endosymbionts merely diploidize the unfertilized eggs, which would then trigger female development....

Data from: Diversity effects on root length production and loss in an experimental grassland community

Liesje Mommer, Francisco M. Padilla, Jasper Van Ruijven, Annemiek Smit-Tiekstra, Hannie De Caluwe, Frank Berendse & Hans De Kroon
Advances in root ecology have revealed that root standing biomass is higher in species-rich plant communities than in species-poor communities. Currently, we do not know whether this below-ground diversity effect is the result of enhanced root production or reduced root mortality or both, which is essential information to understand ecosystem functioning, as it determines C sequestration and N dynamics in soil. Minirhizotron observations were combined with root coring in five different plant communities (four monocultures...

Data from: Parasitism overrides herbivore identity allowing hyperparasitoids to locate their parasitoid host by using herbivore-induced plant volatiles

Feng Zhu, Colette Broekgaarden, Berhane T. Weldegergis, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Ben Vosman, Marcel Dicke & Erik H. Poelman
Foraging success of predators profoundly depends on reliable and detectable cues indicating the presence of their often inconspicuous prey. Carnivorous insects rely on chemical cues to optimize foraging efficiency. Hyperparasitoids that lay their eggs in the larvae or pupae of parasitic wasps may find their parasitoid hosts developing in different herbivores. They can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate parasitized caterpillars. Because different herbivore species induce different HIPV emission from plants, hyperparasitoids may have...

Data from: Species-specific plant-soil feedback effects on above-ground plant-insect interactions

Martine Kos, Maarten A. B. Tuijl, Joris De Roo, Patrick P. J. Mulder & T. Martijn Bezemer
1. Plant–soil feedback (PSF) effects on plant performance strongly depend on the plant species that conditioned the soil. Recent studies have shown that PSF can change above-ground plant–insect interactions via soil-mediated changes in plant quality, but whether these effects depend on species-specific soil conditioning is unknown. We examined how PSF effects of several plant species influence above-ground plant–aphid interactions. 2. We grew ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) in field soil conditioned specifically by 10 plant species, belonging...

Data from: Native and non-native plants provide similar refuge to invertebrate prey, but less than artificial plants

Bart M.C. Grutters, Bart J.A. Pollux, Wilco C.E.P. Verberk, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Bart M. C. Grutters, Bart J. A. Pollux & Wilco C. E. P. Verberk
Non-native species introductions are widespread and can affect ecosystem functioning by altering the structure of food webs. Invading plants often modify habitat structure, which may affect the suitability of vegetation as refuge and could thus impact predator-prey dynamics. Yet little is known about how the replacement of native by non-native vegetation affects predator-prey dynamics. We hypothesize that plant refuge provisioning depends on (1) the plant’s native status, (2) plant structural complexity and morphology, (3) predator...

Data from: Natural epigenetic variation contributes to heritable flowering divergence in a widespread asexual dandelion lineage

Rutger A. Wilschut, Carla Oplaat, L. Basten Snoek, Jan Kirschner & Koen J. F. Verhoeven
Epigenetic variation has been proposed to contribute to the success of asexual plants, either as a contributor to phenotypic plasticity or by enabling transient adaptation via selection on transgenerationally stable, but reversible, epialleles. While recent studies in experimental plant populations have shown the potential for epigenetic mechanisms to contribute to adaptive phenotypes, it remains unknown whether heritable variation in ecologically relevant traits is at least partially epigenetically determined in natural populations. Here, we tested the...

Data from: An equation to predict the accuracy of genomic values by combining data from multiple traits, populations, or environments

Yvonne C. J. Wientjes, Piter Bijma, Roel F. Veerkamp & Mario P. L. Calus
Predicting the accuracy of estimated genomic values using genome-wide marker information is an important step in designing training populations. Currently, different deterministic equations are available to predict accuracy within populations, but not for multipopulation scenarios where data from multiple breeds, lines or environments are combined. Therefore, our objective was to develop and validate a deterministic equation to predict the accuracy of genomic values when different populations are combined in one training population. The input parameters...

Data from:Differential induction of plant chemical defenses by parasitized and unparasitized herbivores: consequences for reciprocal, multitrophic interactions

Paul J. Ode, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Michael Riechelt, Jonathan Gershenzon & Rieta Gols
Insect parasitoids can play ecologically important roles in virtually all terrestrial plant–insect herbivore interactions, yet whether parasitoids alter the defensive traits that underlie interactions between plants and their herbivores remains a largely unexplored question. Here, we examined the reciprocal trophic interactions among populations of the wild cabbage Brassica oleracea that vary greatly in their production of defensive secondary compounds – glucosinolates (GSs), a generalist herbivore, Trichoplusia ni, and its polyembryonic parasitoid Copidosoma floridanum. In a...

Data from: Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studies

Patrick Venail, Kevin Gross, Todd H. Oakley, Anita Narwani, Eric Allan, Pedro Flombaum, Forest Isbell, Jasmin Joshi, Peter B. Reich, David Tilman, Jasper Van Ruijven & Bradley J. Cardinale
1.Hundreds of experiments have now manipulated species richness of various groups of organisms and examined how this aspect of biological diversity influences ecosystem functioning. Ecologists have recently expanded this field to look at whether phylogenetic diversity among species, often quantified as the sum of branch lengths on a molecular phylogeny leading to all species in a community, also predicts ecological function. Some have hypothesized that phylogenetic divergence should be a superior predictor of ecological function...

Data from: Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in Swedish-born Icelandic horses

Merina Shrestha, Susanne Eriksson, Anouk Schurink, Lisa S. Andersson, Marie Sundquist, Rebecka Frey, Hans Broström, Tomas Bergström, Bart Ducro & Gabriella Lindgren
Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial value of the horse. It is a multifactorial disorder influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, with heritability ranging from 0.16 to 0.27 in various horse breeds. The worldwide prevalence in...

Data from: Interactive effects between physical forces and ecosystem engineers on seed burial: a case study using Spartina anglica

Zhenchang Zhu, Francesco Cozzoli, Nanyang Chu, Maria Salvador, Tom Ysebaert, Liquan Zhang, Peter M. J. Herman & Tjeerd J. Bouma
Seed burial (i.e. vertical seed dispersal) has become increasingly valued for its relevance for seed fate and plant recruitment. While ecosystem engineers have been generally considered as the most important drivers of seed burial, the role of physical forces, such as wind or water flow, has been largely overlooked. Using tidal habitats as a model system, and a combination of flume and mesocosm experiments, we investigated the effects of 1) currents, 2) benthic animals with...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    48

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    48

Affiliations

  • Wageningen University & Research
    48
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    15
  • University of Groningen
    3
  • Radboud University Nijmegen
    3
  • Utrecht University
    3
  • University of Oxford
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • Del Rosario University
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of Oslo
    2